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California stale Library ^ ^ 

Accession No... 


JVo. AC- V£>X^,Q..5 yV\Lo 

s Vg fe c> s 

Index to Volume 1 20, Mining and Scientific Press, 

JANUARY .TO jjute I 

"■ i i •■•■ 




A li C of ir..n and steel, new hook. . .A. o Baekert. . . • •••!•> 

Accidents caused by missed holes B71 

In metallurfieal plants 574 

Accounting at metal mini's 804 

Advice to students A T Parsons. . . . 629 

Alaska, future of Interior R. II. Stretch. ... 595 

Labor conditions. In 847 

Metal production during 1919 273 

Alaska Oold Mines Co., company report 512 

Alaska Juneau QoW Mining Co.. company report 815 

Kltctrlcal equipment F. Seward Rice. ... 251 

Aldrlch Pump Co 733 

Allen. A. W. .Handbook of ore dressing, new book. . . . 696 
Allan, 0. A . ami Dr. A I.. Murray. . . .Physical exami- 
nation for hoisting engineers 421 

Allta-Chulmers Mfg. Co Gasoline-engine 

driven generator sets 361 

Alta. snowslldes at 580 

American Cyanamld Co 513 

A. I M. <i M K meeting Editorial 402 

Meeting at Ajo 93 

American Mining Congress 206 

American mining engineers abroad Editorial. . . . 854 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co., company report. . 623 

Anaconda Copper Mining Co 887 

Analysis of magnesite W. C. Riddell. . . . 943 

Of minerals and ores of rarer elements, new book. . 

W. R. Schoeller and A. R. Powell. ... 69 

Anderson. Robert Hay. obituary 246 

Andros. Stephen O.Petroleum handbook, new book. ... 69 

Anemometers for air Walter S. Weeks. . . . 895 

Anniversary, our sixtieth Editorial. . . . 737 

Ditto Edgar Hall .... 783 

Antimony and Its uses 299 

Mining in United States 201 

Apex litigation at Bunker Hill T. A. Rickard. . . . 791 

Argall, Philip De-gassing cyanide solutions. . . . 219 

Arizona metal production during 1919 276 

Oldest copper mine P. Le Roi Thurmond. . . . 647 

Arnold, Ralph Letter from Herbert Hoover. . . . 423 

Asbestos, a Canadian specialty. . . .F. C. C. Lynch. . . . 531 

Ashio smelter in Japan 

Ritaro Hirota and Kyoshi Shiga. . . . 224 

A. S. & R. Co. and Bunker Hill company 

T. A. Rickard 795 

Assay maps Wm. Huff Wagner. . . . 453 

Of platinum C. W. Davis. . . . 823 

Assaying, volatilization in Frederic P. Dewey. ... 458 

Astor, John Jacob T. A. Rickard .... 6 

Atascadero Editorial .... 294 

Aulbach. Adam T. A. Rickard. . . . 189 

Austin, L. S Electrolytic zinc plant of 

Judge M. & S. Co 409 

Austin, W. L T. A. Rickard. . . . 116 

Ditto Complex ores in California. . . . 786 

Australia, mining industry in F. H. Bathurst. . . . 158 


B. & A. Mining Co. near Gilham, Arkansas 95 

Babbitt, Kurnal R., obituary 212 

Backert, A. O. . .A B C of iron and steel, new book. ... 435 

Baker, Ray Stannard New industrial 

unrest, new book 886 

Ball-mills, fine grinding in Henry Hanson. ... 17 

Operation Editorial. ... 363 

Practice Paul T. Bruhl. ... 333 

Practice, some ideas on Curtis Lindley, Jr. . . . 221 

Bancroft, George J Blue-sky laws. . . . 333 

Bard, Darsie C, obituary 212 

Barnes-King Development Co., company report 553 

Barreno mine S. J. Lewis. ... 443 

Barrett, Edward P., and John C. Morgan Chemical 

laboratory 300 

Bathurst, F. H Mining industry in Australia. . . . i58 

Beckett, P. G.. reports on Phelps Dodge operations. ... 57 

Beckman, J. W Complex ores in California. . . . 788 

■.:'■'' Page 

Hill. J. Mackintosh Spas-sky and Ailiasar 

copper mines In Siberia 7H 

Bellows. B, Editorial.... 18S 

llenguet Consolidated C. M. Eye! . 479 

II, us. Harold S Timber: Its strength, 

seasoning, and grading, new book 554 

Bllllngeley, Paul Some features of geological 

department of A. C. M. Co 907 

Bingham Mines Co., company report r> 1 J 

Bishop, James A Distillation of shale-oil. ... :t 7 1 

Bismuth, magnetic separation of 

Wm. E. Hitchcock and J. R. Pound. . . .379 

Black Butte ore, flotation of 

E. G. Stowell and Will H. Coghlll 117 

Blacksmith and good drill bits D. E. Dunn. ... 817 

Blackwood. Charles Keith, obituary 30 

Blandford. Thomas Concrete mine-bulkhead. . . . 536 

Blasting accidents from missed holes 277 

Blue-sky laws 204 

Ditto George J. Bancroft. . . . 3.13 

Ditto Editorial. .. .34, 181 

Bolshevism in Russia R. G. Knickerbocker. . . . 677 

Bonus system of Phelps Dodge Corporation 127 



Books as tools E. A. Goeway . 

Borzynski. F Como Consolidated mill 

Ditto .Operation of Case oil-fired assay-furnace 

Bourne, F. J Prohibition . . . 

Bowl-classifier. Dorr Henry Hanson 

Boyle, Emmet D. . . Editorial 

Bradley, Bruff & Labarthe 263 

Branner, John Caspar Outlines of the geology 

of Brazil, new book 435 

Brinsmade, R. B Mining and smelting near 

Matehuala, Mexico 85 

Ditto Patents and progress. ... 335 

British Columbia metal production 242 

Broadbridge, Walter Editorial. . . . 295 

Broken Hill, froth-flotation at C. C. Freeman. . . . 833 

Bruhl. Paul T Ball-mill practice. . . . 333 

Budget for the Government Editorial. ... 33 

Buffalo Mines, Ltd., company report 289 

Bullion, discrepancies in weighing 

Harry R. S. Wilkes. . . . 454 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & C. Co., company report. . 885 

Bunker Hill enterprise Editorial. ... 255 

Ditto Edgar Hall. . . . 857 

Ditto T. A. Rickard 5, 41, 109, 185, 

261, 337, 485, 525, 703, 791 

Tramway William Hewitt. . . . 931 

Bureau of Mines Editorial .... 36 

Director Editorial .... 666 

Burghardt, Henry D Lathe, bench-work, 

and work at the forge, new book 624 

Burlingame, Walter E Precious metals 

in oil-shale 668 

Burma mine W. Shellshear. ... 39 

Butte, I. W. W. activity at Editorial .... 779 

Miners strike 652 

Strike at Editorial .... 628 

Butte & Superior Mining Co., company report. . . .511, 885 

V. Minerals Separation Editorial. . . . 180 

By-product coke-ovens of the Granby Consolidated. . . . 

W.A.Williams.... 600 

Cadmium in the United States . . 714 

.0. E. Jager. 



Calculation of furnace charges 

California metal production in 1919 

Charles G. Yale. 

Calkins, F. C T. A. Rickard . 

Calumet & Arizona company Editorial. 

Camp Bird, Ltd., company report 250 

Campbell, Andrew. .Petroleum refining, new book. . . . 177 

Canada, mineral production during 1919 

J. McLeish .... 571 

Canadian metal production during 1919 100 

Canadian Mining Institute 467 

Car dumper description :..... 473 

Loading grating Wm. S. Evans. . . . 534 


Vol. 120 


Carpenter, E. E Operations of Nevada 

Wonder Co. during the War. . ... . # 53 7 

Carson Hill Co. progress ".. .;.;»;. I],;..''.*;"! 547; 

Cascade boxes for flotation C. "O. i , r%enia'n" J »' . .: 837* ,> 

Case oil-fired assay-furnace , . ( P„., Borzynski. ... 713 

Ditto Ur C{afcre J&vansl . -. 9-31- • 

Ditto : .p'.; p\ €fttBP*t . ;. ssy ; 

Ditto • M. J. Sherlock'. '.*.' . S23 ■ 

Caunt, G. W., and Henry Louis Traverse tables, 

new book 624 

Centrifugal fan, theory of Walter S. Weeks. ... 858 

Chaftln. C. E Mine and flotation-plant 

of American Graphite Co 567 

Chamberlain, Zear J., obituary 508 

Chapman, Robert Hollister., obituary 174 

Chapter in Journalism T. A. Rickard. ... 745 

Chemical laboratory 

John C. Morgan and Edward P. Barrett. ... 300 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . .289, 844 

Chile-American Association Mining Scholarship 

Editorial 516 

Chile Copper Co., company report 289 

Chino Copper Co., company report 687, 843 

Chloride roaBting and leaching at plant of the Tintic 

Milling Co Theodore P. Holt. ... 603 

Chloridizing processes Stuart Croasdale. . . . 259 

Ditto Harai R. Layng. . . .77, 520 

Christy, John, obituary 728 

Chromite, future in the United States 

Samuel H. Dolbear. .. . 645 

Production in 1919 718 

Clawson, Selden I Chloridizing processes. ... 79 

Climax Molybdenum Co 513 

Climbing hills at Pachuca 818 

Coal mining Editorial. ... 558 

Problem Editorial 401 

Production in India 496 

Coeur d'Alene, discovery of gold. . . .T. A. Rickard. ... 42 

Coghill, Will H., and E. G. Stowell Experimental 

flotation of low-grade quicksilver ore 117 

Coke industry during 1919 873 

Coking plant of the Granby Consolidated 

W. A. Williams 600 

Colbath, James S Crowe process. ... 38 

Colburn, Jr., E. A Mining in narrow, stopes. . . . 715 

Colby, William E. .Geological experts in the courts. ... 930 

Collapse of silver Editorial. ... 890 

Color bar Editorial. . . . 440 

Colorado metal production during 1919 163 

Combination method of mine-sampling 

Fred H. Dakin 519 

Ditto S. P. Shaw 630 

Ditto Morton Webber 303 

Comet smelter F. Le Roi Thurmond. ... 647 

Commonwealth Club on engineering activities 717 

Company reports: 

Alaska Gold Mines Co 512 

Alaska Juneau Gold Mining Co 815 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelting Co 623 

Barnes-King Development Co 553 

Bingham Mines Co 512 

Buffalo Mines, Ltd 289 

Bunker Hill & Sullivan M. & C. Co 885 

Butte & Superior Mining Co 511, 885 

Camp Bird, Ltd 250 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co 289 

Chile Copper Co 289 

Coniagas Mines, Ltd 289 

Consolidated Interstate Mining Co "?32 

Daly West Mining Co 553 

Davis-Daly Copper Co 511 

El Oro Mining & Railway Co 250 

Franklin Mining Co 695 

Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co 553 

Hecla Mining Co 5 53 

Hollinger Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd 512 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co 695 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co 623 

Lake Shore Mines, Ltd 511 

La Rose Mines, Ltd 695 

Mass Consolidated Mining Co ... t 553 

Miami Copper Co 815 

Mining Corporation of Canada 815 

Natomas Company of California 512 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co 289, 512 

New Idria Quicksilver Mining Co 69 5 

Nipissing Mines Co 815 

Company reports, cont. Page 

Old Dominion Co '. 623 

Portland Gold Mining Co 511 

_._ ,<R.ay Consolidated Copper Co 289, 511, 732 

1 • SJanta Gertrudis Co 250 

* > '°Shattuck Arizona Copper Co 623 

Silver King Consolidated Mining Co 815 

.•. ■qnperior & Boston Copper Co 289 

.'.'. Teetf Hughes Cold Mines, Ltd 512 

* Te'miskaming Mining Co., Ltd 511 

Tomboy Gold Mines Co 250 

Tonopah-Belmont Development Co 885 

Tonopah Eastern Mining Co 885 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co 885 

United Verde Extension Mining Co 553 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co 623 

Victoria Copper Mining Co 512 

Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co 511 

Yukon Gold Co 623 

Como Consolidated mill F. Borzynski. ... 55 

Complete practical machinist, new book 

Joshua Rose. ... 435 

Complex ores in California W. L. Austin. ... 786 

Ditto J. W. Beckman. . . . 788 

Ditto Editorial .... 593 

Ditto A. H. Heller. . . . 783 

Concentrating at Bunker Hill T. A. Rickard. . . . 525 

Concerning gold Editorial. ... 822 

Metal quotations Editorial. ... 331 

Concrete mine-bulkhead Thomas Blandford. . . . 536 

Coniagas Mines, Ltd., company report 289 

Consolidated Interstate Callahan Mining Co., company 

report 732 

Consortium for China 923 

Contract system in mines E. Hedburg. ... 667 

Wage system for miners. .A. K. Knickerbocker. . . . 497 

Contribution to study of flotation 

H. L. Sulman 14, 47, 122 

Converter practice , . . . .O. E. Jager. ... 198 

Copper and copperas George O. Deshler. ... 788 

Exports Editorial. . . . 735 

Production 657 

Production in Michigan 24 

Production in United States during 1919 202 

Refinery in Russia R. G. Knickerbocker. . . . 677 

Stocks Editorial. . . . 515 

Corcoran, Ray A., obituary 358 

Corporation and the individual. . .P. B. McDonald. . . . 701 

Cortez mine to be re-opened 803 

Cost of opening Seneca mine 279 

Plus method, Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co. . . 556 

Cottrell, Frederick G Editorial. . . . 697 

Cottrell process in Japan 

Ritaro Hirota and Kyoshi Shiga. . . . 223 

Coudert, Frederick R., letter from Herbert Hoover. . . 423 

Course for practical miners 719 

Courts, geologists in Editorial. . . . 593 

Crawford, E. P Silver. ... 37 

Cripple Creek, exploration at 876 

Production at 58 

Croasdale, Stuart Chloridizing processes. .. .77, 259 

Croghan, E. H., and F. Wartenweiler Neutralizing 

mine-waters on the Rand 376 

Cross, Daniel. .Public service and private practice. ... 183 

Crossings, some notes on H. C. Hoover. . . . 743 

Crowe process James S. Colbath .... 38 

Ditto N. S. Keith 220 

Crushing and concentrating at Bunker Hill 

T. A. Rickard 485 

Custodian of enemy property in South Africa 

Editorial 440 

Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co 70, 734 

Mine-locomotive charging-panel 438 

Cyanidation at Como Consolidated mill 

F. Borzynski. ... 55 

Cyanide, aero brand 513 

Dakin, Fred H Combination method 

of mine-sampling 519 

Daly West Mining Co., company report 553 

Development at 504 

Davis, C. W Assay of platinum. . . . 823 

Davis, E. W Fine grinding in ball-mills. ... 18 

Davis-Daly Copper Co., company report 511 

Davy, W. Myron, and C. Mason Farnham. . .Microscopic 

examination of the ore minerals, new book. . . . 624 

Day after Editorial .... 698 

De-gassing cyanide solutions Philip Argall. . . . 219 

V..I lL'n 


De K»lb. Courtenny Review of Technical Writing 1 . , 

Denver Fire Clay Co 

r Rock Krlll Mfg. Co 

Daehler, Qeorge o Copper tad copperas, . . . 

Detonating ilynnmlte 

Detonators, electric 

Carl t Long and 1 1 u t>.-r i 1. 
Development of rock-drill In America 

a Hlrschberg. . . . 
Dewey. Frederic P. .. .Volatilization In assaying.... 

Diamond mlniiiK In Africa 

Dining, more needed J li Parrell, . . 

Director r S ltiirenu of Mines Editorial. . . . 

Discovery a pre-requlslte to mining claim 

Editorial. . . 

Discrepancies in weighing bullion 

Harry It S Wilkes. . . . 

Distillation of shale-oil James A Bishop 

Distinction and a moral Editorial .... 

Dividends from North American mines 249. 

Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph, annealing 

Dolores mine R. B. Hrlnsinade . . . . 

Dolly Varden Editorial. . . . 

Mine, the story of A. J. T. Taylor. . . . 

Dolbear. Samuel H Future of chromlto In 

the Cnited States 

Donaldson. Melvln S. . . .Initial velocity of bubbles in a 

pneumatic dotation-cell 

Dorr bowl-classifier Henrv Hanson. . . . 

Douglas. James S T. A. Rlckard . . . . 

Drayer. C. E. . .Engineering Employment Bureaus. . . . 
Dredging In Alaska 

Operations near Murray. Idaho. .T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Drill-steel furnace. Sullivan Machinery Co 

Dry placer plant in Oregon 

Dues to A. I. M. & M. E Editorial .... 

Dunn. D. E Blacksmith and good drill bits. . . . 

Duplex four-wheel drive truck 

Dynamite, detonating of 


Earthquake-fire issue reproduction 

Easton. Stanly A T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Economic history of the Bunker Hill 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 

American mining engineers abroad 

Blue sky law 

Collapse of silver 

Complex ores in California 

Concerning gold 

Concerning metal quotations 

Day after 

Director U. S. Bureau of Mines 

Distinction and a moral 

Dolly Varden 

Fall in exchange 

Geologists in the Courts 

Geology for miners 

Gold bounty 

Gold production of the world 

Goldfield Consolidated 

Great disillusion 

Greatest gold mine 

Herbert Hoover for President 106, 

Hoover and the Republicans 

Hoover boom 

Hoover campaign 

Hoover for President 106, 

Hoover on national economics 

Hoover will accept nomination 

Human and humane 


Industrial conference 

Industrial relations 

International mining convention . 

In + ervention in Mexico 

Jennings, Hennen 

Kauri gum 

Leasing act 

Let us have peace 

Licensing of engineers 

Medal for Mr. Sulman 

Mexican melodrama 

Minerals Separation under scrutiny 

Mining exploration 

Money for Europe 

Moralities of journalism 


7 3.1 



1 1 1 






!i In 
6 73 
221 1 






Bdltorlal, i "in Pane 

Mysore Bold Mining i'n I 

Nomination "f Hoover j<i 

Our motto 724 

iiur sixtieth anniversary 737 

Preface 7jh 

Premlu n gold 365 

Prohibition io? 

Proapeoti In Mexico 866 

Public oBce and private practice 35. 73 

Railroads 257 

Report of the Industrial Conference 477 

Resignations from V. S. Geological Survey 1 

Revolt of Sonora 592 

Seattle convention 659 

Spllshury. E. Gybbon 864 

Si nitegy 0( minerals 780 

Strike at Butte 628 

Sulman and Minerals Separation 891 

Supply of oil 890 

System In mining 108 

Thawing frozen ground with cold water 364 

To young engineers 659 

War Minerals Relief 666 

Who's Hoover? 476 

What the miners think 699 

Electric furnaces in the iron and steel industry, new 

book w. Rodenhaueer. 

J. Schoenawa, and C. H. Vom Baur. . . . 624 

Precipitation in Japan 

Ritaro Hirota and Kyoshl Shiga. . . . 223 

Electrical equipment at Alaska Juneau 

F. Seward Rice. ... 251 

Precipitation of silver refinery fumes 589 

Electrolytic zinc smelting by Judge M. & S. Co 

L. S. Austin 409 

Elements of refrigeration, new book 

Arthur M. Greene, Jr. . . . 290 

Of smelting-plant design. .0. E. Jager. ...153, 196, 405 

El Oro. geology at S. J. Lewis. . . . 935 

El Oro Mining & Railway Co., company report 250 

Emmons, S. F Editorial. . . . 927 

Employment psychology, new book. .Henry C. Link. . . . 564 

Empire Copper Co., operations of 168 

Employees Benefit Association at Bisbee 237 

Employment Bureaus C. E. Drayer. . . . 220 

Engineering activities of universities and government 

bureaus 717 

Ditto A. B. Parsons. . . . 824 

Foundation seeks endowments 817 

Engineering and Mining Journal. . .T. A. Rickard. ... 745 

Engineering Council Editorial. . . . 218 

And registration of engineers 232 

Engineering Employment Bureaus. . .C. E. Drayer. . . . 220 

Ditto Bradley Stoughton . . . . 405 

Enos, George M. .Volumetric method for tungsten. . . . 869 

Entombed in mine George Huston. ... 63 

Esmeralda mine R. B. Brinsmade. ... 88 

Ethics, proposed code of 901 

Eureka. Nevada Editorial .... 145 

Evans, J. Claire Case oil-fired assay-furnace. . . . 931 

Evans. Wm. S Car-loading grating. . . . 534 

Exploration at Bunker Hill mine. . .T. A. Rickard. . . . 337 

For mines J. H. Farrell .... 269 

Mining Editorial .... 403 

Eye, C. M Mining in the Philippines 

during 1919 479 

Fahrenwald flotation machine. Francis A. Thomson. . . . 871 

Fair deal Edwin Hlggins. . . . 346 

Fair, James G T. A. Rickard. . . . 675 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co 254 

Fall in exchange Editorial. . . . 217 

Report on Mexico Editorial. ... 856 

Farnham, C. Mason, and W. Myron Davy. . .Microscopic 

examination of the ore minerals, new book. . . . S24 

Farrell. J. H Mining exploration .... 269 

Fay, Albert H Glossary of the mining 

and mineral industry, new book 696 

Federal Trade Commission, proceedings against Min- 
erals Separation 909 

Federated American Engineering Societies 947 

Fellowships in metallurgy. Utah School of Mines 620 

Fenner, L. A Stock raisers and mineral lands. . . . 298 

Ferry. D. H T. A. Rickard 189 

Filing mine reports Kirby ThomaB. . . . 701 

Finch, J. K Topographic maps and sketch 

mapping, new book 886 


Vol. 120 


Fine grinding in ball-mills Henry Hanson. . . .17, 39 

Finlay, J. R T. A. Rickard. . . . 261 

First miners and the first civilization 

Grant H. Smith 457 

Flexible shafting 361 

Steel lacing 590 

Florence mine, Nevada, lessees 9 6 

Flotation, a contribution to. . .H. L. Snlman. . . .14, 47, 122 

At Broken Hill C. C. Freeman. . . . 833 

At Bunker Hill T. A. Rickard 527 

At Simon silver-lead mine 772 

Cell, initial velocity of bubbles 

Melvin S. Donaldson. . . . 940 

Discussion at Idaho School ot Mines 459 

Fahrenwald machine for. .Francis A. Thomson. ... 871 

Of low-grade quicksilver ore 

E. G. Stowell and Will H. Coghill. ... 117 

Plant of American Graphite Co. . .C. E. Chaffin. ... 567 

Fluorspar at Beatty, Nevada 426 

Flux mine 5 8 

'For the glory of America' 292 

Formulas for determining tonnages in metallurgical 

plants A. H. Heller. ... 575 

Francis, C. F Mining exploration. . . . 407 

Franklin Mining Co., company report 69 5 

Fraudulent finance Editorial .... 144 

Promotion Editorial .... 215 

Frazier, W. C Mining exploration. . . . 407 

Free trips to Sullivan plants 662 

Freeman, C. C Froth-flotation at Broken Hill. . . . 833 

French, Thomas Status of gold. . . . 334 

Friction of ventilating currents. .Walter S. Weeks. ... 607 

From the mining of the ore to the finished product. . . . 887 

Froth-flotation at Broken Hill C. C. Freeman. ... 833 

Furnace for drill-steel, Sullivan Machinery Co 555 

Further incidents in the life of a mining engineer, new 

book E. T. McCarthy. . . . 177 

Future of chromite in the United .States 

Samuel H. Dolbear. . . . 645 

Ditto C. S. Maltby 702 

Garbutt, Frank C, obituary 957 

Gardner, Charles W. . . .An interesting experiment. . . . 929 

Garford Truck Co 734 

Garland, M. M Editorial. . . . 666 

General Electric Co. improved mine-locomotive 8 51 

Geological experts in the courts. .William E. Colby. ... 930 

Geological Survey Editorial. ... 36 

Geologists in the Courts Editorial. ... 593 

Geology for miners Editorial .... 927 

In Mexico S. J. Lewis. ... 412, 443, 933 

■ Of A. C. M. Co. . Paul Billingsley. . . . 907 

Of Barreno mine S. J. Lewis. ... 445 

Of Bunker Hill mine T. A. Rickard. . . . 261 

Of Spassky and Atbasar copper mines 

J. Mackintosh Bell. .. . 768 

Gerry, C. N 125 

Glossary of the mining and mineral industry, new book 

Albert H. Fay. ... 696 

Goetz, Jacob T. A. Rickard. . . . 110 

Geeway, E. A i Books as tools. ... 852 

GOlconda mine E. Hedburg. ... 667 

Gold and silver as money Roy M. Harrop. ... 37 

Bounty Editorial. . . . 626 

Concerning Editorial. . . . 822 

Excise tax Editorial. . . . 559 

Excise tax in the McFadden bill 6<48 

In north-eastern Siberia W. H. Shockley. . . . 931 

Premium on Editorial. ... 365 

Problem Francis A. Govett. . . . 830 

Production of the world Editorial. ... 665 

• Supply Editorial 475 

The status of Thomas French. . . . 334 

Goldfield, Nevada, production at 25 

Goldfield Consolidated Mines Co., company report. .390, 553 

Ditto Editorial.... 296 

Goldfield Deep Mines Co., organization of 916 

Goldfield Development Co 240 

Ditto '..Editorial.... 296 

Govett, Francis A The gold problem. . . . 830 

Granby Consolidated by-product coke-ovens 

W. A. Williams. . . . 600 

Grant. Lester S. Public service and private practice. . . . 260 

Graphite in Western Australia 944 

Mine near Ticonderoga, New York 

C. E. ChafTin. . . . 567 


Great disillusion Editorial .... 441 

Greatest gold mine Editorial .... 441 

Greene, Jr., Arthur M Elements of refrigera- 
tion, new book 290 

Guppy, P. L Case oil-fired assay-furnace. ... 857 

Hall, Edgar Indicators .... 857 

Ditto Our anniversary. ... 783 

Hamilton, E. M. .Manual of cyanidation, new book. . . . 624 

Ditto Simp spelling. ... 147 

Handbook of ore dressing, new book. .A. W. Allen. ... 696 
Hanging-wall support on the Rand. . .L. W. Macer. ... 539 

Hanson, Henry Dorr bowl-classifier. ... 905 

Ditto Fine grinding in ball-mills. . . .17, 39 

Harding, Warren G 922 

Harrop, Roy M Gold and silver as money. ... 37 

Hazen, H. L. . . .Modification of Horwood's process. . . . 455 

Heberlein, C. A Quicksilver ore. . . . 121 

Hecla Mining Co., company report 553 

Hedburg, E Contract system in mines. ... 667 

Ditto Mining exploration. ... 406 

Heikes, Victor C, on production of metal mines for 

1919 125 

Helium 378 

Heller, A. H Complex ores in California. . . . 783 

Ditto Formula for determining 

tonnages in metallurgical plants 575 

Henderson, Chas. W., on production of metal mines in 

New Mexico for 1919 126 

Hershey, Oscar H T. A. Rickard. . . . 264 

Hewitt, William Bunker Hill tramway. . . . 931 

Hibbard, Henry D Manufacture and uses 

of alloy steel, new book 554 

Higgins, Edwin Editorial. ... 518 

Ditto. . . .Human elements in mine operations. ... 346 

Hillis, J. T., obituary : 246 

Hines, Walker D Editorial 257 

Hirota. Ritaro, and Kyoshi Shiga Cottrell process 

in Japan 223 

Hirschberg, Chas. A Development of rock-drill 

in America 139 

Hitchcock, Wm. E., and J. R. Pound Magnetic 

separation of concentrates in Tasmania 379 

Ditto Mining and milling tin-tungsten 

ore in Tasmania 229 

Hobart, James F Millwrighting, new book. . . . 290 

Hoisting engineers Editorial. . . .402 

Engineers, physical examination for 

C. A. Allen and Dr. A. L. Murray. . . . 421 
Hollinger Consolidated Gold Mines, Ltd., company 

report 430, 512 

Holt, Theodore P. .Chloride roasting and leaching. . . . 603 

Homestake fire of 1919 R. G. Wayland. ... 84 

Hoover, H. C Editorial 34 74, 401, 476, 698 

Ditto J. Nelson Nevius. . . . 259 

Ditto Some notes on crossings. . . . 743 

A sketch T. A. Rickard. . . . 494 

Address as president of A. I. M. E 315 

And the Republicans Editorial. ... 330 

Boom Editorial .... 180 

Campaign Editorial .... 404 

For President Editorial. . . .106, 145 

Nomination of Editorial .... 365 

On National Economics Editorial. ... 3 

Resolution by Joint Council of Engineers 212 

Speech before Western Society of Engineers 383 

Statement by 246, 286 

Two famous letters 423 

Will accept nomination 549 

Ditto Editorial 517 

Hoover, Theodore J., affidavit in Minerals Separation 

case 911 

Horwood's process on copper-zinc ore, modification of. 

H. L. Hazen 455 

Howe, Charles B Mechanical drafting manual, 

new book 886 

Hubbard, J. D., and Dolly Varden mine 

A. J. T. Taylor 633 

Human and humane Editorial. . . . 332 

Element in mine operations. . . .Edwin Higgins. ... 346 

Huston, George Imprisoned underground. ... 53 

Hutchinson, C. T Why is the Mining and 

Scientific Press? 758 

Hutchinson, J. W Editorial. . . . 296 

Hyder Alaska Mines Editorial .... 516 

Hydrology, new book Daniel W. Mead. ... 554 

Vol 120 



Idaho, history of T. A Rickard..., 41 

Metal production during 1819 164 

Behool ol MlH' 611 

Behool of Mines, flotation discussion at 169 

Immigration Editorial 991 

imprison.', i underground George Huston. , , ss 

Improved nun.- loi om itlve 851 

Wedge (or deflecting diamond-drills 

C Kri> Wuensch, . 

Incidents in a mining engineer's life 

E. T. McCarthy. . . 

India, coal production (96 





Indicators Edgar Hall . 

Industrial Conference Editorial . 

Ditto II. C. Hoover... 

Ditto Observer. . . 

Report of Editorial . . . 

Relations Editorial. . . 

Survey of highways 

Inealls. VV. R Editorial 144 

Ingersoll-Rand Co 817 

Drill-steel sharpener 661 

New Jackhamer 399 

Initial velocity of bubbles in pneumatic flotation-cell. . 

Mtlvin S. Donaldson.... 940 

Inspiration Consolidated Copper Co.. company report. . 696 

Interesting experiment Charles W. Gardner. . . . 929 

Interfacial tension in flotation H. L. Sulman.... 124 

International Mining Convention Editorial.... 699 

Intervention In Mexico Editorial. ... 146 

Iron hunter, new book Chas. S. Osborn. . . . 290 

Italian quicksilver industry 424 


Jager, 0. E Elements of smelting 

plant design 153, 195, 405 

Jalisco, Mexico, geology of S. J. Lewis. . . . 449 

Japan, Cottrell process in 

Ritaro Hirota and Kyoshi Shiga. . . . 223 

Jargon in technical writing T. A. Rickard. ... 640 

Jenisen. H. A. C The reactions of the 

manganese industry 21 

Jennings. Hennen Editorial. ... 364 

Obituary 396 

Jigging at Bunker Hill T. A. Rickard. . . . 491 

Jim Butler Tonopah Mining Co., company report 623 

Journalism, a chapter in T. A. Rickard. . . . 745 

Judge M. & S. Co., electrolytic zinc plant 

L. S. Austin. . . . 409 

Kauri gum Editorial. . . . 105 

Keith, N. S The Crowe process. . . . 219 

Kellogg. Noah S T. A. Rickard. ... 109 

Kennedy, Edward O.. obituary 728 

Keynes, J. M Editorial. . . . 441 

King, S. B Free trips to Sullivan plants. . . . 662 

Kissock, Alan Molybdenum and molybdenum- 
steel 184 

Knickerbocker, A. K Contract wage-system 

for miners 497 

Ditto Editorial. . . . 518 

Knickerbocker. R. G Russian copper refinery 

under Bolshevik control 677 

Kyshtim copper refinery R. G. Knickerbocker. . . . 677 

Labor shortage in Michigan copper mines 

Troubles at Tonopah and Divide 

Unrest in South Africa 

Lake Shore Mines. Ltd., company report 

Lancaster, William, obituary 

La Paz mill R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 

La Rose Mines, Ltd., company report 

Lathe, bench-work, and work at the force, new book . . 

Henry D. Burghardt. . . . 

Layng, Harai R Chloridizing processes. . . .77, 

Lead concentration at Bunker Hill. ,T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Deposits in South Africa 

Production in United States during 1919 

Smelting at Matehuala, Mexico 

R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 
Leadville, activity at 

Production during 1919 

Leadville Mines Co. operations '. 

Leasing Act Editorial .... 

Legislation regarding railroads Editorial. . . . 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A., wire rope stretch 






have peace Editorial . . i 

B Q Editorial 

s j . Bditoi 

I'M!,. Ore deposits of Mexloo . ,411, 1 1 

Liberty bonds 

Licensing pi engineers Editorial .... 2 1 7 

Lite i' il Tonopah Editorial. 

Lindley, .ir , Curtis \ Borne Ideas on 

ball-mill practice 

Link, Henry C , Employment psychology, ne* book. 

Link Bell 'i. dino' device 

Litigation al Bunker Hill T. A Rickard.... 7:0 

Lock.:. Augustus Two professions of mining 

logy 161 

Lockhart. Thomas D T. A Rickard . 674 

Long, Carl T., and Hubert L. Pascoe Study of 

electric detonators 902 

Lookout mine r. 1 x 

Loring. W. J., report of Plymouth Consolidated 619 

Louis. Henry, and G. W. Caunt TraverBe tables, 

n.w book 624 

Lowe, A. H Technical methods of ore 

analysis, new book 69 

Lynch. F. C. C. . . .Asbestos, a Canadian specialty. . 


. O. J. Zook. 

'M-Z" automatic mine-cars 

MacArthur, John S.. obituary 

Mater, L. W . . .Hanging-wall support on the Rand. . . . 

Mackay. John W T. A. Rickard. . . . 

MacLaurin. Richard Cockburn, obituary 

MacNaughton, James Editorial .... 

Ditto Advice to students. . . . 

Magnesia cement to protect mine-timbers 

W. C. Phalen 

Magnetic separation in Tasmania 

YVm. E. Hitchcock and J. R. Pound. . . . 

Maltby. C. S Future of chromite in the 

United States 

Manganese industry, reaction in. .H. A. C. Jenison. . . . 



Manning, Van. H Editorial .... 

Manual of cyanidation, new book. . E. M. Hamilton. . . . 

Manufacture and uses of alloy steels, new book 

Henry D. Hibbard. . . . 

Market price of silver drops 

Mason. F. H Recent metallurgy at Trail. . . . 

Ditto Smelting iron ores. . . . 

Mass Consolidated Mining Co., company report 

Matehuala, Mexico, mining and smelting 

R. B. Brinsmade. . . . 

Matter of geography E. Vernon Morgan .... 

McCann Co., H. K., patent office decision 

McCarthy, E. T Further incidents in life 

of a mining engineer, new book 

Ditto Incidents in a mining engineer's life. . . . 

McChrystal, John H., obituary 

McDonald. F. E., obituary 

McDonald, P. B Mr. MacNaughton's advice to 


Ditto The corporation and the individual. . . . 

Ditto Technical Writing .... 

McFadden bill 

Ditto Editorial .... 

Mead, Daniel W Hydrology, new book. . . . 

Measurement of ventilating air. .Walter S. Weeks. . . . 

Mechanical drafting manual, new book 

Charles B. Howe. . . . 

Drawing, new book John S. Reid .... 

World year book, new book 

Medal for Mr. Sulman Editorial. . . . 

Metal exchange in Australia F. H. Bathurst. . . . 

Quotations, concerning Editorial. . . . 

Metallurgical operations, formulas for determining ton- 
nages in A. H. Heller .... 

Plants, accidents in 

Metallurgy of complex low-grade ores 

C. S. Vadner. . . . 

Of zinc ore at Trail F. H. Mason. . . . 

Metric system 

Mexican melodrama Editorial .... 

Mexico, intervention in Editorial .... 

Ore deposits in S. J. Lewis. . . .412, 

Stable government for 

Miami Copper Co.. company report 

Microscopic examination of the ore minerals, new book. 
W. Myron Davy and C. Mason Farnham. . . . 

9 3 2 














Vol. 120 

Miles, John H., experiments at Trinity Center, Cali- 
fornia 367 

Millions from waste, new book 

Frederick A. Talbot. ... 177 

Millwrighting, new book James F. Hobart. . . . 290 

Mine and flotation-plant of American Graphite Co ... . 

C. E. Chaffin. . . . 567 

Fires 84 

Sampling Wm. Huff Wagner. . . . 451 

Surveying A. T. Parsons. ... 39 

Workers Protective League at Grass Valley 168 

Mineral production of Canada during 1919 

J. McLeish. . . . 571 

Mineralogy of Bunker Hill ores. . . .T. A. Rickard. . . . 268 

Minerals Relief Commission 285 

Minerals Separation Co Editorial. . . .257, 891 

Hearing 586 

Proceedings against 710 

Under scrutiny Editorial .... 698 

V. Butte & Superior Editorial. . . . 180 

V. Miami Copper Co 911 

Miners advance, reproduction 742 

Mining abroad H. Foster Bain. . . . 761 

Engineer's life, incidents in. . .E. T. McCarthy. . . . 561 

Exploration Editorial .... 403 

Ditto J. H. Farrell.... 269 

Ditto C. F. Francis. . . . 407 

Ditto : W. C. Frazier. . . . 407 

Ditto E. Hedburg 406 

Ditto G. L. Sheldon 408 

Geology, two professions of. . .Augustus Locke. ... 161 

In narrow stopes E. A. Colburn, Jr. . . . 715 

In Philippines in 1919 C. M. Eye. . ... 479 

Industry in Australia F. H. Bathurst. . . . 158 

Ditto E. A. Weinberg. . . . 297 

Methods at Bunker Hill mine. . .T. A. Rickard. . . . 337 

Mining and Scientific Press, why is the 

C. T. Hutchinson. ... 758 

Mining Corporation of Canada, company report 815 

Mining Magazine T. A. Rickard. . . . 754 

Mining Manual and Mining Year Book, 1920, new book 

Walter R. Skinner. ... 624 

Minnesota, paying miners in. A. K. Knickerbocker. ... 497 

Missouri zinc and lead production during 1919 95 

Modderfontein mill Editorial. . . . 780 

Modification of Horwood's process. . . .H. L. Hazen. ... 455 

Mogollon district 420 

Molecular forces in flotation H. L. Sulman. ... 47 

Moline, A Price of gold ... . 930 

Molybdenum 513 

And molybdenum-steel Alan Kissock. ... 184 

Money for Europe Editorial. ... 74 

Montana metal production during 1919 125 

Montijo. Fernando Editorial. . . . 401 

Ditto Registration of engineers. ... 405 

Moralities of journalism Editorial. ... 665 

Morgan, E. Vernon Matter of geography. . . . 823 

Morgan, John C, and Edward P. Barrett. . . .Chemical 

laboratory 3 00 

Motto, our Editorial. . . . 736 

Muir, Andrew, obituary 432 

Mulholland, Jack Prospector. . . . 770 

Murray, Dr. A. L., and C. A. Allen Physical 

examination for hoisting engineers 421 

Mysore Gold Mining Co Editorial .... 2 

Mine Editorial .... 72 


National Industrial Tribunal Editorial. ... 3*5 

Natomas Company of California, company report 512 

Neill, R. K Editorial 72 

Neutralizing mine-waters on the Rand 

F. Wartenweiler and E. H. Croghan. . . . 376 

Nevada metal production during 1919 125 

Revival of mining in various districts 207 

Nevada Consolidated Copper Co., company report. .289, 512 
Nevada Wonder Mining Co. operations during the War 

E. E. Carpenter. ... 537 

Nevius, J. Nelson Herbert Hoover. . . . 259 

New drill-steel sharpener » 661 

Industrial unrest, new book 

Ray Stannard Baker. ... 886 

New Idria Quicksilver Mining Co., company report. . . . 695 

New Mexico metal production during 1919 126 

New Modderfontein mill 7S9 

New year Editorial .... 4 

Nickel 260 


Nipissing Mines Co., company report 815 

Production at 134 

Nome Editorial. . . . 853 

Nomination of Hoover Editorial. ... 365 

North Butte Mining Co Editorial. . . . 108 


Oil immersed switch 70 

Production Editorial. ... 664 

Properties, valuation of for Federal taxation 307 

Shale James A. Bishop. ... 371 

Shale near Grand Junction, Colorado 349 

Thieves Editorial .... 853 

Old Dominion Co., company report 623 

Ore deposits of Mexico S. J. Lewis. . . .412, 441. 0"T 

Oregon metal production during 1919 165 

O'Rourke, Phil T. A. Rickard. ... 110 

Osborn, Charles S Iron hunter, new book. . . . 290 

Osborn, H. S Prospectors field-book and guide, 

new book 886 

Osmiridium 520 

Our anniversary Edgar Hall .... 783 

Motto Editorial. . . . 736 

Sixtieth anniversary Editorial. . . . 737 

Outlines of the geology of Brazil to accompany geologic 

map of Brazil, new book. . . .J. C. Branner. . . . 435 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co., redwood for tanks 400 

Panama museum T. T. Read. ... 40 

Panel stopes in South Africa 222 

Panyity, L. S Prospecting for oil and gas, 

new book 554 

Paraffine Companies, Inc., stabilize prices 399 

Parker, Alexis D T. A. Rickard. . . . 674 

Parks, James F., obituary 922 

Parsons, A. B. . . .Engineering activities of universities 

and government bureaus 824 

Parsons, A. T Advice to students. . . . 629 

Ditto Mine surveying. ... 39 

Pasco, Hubert L.. and Carl T. Long. . .Study of electric 

detonators 902 

Patents and progress R. B. Brinsmade. ... 335 

Patterson, George Schroter, obituary 658 

Paying miners Editorial .... 518 

Peabody, Alfred H., obituary 246 

Personnel and finance of the Bunker Hill 

T. A. Rickard. . . . 703 

Peruvian Copper & Smelting Co 709 

Petroleum handbook, new book 

Stephen O. Andros. ... 69 

In Czechoslovakia 942 

Refining, new book Andrew Campbell. ... 177 

Phalen, W. C. .Magnesia cement for mine-timbers. ... 5 SB 

Phelps Dodge Corporation bonus system 127 

Philippines magma property 505 

Mining during 1919 C. M. Eye 479 

Physical examination for hoisting engineers 

C. A. Allen and Dr. A. L. Murray. . . . 421 

Physics of flotation H. L. Sulman. ... 50 

Picher, Oliver Sheppard, obituary 692 

Pierce. E. D T. A. Rickard .... 42 

Pioche, Nevada 548 

Pitot tube used in ventilating problems. 

W. S. Weeks. . . . 896 

Platinum, assay of C. W. Davis. ... 823 

In British Columbia 536 

Market 204 

Portland Gold Mining Co., company report 511 

Potash production 201 

Pound. J. R., and Wm. E. Hitchcock Magnetic 

separation of concentrates in Tasmania 379 

Ditto Mining and milling tin-tungsten ore in 

Tasmania 229 

Powell, A. R Analysis of minerals of rarer 

elements, new book 69 

Precious metals in oil-shale. Walter E. Burlingame. ... 668 

Preface Editorial .... 738 

Preferential flotation C. C. Freeman. . . . 837 

Premier mine Editorial. . . . 72, 216 

Premium on gold Editorial .... 365 

Pressinger, Whitfield P.. obituary 957 

Price of gold A. Moline. . . . 930 

Prichard creek T. A. Rickard. ... 186 

Probert, Frank H Protest. . . . 701 

Proceeding against Minerals Separation before Federal 

Trade Commission 710, 909 

Vol I -.11 




ProdMtlon or gold ind stiver In Dolled Slates durinK 

t ;» l ■• 10] 

01 manganese sT 1 

Prohibition ■". J Bourn*. T( 

Ditto BdltorUI 

Prospecting for oil and icas. new book 

I. S I'anylty. . . 

Prospector Jmk Miilholluud . . 

Prospectors field hook and guide, new book 

li s ii- n .in.i M W. von Berne wits. .. . 886 

Prospecton Proti Istlon for British Columbl 

Prospects In Mexico Editorial, . 

i Frank II Probert.... 701 

Public sen lee and private practice. . Daniel t'ross. ... 188 

Ditto Editorial.... 35. 73 

Ditto Lester 3. Grant. ... 1(0 

'Pulmore' pulley tread 962 


Quicksilver industry in Italy ISO 

Ore-flotation. E. G. Stowell and Will II. (oghlll. ... 117 


Railroads Editorial. ... 867 

Problems 474 

Hakha Hills mines 605 

Hand, hanging-wall support 1. \v. Uacer. . . . 539 

Mining shares Editorial .... 626 

Neutralizing mine-waters on 

F. Wartenweiler and E. H. Croghan. . . . 376 

Ransome. F. L T. A. Rickard .... 262 

Ray Consolidated Copper Co.. company report 

289, 511. 732. 839 

Reaction of manganese Industry. .H. A. C. Jenlsen. ... 21 

Read. T. T Panama museum. ... 40 

Reagents in flotation H. L. Sulman .... 15 

Recent metallurgy at Trail. B. C F. H. Mason. . . . 863 

Refrigeration, elements of, new book 

Arthur M. Greene. Jr. . . . 290 

Registration of engineers Fernando Montijo. . . . 405 

Ditto Arthur W. Stevens. . . . 667 

Report of Engineering Council 232 

Regulator for motor on pressure systems 734 

Reid. John S Mechanical drawing, new book. . . . 290 

Resident observer. .Stable government for Mexico. ... 148 

Resignations from U. S. Geological Survey 

Editorial. ... 1 
Resolutions of the International Mining Congress.... 

Editorial 699 

Re-treating Tamarack sands 951 

Revolt of Sonora Editorial.... 592 

Rice, F. Seward. . . .Features of electrical equipment at 

Alaska Juneau 251 

Rickard, T. A Chapter in journalism. . . . 745 

Ditto. . . .The Bunker Hill Enterprise 

5, 41, 109, 185, 261, 337, 485, 525, 703, 791 

Ditto Herbert Hoover, a sketch. . . . 494 

Ditto Romance of mining discovery. ... 669 

Ditto Technical writing, new book. . . .696, 816 

Ditto .Technical writing: Jargon. . . . 640 

Riddell, W. C Analysis of magnesite. . . . 943 

Robinson & Co.. Dwlght P 661 

Rodenhauser, W., J. Schoenawa, and C. W. Vom Baur. . 
Electric furnaces in the iron and steel industry, 

new book 624 

Romance of mining discovery T. A. Rickard. . . . 669 

Rose, Joshua Complete practical machinist, 

new book 435 

Ruby Hill Development Co 353 

Russian copper refinery under Bolshevik control 

R. G. Knickerbocker. . . . 677 


Safety-first at Butte 502 

Convention Editorial. . . . 216 

Sales-centre for machinery Howard R. Ward. . . . 362 

Sampling and mining Editorial. . . . 439 

Combination method in mines. .Morton Webber. . . . 303 

Of mines 294 

San Antonio 'Express' Editorial. ... 181 

Santa Gertrudis Co., company report 250 

Santa Maria mine R. B. Brinsmade. ... 87 

Schoeller, W. R Analysis of minerals and ores 

of rarer elements, new book 6 9 

Schoenawa, J., W. Rodenhauser, and C. H. Vom Baur. . 
Electric furnaces in the iron and steel industry, 

new book 624 

Scientific Press, reproduction 739 

Seattle convention Bdllorlal 

'.in metal 050 

Senate haarlnci on coal imiuttry 7:9 

Seneca development 462 

Mine. cost ,.t opening 

Bbaft-alnklni rei ord 733 

Bbale oil. distillation of James A. nishop . 371 

Shall Anieii, ans go abroucl In mine? 

II Poster Main. ... 761 

Bhattuck \n. .* Copper Co oomi >■ report . ,088, 818 

Bbaw, S k. Combination method of mlne-eampllnf ... . oso 

siieidnn. 1; i, mi ni iic exploration, . . . 4 ok 

Shellehear, \v Burma mine ... 39 

Sherlock, U. J Case oil-fired ssesj-furnaoe . . . . 823 

Shiga, Kyiishl. and Hilar" Hindu Cnllrell process 

In Japan :;:;:: 

BhOCkley, V7, II .Gold In north-eastern Siberia.... 931 

Ditto Simplified spelling. ... 411 

Shortage of miners In I'tah 544 

Siberia, copper mines In J. Mackintosh Bell. . . . 705 

Spaasky and Atbasar copper mines 

J. Mackintosh Bell.... 825 

Sliver E. P. Crawford.... 37 

Coinage Editorial.... 71 

Mining In Nevada E. E. Carpenter. ... 537 

Price drops 883 

Silver King Consolidated Mining Co., company report. . 815 

Simon silver-lead property 404 

Simp spelling E. M. Hamilton.... 147 

Ditto H. A. Tltcomb. ... 147 

Simplified spelling W. H. Shockley. ... 40 

Sixes River district, placer mining In 60 

Skinner. Walter R Mining manual and 

mining year book, new book 624 

Small. Harry Haskell, obituary 620 

Smallest mine locomotive 662 

Smelter contracts at Bunker Hill. . .T. A. Rickard. . . . 797 

Smoke Editorial.... 854 

Smelting cyanide precipitate 870 

Iron ores F. H. Mason .... 76 

Of complex ores Editorial. . . . 594 

Plant design, elements of....O. E. Jager. . . . 153, 195 

Smith, Grant H First miners and the 

first civilization 457 

Smith. Reuben Edward, obituary 66 

Smuggler Union company magazine explosion 388 

Some features of geological department of A. C. M. Co. 

Paul Billingsley. . . . 907 

Ideas on ball-mill practice. .Curtis Lindley. Jr. . . . 221 

Notes on crossings H. C. Hoover. . . . 743 

Observations on smelting 893 

Sonora. revolt of Editorial .... 592 

South Africa, milling at New Modderfontein 789 

Panel stopes in 222 

South Dakota, metal production during 1919 165 

Spassky and Atbasar copper mines in Siberia 

J. Mackintosh Bell. . . .765, 825 

Special correspondence Cortez mine to be 

re-opened 803 

Spelling simplified E. M. Hamilton. . . . 147 

Ditto W. H. Shockley.... 40 

Ditto H. A. Tltcomb. . . . 147 

Spilsbury. E. Gybbon Editorial .... 854 

Ditto Obituary 882 

Spruce Monarch Co 722 

Spurr, J. E Editorial. . . . 927 

State government for Mexico. . .Resident observer. . . . 148 

Statement by Mr. Hoover 246, 286 

Statistical review for 1919 163 

Review of base-metal production 202 

Review of metal production in 1919 273 

Summary of Bunker Hill operations 

T. A. Rickard 705 

Steam thawing of frozen gravel. .Walter S. Weeks. . . . 367 

Stevens, Arthur W Registration of engineers. . . . 667 

Stevens. William S., affidavit in Minerals Separation 

case 912 

Stoping at Bunker Hill mine T. A. Rickard. . . . 337 

Stock raisers and mineral lands L. A. Fenner. . . . 298 

Stoughton, Bradley Engineering Employment 

Bureaus 405 

Stow Manufacturing Co., flexible shafting 361 

Stowell. E. G., and Will H. Coghill Experimental 

flotation of low-grade quicksilver ore 117 

Strategy of minerals Editorial. . . . 780 

Stretch, R. H Future of interior Alaska. . . . 595 

Strike at Bingham, Utah 281 

At Butte Editorial 628 


Vol. 120 


Strontium 83S 

Study o£ electric detonators 

Carl T. Long and Hubert L. Pascoe. ... 902 

Sullivan, Cornelius T. A. Rickard. . . . 110 

Sullivan Machinery Co 662 

Drill-steel furnace 555 

Sulman, H. Livingston Editorial. . . .256, 295 

Ditto. .Contribution to study ot flotation. . . .14, 47, 122 

And Minerals Separation Editorial. . . . 891 

Superior & Boston Copper Co., company report 289 

Supply of oil Editorial. ... 890 

Surface tension in flotation H. L. Sulman. ... 50 

System in mining Editorial. . . . 10S 

Swansea mill F. Le Roi Thurmond. . . . 606 

Sweetland Alter L. S. Austin. . . . 409 

Swickheimer, David, obituary 286 

Swisshelm Gold-Silver Co 23 

Tailing treatment at Pioche 

Talbot, Frederick A Millions from waste, 

new book 

Tasmania, magnetic separation of concentrates 

Wm. E. Hitchcock and J. R. Pound. . . . 

Mining and milling tin-tungsten ore in 

Wm. E. Hitchcock and J. R. Pound. . . . 

Taxation of oil properties, Federal 

Taylor, A. J. T The story of the Dolly 

Varden mine 

Technical methods of ore analysis, new book 

A. H. Lowe. . . . 
Technical writing, new book. . .T. A. Rickard. . . .696, 

Writing P. B. McDonald. . . . 

Writing: Jargon T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Teck Hughes Gold Mines, Ltd., company report 

Temiskaming Mining Co., Ltd., company report 

Tennessee Copper Co., car-loading grating at 

Wm. S. Evans. . . . 

Texas, metal production during 1919 

Thawing frozen ground with cold water. . Editorial. . . . 

Ditto Walter S. Weeks .... 

Theory of the centrifugal fan. . .Walter S. Weeks. . . . 

Thomas, Kirby Filing of mine reports. . . . 

Thompson. Julius, obituary 

Thomson. Francis A.Fahrenwald flotation machine. . . . 

Thurmond, F. Le Roi Arizona's oldest 

copper mine 

Ditto Swansea mill .... 

Timber: Its strength, seasoning, and grading, new book 

Harold S. Betts. . . . 

Tin-tungsten ore in Tasmania, milling of 

Wm. E. Hitchcock and J. R. Pound. . . . 
Tintic Milling Co., chloride roasting and leaching at. . . 

Theodore P. Holt. . . . 

Titcomb, H. A Simp spelling. . . . 

To young engineers Editorial. . . . 

Tomboy Gold Mines Co., company report 

Tonopah Belmont Development Co., company report. . . 

Tonopah Divide Mining Co., company report 

Tonopah Extension Mining Co., company report 

Topographic maps and sketch mapping, new book 

J. K. Finch 

Trailer used with motor-truck 

Traverse Tables, new book 

Henry Louis and G. W. Caunt. . . . 

Traylor Engineering & Manufacturing Co 

Gyratory crusher 

Traylor, Samuel W « . . . 

Treadwell, John T. A. Rickard. . . . 

Troy Wagon Works Co 

Tule Canyon , Editorial .... 

Tungsten, determination of George M. Enos. . . . 

In China 

Magnetic separation of 

Wm. E. Hitchcock and J. R. Pound. . . . 

Tariff on 

Two professions of mining geology 

Augustus Locke. . . . 


Underground fires Editorial .... 73 

United Comstock Mines Co 842 

United Eastern Mining Co.. company report 885 

United Verde Extension Mining Co., company report. . . 553 

Utah dividends in 1919 97 

Metal production in 1919 26, 166 

Utah Consolidated Mining Co., company report 6 23 




















Utah Copper Co., company report 326, 808 

Operations 354 

Utah School of Mines, fellowships in metallurgy 620 


Vadner, C. S. Metallurgy of complex low-grade ores. . . . 519 

Valuation of cil properties for Federal taxation 307 

Vanderlip, Frank A Editorial. . . . 560 

Ventilating currents, friction of. .Walter S. Weeks. . . . 607 

Ventilation Editorial. ... 592 

Centrifugal fan Walter S. Weeks. . . . 858 

Victoria Copper Mining Co., company report 512 

Vindicator Consolidated Gold Mining Co., company re- 
port 511 

Volatilization in assaying Frederic P. Dewey 45 8 

Volumetric method for determination of tungsten 

George M. Enos. ... 869 
Vom Baur, C. H., W. Rodenhauser, and J. Schoenawa. . 
Electric furnaces in the iron and steel industry, 

new book 624 

von Bernewitz, M. W Prospector's field-book 

and guide, new book 886 


Wage-system for miners. . . .A. K. Knickerbocker. . . . 497 

Wagner, Wm. Huff Mine sampling. . . . 451 

Walsh. Thomas F T. A. Rickard. . . . 671 

War Minerals Relief claims 639 

Ditto Editorial.... 666 

Ward. Howard R Permanent machinery 

exposition and sales-centre 362 

Wardner, James F T. A. Rickard. . . . Ill 

Wartenweiler, F., and E. H. Croghan Neutraliz- 
ing mine-waters on the Rand 376 

Washington, metal production during 1919 276 

Water-power of British Columbia, new book 

Arthur V. White 554 

Wayland. R. G Homestake fire of 1919. ... 84 

Webber, Morton Combination method of 

mine-sampling 303 

Weeks, Walter S Editorial. ... 592 

Ditto Friction of ventilating currents. . . . 607 

Ditto Measurement of ventilating air. . . . 895 

Ditto. .Thawing frozen gravel with cold water. ... 367 

Weinberg, E. A Mining industry in Australia. . . . 297 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. car-dumper 473 

Western Oil Shale Co 349 

Westinghouse, Church, Kerr & Co 661 

Cost plus method 556 

Westinghouse Electric & Mfg. Co 253 

Equipment for electrical precipitation 589 

Weston, William, obituary 586, 620 

Wetherill process 

Wm. E. Hitchcock and J. R. Pound. ... 379 

What the miners think Editorial. . . . 699 

White, Arthur V Water-powers of 

British Columbia, new book 554 

Who's Hoover? Editorial. ... 476 

Why is the Mining and Scientific Press? 

C. T. Hutchinson. . . . 758 

Wilkes, Harry R. S Discrepancies in 

weighing bullion 454 

Williams, Robert Editorial. ... 72 

Williams, W. A By-product coke-ovens 

of the Granby Consolidated 600 

Winchell, Horace V., and Institute meeting 

Editorial. ... 2 

Winona company suspends operations 806 

Wire rope, cutting of 662 

Wisconsin metal production in 1919 98 

Metal review 428 

Mining during January 1920 282 

Wolframite in China 90 

Wolverine Corporation to extend 578 

Mine progress 542 

Wood-pipe, use of 961 

Wuensch. C. Erb Improved wedge for deflecting 

diamond-drills 945 


Yale, Charles G Editorial. ... 820 

Ditto. .Metal production in California in 1919. ... 91 

'Ydrange' pumps 733 

Yukon Gold Co., company report 623 


Zinc metallurgy at Trail F. H. Mason. . . . 863 

Production in United States during 1919 202 

Zook, O. J 'M-Z' automatic mine-car. . . . 932 

pCMtOfO malUr 


V 120 BO 1 



January 3, 1920 

It Mitchell Movement 

Hold a pencil tightly at 
its center with the thumb 
and forefinger of one 
hand, while you describe 
a circle with the point. 

That is the motion transmitted to the screen cloth in the Mitchell 
Electric Vibrating Screen. The vibrations have an amplitude of 
l /ft inch and are communicated to the screen cloth by means of 
arms or plates which are clamped to the vibrator shaft at each end 
and are in constant contact with the screen cloth. 

The rotary character of this movement and the fact that it occurs 
3,600 times a minute and forces the meshes up into the material 
with an impact of from 500 to 1,000 pounds explains why the 
Mitchell has come to be known as a revolutionary departure in 
screen construction. And also why it is breaking all previous 
records for large tonnages, thorough screening and economy of 

The foregoing is but the briefest outline of the Mitchell construction. 

Write for our illustrated booklet which explains this remarkable screen 
in detail. 

The Mitchell is superior in 
all screening — coarse or fine, 
wet or dry. 

Stimpson Equipment Co. 

Manufacturers and Sole Agents of Mitchell Electric Vibrating Screens 

„ , _ ., ,. and Janney Flotation Machines 

318 Felt Building Salt Lake City, Utah 

January 3, 1920 

Mi\IV. AM) SCIEN1 II I' I'KI >^ 

Diamond Drilling in Cornwall 

The Prince of Wales visits 
his Sullivan Diamond Drill 

IX the Cornish tin mines, the introduction 
DRILLS during the past three years has led 
to the discovery of important new mineral 

Sullivan Drills are now "standard" in 
Cornwall, as in all mining districts, the 
world over. 

Ask for Catalog 26» 

THE accompanying photograph was taken 
on the occasion of a visit of the Prince 
of Wales, who is also the Duke of Cornwall, 
to the Kit Hill Mine in June, 1919. The 
Western Morning News of June 11th says. 
"Because of the enterprise of the Duchy man- 
agement in installing up-to-date machinery, 
these mines are providing valuable quantities 
of tin and wolfram, the supplies of the latter 
having proved of great national service during 
the war. 

"The Prince showed a decided aptitude for 
making the most of his time, for he at once 
proceeded to view what is probably the most 
interesting feature of the mines, the new Sul- 
livan Diamond Drill, which began its work of 
boring on May 28th. This drill bores out a 
core of rock about one inch in diameter, from 
which can be learnt the properties of the lode, 
the object of the drill being for prospecting. 
It has already bored about 120 feet, the aver- 
age being about 12 feet per day (horizontal 
holes in single shifts), and its ultimate depth 
will be over 700 feet. * * » The Prince spent 
some time watching the drill at work and dis- 
played a very keen interest, asking many 
questions relative to the working of the drill. 
Specimens of metal which had been extracted 
by the drill were also shown him." 

The Prince is the man close to the swivel 
head, watching the machine work. 



Denver. Colo. 






New York 

123 South Michigan Avenue, Chicago, III. 

580 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

Nelson. B. C. 

St. Louis 
Salt Lake City 



Sydney. N. S. W. 





January 3, 1920 



FIFTY YEARS of Mine Hoist building are back of this 

W>W,&R£klL w WW1L(S&M 



Designed for unusually severe service, its construction in every detail is massive, yet compact. 

The hollow built up girders forming the main frame elements offer the greatest possible strength. 
The pinon on the motor shaft is carried on a separate shaft running between two bearings. The motor 
drives this shaft through a Francke coupling. The intermediate gear also has a bearing on both sides. 

Have you seen the 

Ask us about them. 

VULCAN HOISTS are built in all sizes and for 
any service. 

Correspondence is invited. Wben writing ask for 
our monthly H & B BULLETIN. No obligation. 

tiem mmmwm & mmTm®w^ 


^ & 

mm simF-PM' 


S2MCB 1861 


Januan 3, 1920 



creens that last! 

Modern milling methods require 
screens of long life and service. The 
wins must stay put — and stand up 
under hard usage. Uniformity of prod- 
uct and quick discharge are essential 
even to the last shred of screen. 


double crimped 

is the perfect screen in every sense of the 
word. It is uniform, stays rigid and out- 
wears all other types. It's flat surface and 
compact structure enables the fine material 
to be discharged rapidly and completely. 

"It's the 

Double Crimp 
that counts 


The warp and shoot wires curve gradually 
over and under each other. The wires are 
crimped not bent. The result is a screen- 
structurally correct. 

The full strength of each wire is retained and 
long life of useful service is assured. 

Send for catalog containing valuable screening 
data. It is yours for the asking. 


Manufacturers of "Perfect" Double Crimped Wire Cloth and 
REK-TANG Screens 

General Offices and Factory: ST. LOUIS, MO. 

20 East Jackson Blvd.. 
Chicago. 111. 

Branch Offices 

Felt Bide- 
Sail Lake City. Utah 

Martin Bids.. 
El Paso, Texas 


January 3. 1920 

Januan 3, 1920 


Everybody's pleased with 


From the president right down to the shopman everybody's pleased with VICTORY B-42 
CRUCIBLES because of the trouble they save and because of the results given. It is this 
all 'round satisfaction that makes VICTORY B-42 CRUCIBLES "the crucibles you buy 

In making Victory Crucibles we use the high- 
est grades Ceylon graphite — proved best for 
crucible practice. 

We determine the correct pressure to put 
upon the clay in order that the crucible-walls 
may be homogeneous and, therefore, less liable 
to pit or crack. 

Exactly the right degree of burning is given 
to obtain the most ideal calcination. 

We take the pick of workmen from the New 
Jersey pottery-field and subject their work to 
a rigid examination. 

Such is the care and experience represented 

You do not know all that crucibles can be until 
you have tried VICTORY B-42 CRUCIBLES. 

Interesting data on crucible prac- 
tice will be mailed upon request. 

Jonathan Bartley Crucible Co. 



The Merrill Company » 

125 Second Street 

San Francisco, Cal. 


January 3, 1920 


First All-Steel Dredge Built in America 

This dredge was designed and built by us in the record-breaking time of 4 months 15 days. 

It was erected and put in operation by us in the heart of Siberia, in the record-breaking 
time of 93 days. 

It has been operating over 8 years, and the General Manager now writes us that "The 
Kolchan Dredge is still going strong and running well ; with green Russian and Chinese winch- 
men, and many changes of crew during the season, we still had a running time of 86%, which 
speaks well for the dredge." 

If you have a difficult dredging problem, submit it to us. We have installed Empire 
equipment in all parts of the world, including our GOLD DREDGES, EMPIRE HAND PROS- 

Our plant is most favorably located for export shipments, being on tide water at Yonkers, 
N. T., and on the New York Central Railroad. It was designed and built by us specially for 
turning out our own line of work. 




January .!. 1920 


How Much of Your Power 
Reaches the Crushing Surfaces? 

The average gyratory spends a great percentage 
of power in bending its long, slender shaft — 
not in crushing your rock or ore. The natural 
result is loss of efficiency and decreased output. 

The short, rigid and far stronger shaft in 


"Bulldog" Gyratory Crushers 

is your assurance of real crushing economy — 
the maximum output with the minimum operat- 
ing and upkeep costs. 

The Bend-Proof Shaft is only one of the many ex- 
ceptional "Bulldog" features. The Hewes Spider 
— the perfect, force-feed lubrication — the cut steel 
gears that run in oil — these and other 
noteworthy improvements will justify 
your most careful attention. 

Write for 

Bulletin PGX-1 

It's just off the press 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 


New York: 
30 Church St. 

211 Fulton Bldg. 

Lot Angeles: 
Citizens Bank Bids- 

1414 Fisher Bldg. 

Spokane : 
Mohawk Block 



January 3, 1920 

This shows the 
largest Continuous 
Stave Wood Pipe 
in the world at the 
time installed. This 
installation was 
made for the 
Electric Company 
of Portland, Ore- 
gon, under the mi- 
PTvision of tin- 
stone and Webster 
Engineering Cor- 
poration of Bos- 
ton, who were 
general contractors 
on the work. 
The installation 
consists of a mile 
of wood stave 
flow line 162" or 
13'-6" in diam- 

The normal ca- 
pacity of the sys- 
tem is 1230 ca. ft. 
per sec, velocity 
8.6' per sec, max- 
imum static head 
on wood pipe 154', 
wheel capacity 
20,000 H. P. 

View showing a 
Continuous Stave 
Pipe Line con- 
structed for the 
Great Northern 
Railway Company 
in the Cascade 
Mountains. This 
pipe carries the 
water to the tur- 
bines which gen- 
erate the electric 
power used to op- 
erate the giant 
electric locomo- 
tives that pull 
the trains over 
the mountains. 

JR g dWo o d 

Dou&Ias Fir 






Do You Know 

THAT the list- of wood pipe antedates that 
.it practical!] every other form of pipe, being 
used more than two centuries ago in London 

anil at a much earlier period in some other 

European cities 

THAT one of the original London com- 
panies — ail extensive user of wood pipe — 
organized to supply that city with water, is 
still operating; and that some of the wood 
pipe laid during the reign of yueen Anne 
when recently replaced with larger mains w as 
found to he in a state of perfect preservation 

THAT citizens of Fayetteville, N. C, are 
receiving water through wood pipe that was 
laid in 1S29 — the pipe still being sound 

THAT the large wood stave pipe which 
carries the water to the pumps of the city water 
works of Manchester, N. H., was laid in 1874, 
and the superintendent of the works said a 
short time ago: "We know nothing of its con- 
dition, as it was laid six feet below the surface 
and we have had no occasion to disturb it." 

THAT modern wood pipe, size for size, 
will carry a greater volume of water than any 
other pipe made 

THAT wood pipe is the only pipe whose 
capacity does not decrease with age 

THAT many of the foremost cities of the- 
world are receiving their supply of pure water 
thru wood pipe 

THAT wood pipe is today carrying the 
water which makes hundreds of thousands of 
acres of once desert land bloom like a veritable 

THAT wood pipe is most easily adapted to 
difficult installations 

THAT wood pipe is the most economical 
pipe to install and maintain and is the most 
efficient in service 

THAT the present big users of wood pipe 
are the best prospects of future sales when 
further installations are required 

THAT there is only one strip of land in the 
world on which the Redwood and Douglas 
Fir grows that provides material for the per- 
fect staves of which correctly made wood pipe 
is formed — the Pacific Slope from Northern 
Washington on down through California 

THAT we have engineers widely exper- 
ienced in hydraulic problems who will frankly 7 
and honestly consult with you regarding the 
advisability of wood pipe for any project or 

THAT you are not asked to buy wood pipe 
unless it is absolutely the best pipe for your pur- 
pose regardless of how much you want to invest; 
and further, that if you buy it, you will be in- 
structed as to its proper use so that the fullest 
measure of utility may be obtained from it 

THAT when we tell you wood pipe is the 
pipe for you to use there are thirty years of 
experience and an enviable record behind our 

THAT full information — booklets — reliable 
data and suggestions of experts may be ob- 
tained by you for the asking? 

(Tell us your problems) 



American Wood Pipe Company 

Tacomii, Wash. 

Redwood Manufacturers Company 
San Francisco, Cal. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Company 
■Sun Francisco, Cal. 

Continental Pipe Mfg. Company 
Seattle, Wash. 

/? g dvro o d 

Douglas Fir 




January 3, 1920 

Loading a Stockpile With a Scraper 

By D. E. A. Chaslton 

A device which was used in loading- a small iron-ore 

stockpile on one of the Minnesota ranges is illustrated 

in the accompanying sketch. . 




A small loading platform of 8-in. diameter round posts and 
2-in. plank was constructed near the track, which was con- 
tinued some distance beyond the shaft to permit the spotting 
of coal cars. The two uprights on the track side were ex- 
tended above the top of the platform and connected so that 
they formed a frame, from the center of which was suspended 
a small block pulley. The platform was about three feet 
above the top of the cars, but sloped on the outer edge eo 
that the ore would run Into the cars. An ordinary road 
scraper was used, fastened to %-ln. cable passed through the 
pulley and attached to a small hoist, which was furnished 
with steam from the boiler house. The far side of the stock- 
pile was removed first. The operation of the scraper, re- , 
quired two men. 

Engineering <£ 
V Mining Journal 

This is a fob for Ythe 

"Little Tugger" 

A one-man, portable, powerful, reversible hoist, operat- 
ing on compressed air or steam. Miners, quarrymen and 
contractors find it indispensable for hoisting timbers and 
machinery, hauling cars and drags and skidding crates 
and lumber. 


Little Tugger" 

Hoists 1000 lbs. with a rope speed of 85 ft. per 
min. Has a car haulage capacity ranging from 
50,000 lbs. at to 1090 lbs. with a 63 degree 
angle of inclination. Has a drum capacity of 
700 ft. of i-in. cable. 


Bulletin No. 4333 tells 
complete story. 

In£ ex\s o 

.Iimiiurv 8. 1920 



T/ie haulage Curve of* 

" LittleTu&er 




January 3, 1920 

Less Friction — Better Galvanizing — Clean, Smooth 
Surfaces and Other Advantages Characterize 


Welding-SCALE FREE Pipe 

(Butt-weld pipe with the heavy mill-scale, or welding-scale, removed) 

Ordinary black butt-weld pipe, showing characteristic 
coating of welding-scale. 

"NATIONAL" Welding-SCALE FREE Pipe, showing 
clean, smooth surfaces of this modem product. 

The advantages of the product and the process of manu- 
facture are described and illustrated in "NATIONAL" 




General Sales Offices : Frick Building 


Atlanta Boston Chicago Denver Detroit New Orleans New York Salt Lake City Philadelphia Pittsburgh St. Louis St. Paul 

PACIFIC COAST REPRESENT ATIVES : U. S. Steel Products Co. San Francisco Los Angeles Portland Seattle 

EXPORT REPRESENTATIVES : U. S. Steel Products Co. New York City 

.iHiiium :. 192U 



Large Capacity Vanner Is The SENN 

Vanners Save More Concentrates than any other gravity concentrators. 

One SENN has the Capacity of Four Ordinary 

(old fashioned,) Small Capacity Vanners. 

Small Capacity Vanners are All Old Fashioned. 

An Up-to-date SENN has a Capacity equal to the best "table", but it makes a 
Recovery equal to or better than the best vanner of any other kind. 

The Large Capacity of the SENN is due to its Continuous 
circular "panning" motion, which keeps the gangue suspended 
in a thick pulp (35% solids), and to the thick pulp that is 
made possible by the Continuous circular motion. 

The High Recovery is due to the Continuous circular "Pan- 
ning" Motion that keeps the pulp loose, giving the gangue a 
wash in all directions, preventing small particles of concentrate 
from riding into the tailings on top of larger pieces of gangue, 
and allowing the smallest particle of concentrate to settle 
through the loose gangue onto the moving vanner belt, to be 
withdrawn by it and saved. 

The High Recovery is also due to the Thick Pulp used on the 
SENN. Its feed usually contains not more than Two Tons of 
Water per Ton of Solids. Ordinary (old-fashioned) vanners 
require from five to eight tons of water per ton of solids. 
"Tables" require from three to five tons of water per ton of 
ore, in the feed. 

The Greater the Amount of Water used, the Greater the Pro- 
portion of Fine Concentrates Washed Into the Tailings. 


Senn Concentrator Co. 

1215P First National Bank Building 

Cable Address, — "Sennpan" 

San Francisco, 

Detail of Ball Bearing 

United Filters Corp.. Salt Lake City 
Southwestern Engineering- Co., Lob 

HalHdie Machinery Co.. Seattle 
Tonopah Machinery Co., Tonopah 
F. H. Jackson. Sydney. N. 8. W. 

Federal Export Corp-. Lima. Peru 
Rintoul and Davis. Johannesburg. 

South Africa 
Oliver American Trading Co.. Eagle 

Pass. Texas 





January 3, 1920 


RELIABILITY is the sought- 
for feature in every pump. 
It is the point of greatest certainty 
in MORRIS PUMPS. Their re- 
liability and efficiency have been 
established in practically every 
mining district of the worldi 
More than sixty thousand are in 

MORRIS PUMPS are consider- 
ed as standard for handling 

tailings or slimes, for pumping 
phosphate, for work with giants, 
or for sinking. Morris Pumps 
were used in the Kerr Lake and 
Carson Lake dewatering pro- 

No matter how difficult your 
pumping conditions, MORRIS 
PUMPS will meet them as they 
have for other mines, from small- 
est to largest, the world over. 

Morris pumps, dredges and engines are described 
in a 126-page book, usefully arranged, which 
will be sent without obligation upon request. 

Since 1864 builders of Centrifugal Pumps, Hydraulic Dredges and Steam Engines 


Branches in Principal Cities 


January 8, 1920 



=H IIIU Hl '"i ' »" » mm n iiiii i inn i iiiiiiiiiiiiiihiiihiiiiiiii iiiiini mnuim iiiiiiiiiiiiiiini s 

What "Stoper" 

Means to Most 


PHE splendid performance of the 
* Waugh stoper, throughout the 
years since the air-feed stoping drill 
made its first appearance, has built 
up in the miner's mind such absolute 
faith in its superior qualities that 
whenever he says "stoper" now, 
you can count upon it, he means a 

CITHER the "16-V" or the later 
I-* "70" Waugh valveless stopers, 
installed in your mine, will mean 
steadier, stronger, speedier, less ex- 
pensive and more satisfactory stope 
drilling, contented drill-runners, 
and increased production. 

Our Stoper Bulletins will interest 
you. Send for them. 

]fl£\ Vrorav ^ ^5^CV^^ ^\to\\ Q> 

Denver, Colorado 

San Francisco 
El Paso 

Toronto, Oni. 

Lob Ange/ei 


Salt Lake City 

Jo pi In 



Mexico City 

New York City 




Canadian Rock Drill Company, Limited 
Sole Agents in Canada 

Cobalt, OnU 

NeUon, B. C. 

Vancouver. B. C. 



January 3, 1920 


The Greatest Money Saver of Them All 

If you have rock, sand, snow, ice, overburden, tailing, ore, slag, or any similar 
material to dispose of ; if you have any filling to be done ; if you have stock 
piles or tailing piles to be built; railway maintenance to be taken care of; the 
Jordan Spreader will effect savings of upwards of $7000 a day. 


It is not necessary for the Jordan to be in continuous operation to be profit- 
able — it is employed with big profits by small as well as large operations. It 
practically dispenses with gang labor when bulk material is to be handled and 
does the work in a very small fraction of the time required by hand labor. 

Built in our own shops, the material and workmanship is of the best. The con- 
struction is such as to last a life time — numerous Jordans have been in use over 
twenty years. 




B5 * 

Wm m 


^lir . 



Among the 


Anaconda Cop- 
per Co. 

Utah Copper Co. 

New Cornelia 
Copper Co. 

Calumet Arizona 
Smelting & Re- 
fining Co. 

Oliver Iron Min- 
ing Co. 

M. A. Hanna Co. 

Etc., Etc. 

January ::. 1920 



You cant 

Improve on this 


Simplicity and 


PION EE It .3$?ffi? 


is strictly an all purpose bucket 

For handling tailings, for stripping 
operations, in placer mining for con- 
struction work of all sorts the Pioneer 
Back Dump Bucket is a money-saver. 

The Back-Dump feature cuts down clearance 
required between cable and tower top. Pioneer 
Back Dump Buckets can be made to trip while 
traveling in either direction. 

Manufactured by the Mansfield 
Engineering Co., Indianapolis, Ind. 





447-449 East 3rd St, Los Angeles, Cal. 229 Rialto Bldg., San Francisco, Cal. 










January 3, 1920 

Three requisites of a good bearing. 

Good babbitt 

Tne "Dodge" brand of bearing metal is 
made for general mill and factory work. It is 
the babbit regularly used in Dodge bearings 
and is one of the main factors in their success- 
ful economical operation. It has been used 
in the Dodge factory for more than thirty 

We make nine other grades of bearing 

metal to meet all requirements from light 
loads and low speeds to heavy loads and high 

Each grade is the result of many tests to 
determine the composition which will give 
the greatest wearing and the highest anti- 
friction qualities in the service for which it 
is made. 

Dodge capillary oiling bearing 

Dodge ring oiling bearing 

Dodge standard bearing 

The right length or bearing area 

Economy in power transmission requires 
that a film of oil be maintained between shaft 
and bearing. Long experience has taught that 
the best results are obtained from bearings 
approximately five times as long as the dia- 
meter of the shafts that pass through them. 

Dodge bearings are proportioned on this ba- 
sis. The increased square inch pressure of 
the shaft in a shorter bearing breaks down 
the oil film causing increased fricticn and 
wear. The greater area of a longer bearing 
causes power waste. 

Positive methods of lubrication 

The Dodge capillary oiler is a wooden block with al- 
ternate saw cuts through which the oil rises by capillary at- 
traction from the reservoir to the shaft. In this bearing 
there is not the slightest churning or whipping of the oil. 

It takes its supply from the center of the oil chamber. As 
all sediment settles to the bottom, only clean oil is used. 

The law of capillary attraction is unfailing. Your shaft 
is well oiled as long as there is oil in the reservoir. 

The ring oiling bearing lubricates by means of rings driv- 
en through the oil chamber by the friction of their own 
weight upon the shaft. With this bearing the oil is applied 
at the top of the shaft where there is no pressure. 

The standard bearing is lubricated by oil-saturated waste 
placed in cups cast on the cap. This bearing is relatively 
inexpensive and gives good service in certain classes of work. 

The Dodge dealer in your city is equipped to give you 
prompt and satisfactory service. Place your orders with him. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Company 

Distributor of the products of the Dodge Mfg. Co. and Dodge Steel Pulley Corporation 
General Offices: Mishawaka, Ind. Works: Mishawaka, and Oneida, N. Y. 

New York 


Dodge Branch Warehouses 

Chicago Philadelphia _ Boston Pittsburgh 




St. Louis 


J 1920 



driving-gears, tumbler, trommels, stacker- 
conveyor, cables, or jigs — 

For the rough, dirty, wet work of the gold- 
dredge use none but DIXON'S Waterproof 
Graphite Grease which gives satisfactory 
lubrication — economically and unfailingly. 

Writelor booklet 141-W today. 
It gives complete information. 

Mad» in JERSEY CITY. N. J . by the 

Joseph Dixon Crucible Company 


7W\ Pacific Coast Sales Office: 155 Second St, San Francisco /5C£s 




January 3, 1920 


Uniflow Poppet Valve Engines 

BUILT FROM 200 TO 2000 H. P. 


any available Steam Pressure 
any available Superheat 
any available Vacuum 
any available Back Pressure 

Under any of the above conditions these engines will operate with 
lower steam consumption per horsepower, over wider variations of 
loads, than any steam prime mover thus far developed. 

If considering additional power write or call upon us. 

Nordberg Manufacturing Co. 


Januan I, 1920 



*' Built like a high grade steam engine" in capacities 
from 20 to 100 H. P. , in both single and duplex types. 
Giant Semi-Diesel Oil Engines embody such features 
as box type cross-head construction^ hot-liner ignition, 
and automatic regulation. Engine units for general 
Penver purposes, or complete electric generating or pump - 
ing plants , can be supplied to meet any service conditions. 
Performance records of ll Giant'" dependability and 
economy under all service conditions, are available to 
aid in determining their value toy ou. Write for bulletins 

OH, the fuel 
for depend- 
able power, costs less, is plentiful and 
readily procurable, and permits the de- 
sign of engines so sturdy and simple 
in construction that their operation re- 
quires practically no attention beyond 
the supplying of fuel and lubricant. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, 1081 Fisher Building, Chicago 

Sales and Service Branches all over the World 

w>.i«B.u Cincinnati lUXMtAOO fonjx MmxiARxa rni-n.iw i#it Luucm »t uxm Boua»i ka«*h* Cmujtiamu Monuu ™ct i IXitJWTO 

SOrTTM Cimum El rtao LUAwnii N«»Iou taanAan voiukho] 1WKM Baumu Honolulu LOwdo* Ouiu rronn vuccuva 

IvtAU) omon lan milwauui nuununu Rkmhuhd Kattu ruizuuuai Iokammmao Milam Waau to»to *tnwww 



Dependable Power at 

Less Cost Per Hour 



January -3, 1920 



Oliver Filters reduce your costs and increase 

your production 

With the Oliver you reduce your risk of loss 
through strikes and scarcity of labor. Now, 
more than ever before, you must produce more 
at less cost. Discard the old expensive methods 
for the modern Oliver way. 

The Oliver is the choice of the largest and most 
modern mills. They demand the best which is 
why they choose the Oliver. Follow the example 
of the leaders — Anaconda, Inspiration, Miami, 
Nevada Consolidated, Ray and others. 

Write today for Bulletin 12 A 


503 Market St., San Francisco 

299 Madison Ave., New York 

January 8, 1920 

"They can't stick" 



"They won't leak" 

Install Merco Nordstrom Plug Valves Now- 

Use them on all water and air lines, for cyanide 
and slimes solution and all general mine and 
mill piping. Don't put up any longer with 
troublesome valves that stick tight and have to 
be jarred loose. 



is always free-opening. No matter how corrosive the 
solution, a turn or two of the grease screw with the fingers 
lifts the plug from its seat — and the Merco Nordstrom 
is easily opened or closed. It's the simple things like 
the Merco Nordstrom self-luhricating principle that cut 
costs and prevent loss. 

.Merco Xordslrom Valves are furnished for bold flanged 
and screu'ed connections. 

Descriptive Hleramre and prices gladly furnished 
upon request. 


121 Second St., 

San Francisco 

Chicago Office: 231 Insurance Exchange Bldg., Chicago, III. 


London — C. E. Rogers. Morley House. 
26-'^S Holborn Viaduct. E.C. 1. 

Scandinavia — Aktiebolaeet Nordiska 
Armaturfabrikerna. Stockholm. Sweden. 

South Africa — Fraser & Chalmers. South Africa. Ltd., 
Farrar B!dg\ : Johannesburg. Transvaal. South Africa. 




January 3, 1920 




Always Up to the Minute 



Cameron Pumps are examples of up-to-date manufacturing methods 
and modern engineering practice. These are the pumps you will 

eventually use. Why not specify them now? ^ 

Send for Bulletins || 


I Broadway Offices the World Over New York | 


Janiiiirx ;. 1920 



Too Hot to Touch 


AN 18" x 6 ply Anaconda, 
„ conveying dead burned 
magnetite, hot enough to blis- 
ter the hand, and never below 
212° Fahrenheit. 

This plant in the State of 
Washington tried out a steel 
pan conveyor on this job which 
played out in three months. 

The Anaconda illustrated 
handles 25 tons per hour up an 

18 degree incline. It is now in 
its second year, and shows every 
sign of lasting indefinitely. 

To resist such high temper- 
atures, a belt requires a care- 
ful building up of the plies, a 
uniform, dense impregnation 
and a long period of ageing un- 
der tension — processes which 
enter into the manufacture of 
every Anaconda Belt. 


New York Boston. Chicago Pittsburgh Atlanta San Francisco 



January 3, 1920 

Pacific Products in the Field 

A 96" Pacific Redwood Continuous Stave Pipe- 
line was built and installed for the Pacific 
Gas & Electric Co. at Clipper Gap, California. 

The best test of the worth of a product is the type and character 
of the buyer. The largest public service corporations, mining 
companies and industrial establishments are users of Pacific 
Products — wood'tanks and pipe. 

Xo higher endorsement of their quality and durability could be 

Day after day re-orders are received — Discriminating engineers 
specify Pacific Tanks and Pipe because they know that they are 
buying standard equipment. 

Write for information and prices 



Los Ang-eles 
Suit Lake City 

General Office: 302 Market St., San Francisco 

902 Trust & Savings Bldg. 
329 Newhouse Bidg. 

New Tor It 

507 St, Paul Bldg. 
220 Broadway 



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. Parsons, associate coiton 

McmkrT Audit Burrsu ol Circulation! 
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bv the I>'trty PuUitfiinff Oimpairi/ 



E. H. LESLIE, S00 FISHES] SOS.. Cmicaso 

'. A. WEISLE, 3914 WOOLWOItTH lBI„ N.V. 


i; ms \.. I.MMI she lilt IQKOHAM 

Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 3, 1920 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 






Comment on his article in the 'Saturday Evening 
Post'. The gist of it. Equality of opportunity. 
Class distinctions are undesirable. The chief aim 
to improve the standard of living. The useful 
stress of competition. Unfair division of profit. 
Trades-unions and combinations of capital. Neither 
must be allowed to domineer the community. Na- 
tionalization of industry fails. Government bu- 
reaucracy and its evils. Co-operation between 
capital and labor. Bad effects of speculation. 
Thriftless finance by the Government. 


A New Year retrospect. The world is in a mean 
mood. The Armistice a disappointment. World 
conditions bad. The War inconclusive and the 
terms of ratification lacking in generosity such as 
would heal the hurts of war. The world has had 
a great fright. Resolution of New Y'ork Chamber 
of Commerce urging peace settlement. 



By T. A. Rickard 

Early exploration of the American continent. The 
endeavor to cross the continent and establish com- 
munication with the Pacific Coast. John Jacob 
Astor and the fur trade in the North-West terri- 
tory. The Louisiana purchase. Lewis and Clark's 
overland expedition. Founding of Astoria in 1811. 
Oregon created a territory. 


Ily H. Livingstone Sulman 14 

Explanation that delay in publishing data has been 
due to pending litigation. A classification of vari- 
ous 'float-concentration' processes. Oil not essen- 
tial to the process. Classification of reagents. 
What agitation does. An explanation of the proc- 
ess, and the principles involved. 


By Henry Hanson 17 

The general adoption of ball-mills as grinding ma- 
chines. Crushing resistance of various ores. Tests 
to determine comparative resistances. Factors af- 
fecting crushing efficiency. Various possible meth- 
ods of including ball-mills in grinding schemes. 
The 'one easy step' theory has serious limitations. 


By H. A. C. Jenisen 

Comparison in the domestic production during 
nine months in 1919 and corresponding period in 
1918. Various grades of ore. Shipments for third 
quarter show greatest decrease. Imports from 
foreign countries. Impetus to industry during the 
War due to strategic considerations. Future out- 









Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdff.; New York. 3514 Woolwort:. 
Bds.'. : London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 15 cents ner copy. Annual subscription, payable in advanw: 
United pfntes and Mexico. $4: Canada. S5: other countries in post . 
25s. or S6. 



January 3, 1920 

With power interruptions eliminated by the use of 
electric power, production reaches new records. 

Electric Hoists 
Are Economical and Dependable 

"CMGHT times as much coal is 
-*— ' often burned to supply steam 
to a small steam hoist as would be 
necessary to supply steam, in an 
efficient central station, for the gen* 
eration of electric power to operate 
the same hoist. 

Piling up of cars at the foot of the 
hoist is almost unknown where elec- 

tric hoists are used. The steady 
pull of the electric hoist greatly re- 
duces the possibility of delays due 
to general upkeep, repairing ropes, 
shaft guides, etc. 

Hoist operators are universally 
proud of their electric hoists and 
anxious to have them make a fine 
tonnage record. 

General Office 


January ;i, 1920 


i^OST "t' living, ;is estimated from the quotations for 
^ 96 staples, rose 1.39! in the month ending December 
1. thereby bringing the index-number to a level 131$ 
above thai which prevailed before the War. It was t ; l\ 
higher than December one year ago, just after the sign- 
ing of tin' Armistice. This suggests how little has been 
done in the way of industrial reconstruction since the 
major fighting ceased. 

"DILLS designed to restrict the size of publications are 
■*-^ before botli houses of Congress. It is proposed by 
Senator Capper and Congressman Anthony to limit the, 

daily newspaper to 24 pages, the Sunday issues to 36 
pages, weekly periodicals to 75 pages, and monthly to 
100 pages. Of course, the publishers have protested 
againsl anything so ridiculous and have insisted that any 
restrictions in the consumption of book paper will not 
remedy the insufficiency of news-print paper. It is 
natural that the publishers of newspapers should co- 
operate with the publishers of magazines, but it is a pity 
that the obvious waste of paper in newspapers, especially 
the Sunday issues, should prejudice the case of the more 
serious forms of periodical literature. 

SETTLEMENT of our relations with Mexico is becom- 
^ing more urgent as it is realized how much depends 
upon the stability of the oil industry in that country. 
More than 90% of the fuel-oil used on the Atlantic and 
Gulf coasts, both for bunkering ships and for industrial 
purposes, comes from the Mexican oil-wells, in which 
American and British capital and brains have been so 
largely invested. Of the 60 million barrels produced 
annually in Mexico, the U. S. Shipping Board has a eon- 
tract for 21 million barrels, and by the end of the year 
just begun it will be using at the rate of 40 million bar- 
rels per annum. The total consumption of petroleum in 
the United States is 30 million barrels more than the 
supply, including both Mexican and domestic oil, leaving 
that much to be drawn from the reserves of oil that are 
stored in this country. The Mexican question cannot be 
shelved everlastingly ; it must be faced and solved at no 
distant date. 

6QIXTY-MILE gold dyke in Australia' is the heading 
^ of a dispatch in the 'Morning Scream', which pro- 
ceeds to state that "a 60-mile ridge of gold" has been 
found near Kalgoorlie and vouchsafes the information 
that this is "the longest gold-bearing formation ever 

found in history", or geography, presumably. This tele- 
gram, which must have been concocted under the stress 

of an excess of mince-pie and wood-alcohol a « here nol 

very far from the press-room of our contemporary, prob- 
ably refers to the discovery at Hampton Plains, a.s de- 
scribed in these columns in our issue of November 8. 
Another lake telegram in the 'Evening llowi' recounts 
the discovery of rich silver ore in the Premier mine and 
draws attention to the Salmon River district, in British 
Columbia, both of which were described ill our issue of 
November 15. Reverting to the 60-mile lode, it is a fad 
that the outcrop of the Main Keel' series on the Eland has 

i traced for a distance of 55 miles. The*$fresen1 story. 

however, is more nearly analogous to the report upon a 
gold vein in Siberia: it was said to be nine miles long. 
nine feet wide, and assayed 9 ounces per ton. so that if 
the ore persisted for nine feet only it would yield $54,- 
000,000. Unfortunately the report was signed by Ah Li. 

'TMTE usual proportion of resignations from the staff of 
■*■ the U. S. Geological Survey has increased to an 
alarming extent during the past year. In his annual re- 
port the Director asserts that 77 members, or 177c of the 
entire technical staff, resigned to accept positions with 
private corporations, wdio offer them in every case a con- 
siderably larger remuneration. The Director has fol- 
lowed up 29 former cases of this character and finds 
that whereas the average salary of these men from the 
Government was $2271, the average salary at the start 
in private employment was $5121. which after two years 
became $7804. Apparently the increased number of 
resignations is due to the decreasing margin between the 
salaries paid by the Survey and the cost of living. Set- 
ting aside sentimental considerations, and looking at 
the matter as a purely business affair, the Survey offers 
much to the young man newly graduated with a degree 
in geology. He is enabled to complete his education in 
the school of practical experience while earning enough 
to live comfortably; he gets a variety and breadth of 
experience such as can seldom be obtained elsewhere; 
he has the opportunity for building up a valuable ac- 
quaintance among influential men actively engaged in 
the mining industry. We believe that the unique oppor- 
tunities offered by the Survey are so obviously advan- 
tageous that there will never be difficulty in recruiting 
suitable members for its staff. The problem is not so 
much to attract the best material as to determine just 
how much the Survey can afford to pay those who have 


January 3, 1920 

developed to mature ability in its service. Iu many 
eases only salaries approaching the worth of their expert 
knowledge in the open market will suffice to hold them 
at Washington. The work of the Survey is important to 
the mining industry and we hope that such appropria- 
tions may be made by Congress as will enable the Di- 
rector to maintain his staff. 

T AST week the San Francisco section of the Institute 
-*- J had the pleasure of meeting and hearing the presi- 
dent, Mr. Horace V. Winchell, and the secretary, Mr. 
Bradley Stoughton. It was much the most pleasant of 
such affairs during recent years. Mr. F. W. Bradley, 
chairman of the local section, steered the proceedings 
pleasantly and himself made some interesting observa- 
tions concerning the status of the engineer in society. 
Mr. Winchell told the members about his visits to other 
sections and touched upon the many useful activities of 
the Institute. He referred to the coal strike and to the 
intermitteney of operations in the bituminous industry, 
decreasing the working-time of labor and rendering an 
enormous capital unproductive during a large part of 
the year. The shipment of coal during winter was an- 
other form of waste ; he instanced a train of 154 cars of 
coal that went from Duluth to Butte and encountered 
weather so cold, accompanied by such delays in travel, 
that 52 carloads of eoal were consumed in the boilers of 
the locomotives during the journey. He described how 
the mining profession was co-operating with officials of 
the Treasury in adjusting the tax-valuation of mining 
enterprises. Mines pay 250 million dollars as income- 
tax and 35,000 financial statements from them are now 
under examination. A licensing law for engineers has 
been introduced in many States; in numerous instances 
it has been modified so as to prevent injurious restric- 
tions ; in Idaho the law is limited to civil engineers, 
who are denned as "not military, mining, or metallurgi- 
cal" — this being a new and amusing definition of an old 
professional term. Mr. Stoughton 's most interesting 
statement referred to the American Association of En- 
gineers, the young and assertive organization at Chicago. 
The secretary of the Association, Mr. C. B. Drayer, met 
the secretaries of the four founder societies in confer- 
ence at New York on December 8, on which occasion he 
suggested that as the Association engaged itself chiefly 
in welfare, not technical, work, it would be well to ar- 
range a plan to avoid rivalry and promote co-operation. 
He was told, as Mr. Stoughton said, that "co-operation 
was our middle name", that the new organization was 
Quite welcome to do its share of technical work, but, that, 
on the other hand, the older societies could not think of 
abandoning welfare work, which was one of their recog- 
nized functions. Mr. Drayer then suggested that the 
older societies drop their employment agencies, because 
his organization was attending to that most effectively. 
On this Mr. Stoughton remarked that while 'The 
Monad', which is the Association's mouth-organ, shows 
that 2985 men were helped to appointments during the 
previous three months, whereas the employment offices 

of the four older «ocieties had helped 5909 in a similar 
way during the same period. It was agreed that the 
secretaries of the societies would co-operate with the 
secretary of the Association and the meeting ended with 
expressions of good-will. This is seasonable, but to us it 
is evident that keen rivalry exists between the new or- 
ganization and the older ones ; nor will it prove injurious ; 
on the contrary, we think that the older institutions will 
be stirred to new life and greater usefulness. During his 
term of office Mr. Winchell has proved a most efficient 
president, devoting a large share of his time to his duties 
in such a way as to give increased scope and greater 
purpose to the activities of the Institute. He will be suc- 
ceeded by Mr. Hoover, who, as president, undoubtedly 
will bring the profession into a larger measure of na- 
tional prominence and social usefulness. 

A MONG the items of mining news from London we 
-^*- note that the Mysore Gold Mining Company, the 
parent enterprise of the Kolar goldfield in India, is to 
make a new issue of capital in order "to initiate a vigor- 
ous policy of exploration and development work". This . 
is to be done by creating 610,000 additional shares of 
10 shillings each, thereby doubling the existing capital 
of the company. The management acknowledges the 
adverse conditions it has had to face during the past 
four years, which have compelled a curtailment of ex- 
ploratory work, thereby diminishing the tonnage of ore 
in reserve. The circular says : " In its long and remark- 
able history of prosperity, the Mysore mine has from 
time to time encountered zones of impoverishment which 
in due course have again given place to high-grade ore. 
For some time past the deeper levels of the mine have 
shown a repetition of the variableness of quartz reef 
mining and have been producing ore of lower grade, 
while the reef has been of less width than in the upper 
levels." This is a belated acknowledgment of facts 
known to those who have followed the course of gold 
mining in the Kolar district; it is a recognition of con- 
ditions that should have been faced many years ago. 
The management and the shareholders of the Indian 
mines have been fooling themselves for at least five years, 
if not for ten, with the idea that their mines were not 
subject to the general experience of impoverishment in 
depth. In our issue of December 19, 1914, we published 
an article by the present writer, on 'Persistence of Ore 
at Kolar', this being an excerpt from a paper read be- 
fore the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, in Lon- 
don, in the course of which the general non-persistence 
of ore was discussed exhaustively. It was pointed out 
then that the ore in the Mysore and neighboring mines 
occurred in well-defined shoots having a pitch of about 
45° northward. As the Mysore is the most southern of 
the group of four rich mines, it has not benefited as much 
as the Champion Reef, for example, by the incoming of 
ore-shoots pitching into its ground from its southern 
neighbor. The talk of "zones of impoverishment" is 
misleading because the simpler and truer explanation is 
the recurrence of definite shoots pitching regularly at a 

January 3, 1920 


high angle, ao thai the workingi in depth pus through 
alternations of productive and unproductive ground. As 

do important 01 nave I n found south of the 

iperty, there ia m> reason, only a vague hops, 

pccting that a vertical extension of the workings 

will cut new orebodiea The real condition of the mine 

baoured by drawing upon ore held in n 
in the upper workings and by stating the t age avail- 
able without giving either us grade or its distribution; 
in other words, the depth of the mine in any year baa 
borne no direct relation to the quality of its output 
Again, for the »th time, the managers of mines an 
iint for failing to recognize a generaliza- 
tion based upon the world-wide experience of mining, 
namely, that mines eventually become poor in depth as 
surely as men are enfeebled by age. 

Mr. Hoover on National Economics 

Everybody ought to read the article entitled 'Some 
Notes on Industrial Readjustment', by Mr. Herbert 
Soever in the 'Saturday Evening Post' of December 27. 
The paper founded by Benjamin Franklin publishes a 
good deal of second-rate stuff, and as a journal of opinion 
it suffers from the fact that it goes to press about a 
couple of months before it is cut into weekly instalments. 
l>n; on this occasion it has scored tremendously by giving 

the public an article- of commanding interest written by 

the man of the hour. Tn making this pronouncement of 
economic policy Mr. Hoover has behind him five years 
of vital contact with international affairs on the largest 
ale, as well as his career as a mining engineer. 
during which he had to deal at first hand with the em- 
ployment of labor and capital in many countries. He 
has the knowledge and the sympathy required to discuss 
problems of economic policy from the American 
standpoint ; for there is no mistaking the fact that he 
writes in terms of Americanism, not Americauitis. which 
is only a pitiful provincialism masquerading as patriot- 
ism. His chief plank is the social philosophy that has 
been developed by the United States during its 150 years 
of progressive life, namely, "an equality of opportunity 
— an equal chance — to every citizen". In the following 
summary of Mr. Hoover's article, we shall quote him 
nearly verbatim, omitting quotation marks ouly in order 
not to interrupt attention. Our society is not a stratifi- 
cation of classes, it is a virile mass, stimulated by com- 
petition. We have no frozen class distinctions; the as- 
sumption of such distinctions between labor, capital, and 
the public is the expression of a false kind of class con- 
sciousness, which threatens to build for us the same kind 
of foundations as those upon which Europe rocks today. 
In order to consider industrial problems intelligently we 
must have not only a social ideal but an understanding 
of the economic factors that will contribute to that ideal. 
The economic forces cannot be divorced from the social, 
for we deal with human beings, not the "economic man" 
of the old textbooks. The primary purpose of our na- 
tional policy is to improve the standard of living of all 

our pc,,p|c: that standard of living ia the direol qt 

of the amount of conn hue and sen that ai. 

abb- for the whole population. The human animal labors 
under the major impulse of securing for himself a direct 
share of these commodities and : Ins minor im 

pulse is the joy of craftsmanship and the spirit of duty 
to the community. The infinite variety of hand and 
brain can find its maximum development only through 
the stress of competition. The bo] C an unusual re- 
turn is the spur to unusual activity. The illegitimate 
division of the surplus is the real cause. of quarrel, bul 

the surplus is so small a part of our production that it is 

possible to stitle the inoreasi of capital by over-payment 

of wages, or to stitle labor by allowing too great a profit 
to capital; either extreme will ultimately curtail pro- 
duction or savings, and bring misery upon the entire 

community. The organization of trades-unions is a safe- 
guard for equality of opportunity, ami tin- recognition 
of tie- right to combine cannot be separated from tin- 
right to bargain collectively] nor can this principle be 
accepted wholeheartedly without acknowledging the rfghl 
of the unions to call men skilled in negotiation to assist 
them in such bargaining. Any form of combination can 
be perverted for the purpose of dominating the com- 
munity; if it is used to dictate social and political 
measures to the community it is violating the foundations 
of rule by the majority through representative institu- 
tions: when it is used to limit the effort of individual 
Workers or to prevenl others from working, it is a viola- 
tion of community rights and a negation of equality of 
opportunity. The combination of capital is likewise eco- 
nomically sound up to the point where overgrowth leads 
to such an excess of bureaucratic administration as to 
cause inefficiency. The moment such combinations begin 
to dominate the community, either in wages or prices or 
production, or to check healthy competition, they violate 
'the primary principle of equality of opportunity. One 
remedy is to extend the anti-trust laws so as to place 
such super-combinations under government control as 
soon as their operations pass a certain proportion of the 
national production. Nationalization of industry fails 
by destroying the impulses that create efficiency and the 
initiative that is necessary to improvement. No scheme 
based upon political appointment has developed an ac- 
ceptable alternative to competition as a means for select- 
ing men of ability and character. Under government 
bureaucracy the only safeguard against graft and favor- 
itism is promotion by seniority, which kills initiative and 
extinguishes the advantage of extra ability. The price 
we pay for free play of opportunity is an excess of gain 
to sundry individuals. The atrocity of such gains out of 
the misery of a nation at war is unbearable. The inheri- 
tance, income, and excess-profit taxes tend to a better dis- 
tribution of wealth, but the use of excess-profit taxes to 
remedy au unfair distribution, or even for revenue, dis- 
courages initiative and stimulates waste, contributing 
thereby to the high cost of living. Co-operation in pro- 
duction between capital and labor suffers from the in- 
crease in the size of industrial units, because this leads 


January 3. 1920 

to such specialization and repetition, and such remote- 
ness of contact between manager and men, as to destroy 
the mutual responsibility that exists in smaller units. 
Any effort to promote co-operation will fail if it involves 
the unscrupulous use of piecework or an attempt to lower 
wages by scaling down from the most skilled instead of 
up from the least skilled. On the other hand, if union 
labor would adopt the idea of maximum effort and skill 
on the part of each worker, and the sharing of the result 
with the employer, then the larger part of the friction in 
obtaining its other objectives — conditions, hours, re- 
muneration — would disappear. Some kinds of specula- 
tion are inevitable, but the individual who injects him- 
self into the normal flow of commodities between the 
stages of distribution is poaching upon the community 
and returning no service for the toll he takes. So is the 
gambler on the stock exchange. Finally, until the Gov- 
ernment abandons its method of war finance by way of 
gigantic inflation of credit, and consequent incitement to 
speculation, there will be little relief from profiteering 
and its bitter sequel of a high cost of living. "We hope 
that this summary will cause our readers to study the 
original text and obtain the full benefit of the article, 
which, as we have said, presents in succinct form an 
economic policy acceptable to all good citizens. It is 
worthy of Mr. Hoover's reputation. In the same issue, 
the editor of the 'Saturday Evening Post' makes an at- 
tack on politicians, which may be justified by conditions 
at Washington, but is couched in terms so blatant and 
vulgar as to repel even those in agreement with his main 
argument, which is that we are in urgent need of relief 
from petty politics. It looks as if the editorial were 
meant to direct attention to a man of unconventional 
abilities and free from the faults against which it rails, 
but we question whether Mr. Hoover wants or needs such 
advocacy. His acts and utterances speak for themselves. 

Let Us Have Peace 

The artificial division of time invests the first day of 
January with sentiment; it serves to punctuate the 
periods of life, and halt the heedless progression of 
human thought. It is a day for taking stock of the 
morrow; whither are we voyaging and how stands the 
barometer? Let us confess that 1919 has been a great 
disappointment to the idealist and the optimist, to men 
of liberal thought and hopeful vision. When the Armis- 
tice was signed near the end of 1918 and peace was 
promised at an early date, we looked to 1919 to redress 
the disordered balance of the world and to heal the hurts 
of the great conflict. We looked fo»ward to a period of 
reconstruction in our country and of rehabilitation in 
those devastated by war. 1919 failed to fulfill its promise. 
Much of Europe remains distracted and unorganized, 
famine and pestilence stalk in the wake of the grim 
spectre of war, the Russian cesspool corrupts the air of 
three continents, the treaty of peaee is not signed, the 
covenant of the League of Nations has been rejected, 
and even the nations that were allied in battle have so 
lost their feeling of comradeship that they suspect each 

other almost as much as their unrepentant foe. It is a 
miserable ending to a black chapter in human history. 
Evidently a great mistake was made. The Armistice 
came too soon. It were better to have continued the 
fighting long enough to have finished the task of con- 
quering the Germans in battle and then treating them 
generously, instead of leaving the military task un- 
finished, so that it had to be supplemented, after the 
Armistice, by an economic blockade and other reprisals. 
"The world has had a great fright," as Mr. Lloyd George 
said, and in its fright it took a number of precautions 
that reflected the distrust of mankind and the appre- 
hensions of the allied nations so thoroughly as to under- 
mine the foundations for peace. It would have been 
better, as we see it now, to have finished the War and 
foregone the demands for punitive justice ; to have ended 
the economic blockade and abstained from penalizing 
unborn generations; to have made a generous gesture 
and allowed the Enemy all the help he needed to regain 
a healthful natural life : to have called for the aid of all, 
conquered as well as conquerors, in a united effort to 
bring order out of chaos and economic stability out of 
internecine strife. The end of the year finds civilized 
mankind in a mean mood, suspicious, jealous, greedy, 
and quarrelsome. The message of Bethlehem sounds as 
foreign as Aramaic ; a snarling as from the jungle gives 
a hideous undertone to current controversy. Only one 
remedy is evident, and that is to make an end of the 
existing warfare of mind by concluding a peace such as 
will hasten a restoration of international relations and 
thaw the frozen arteries of trade. We are not surprised 
that a body of men so sagacious as the New York Cham- 
ber of Commerce passed a resolution demanding peace, 
even if "it necessarily involves some sacrifice of long- 
cherished precedents and practices". They say: "We 
want it speedily ; but we want an honorable peace. Many 
parts of Europe are in desperate plight. A peace in 
which we wrap ourselves in the robes of isolation and 
self-interest would be as dishonorable as further delay 
would have been in our decision to enter the War on 
April 6, 1917." It is folly to continue talking, whether 
at Washington or elsewhere, while the complex organism 
of civilization is breaking to pieces. We have been 
warned, by Mr. Hoover and others, of an industrial col- 
lapse, at home and abroad, if international trade con- 
tinues to suffer check by reason of delay in reconstruc- 
tive work. The present condition of international ex- 
change is eloquent to those who understand its meaning. 
You can smuggle against an embargo or a tariff, but not 
against an unfavorable rate of exchange; that kills busi- 
ness with other countries. The failure to conclude peace 
is not only withholding the essentials of reconstruction 
from the European peoples, but it is threatening in- 
creasingly to congest our production and aggravate the 
domestic difficulties arising from our recent state of war. 
The time has passed for sacrificing this great issue to the 
play of partisan politics; in the name of a common hu- 
manity and an enlightened national spirit, let us have 
peace ! 

Jantian :;. 1980 


The Bunker Hill Enterprise— I 
A Historical Retrospect: The Oregon Territory and Early Exploration 


The chief In r.» to exploration in the smith and south- 
the American continent was the miner's Bearch 
for tin precious metals; in the north aiul northwest the 
trade in tins took the hunter into the primeval wilder- 
ness Phe Spaniard pushed iiis conquest into tlie moun- 
tains ol the tropics, Beehdng ^< -1< I and silver, while the 
Briton unci the Frenchman invaded the Arctic in eager 
competition tor the rich peltries of the snowy regions. 
It was the fur trade that sustained the earliest Canadian 
settlements and caused the French to penetrate the vast 
hinterland to the west of them. They were followed by 
the agents of British merchants in New York; and after 
ih. British colonists south of Canada had won their in- 
dependence, the American trader joined in the quest. 
each in turn striving to reach beyond the others into 
fresh preserves and to do business with the aborigines 
that roamed over them, until, at least, these westward 
trails of adventure dipped into the Pacific Ocean. 

A few dates will recall the springs of American civ- 
ilization. Columbus discovered the new world in 1402; 
Ponce dc Leon explored Florida in 1512; Cortez placed 
lii> trailed fist on Mexico in 1520. All these sailed under 
the flag of Spain. The fisheries of Newfoundland were 
exploited by ihe Bretons and Basques at least as early 
as 1504 1 ; Verrazano entered the bay of New York in 
1524: Jacques Cartier sailed up the St. Lawrence, as far 
as the present site of Montreal, in 1534. These were 
Frenchmen Henry Cabot made the first landing upon 
the American mainland in 14!»7: Raleigh attempted to 
colonize Virginia in 1585; in 1607 John Smith founded 
Jamestown; in 1620 the Pilgrims disembarked from the 
'Mayflower' on Plymouth rock. These sailed under the 
English flag, and planted their ideals of liberty on the 
soil of America. 

Some of the first settlers were seeking to escape from 
tyranny in Europe, but many of the early sailors and 
explorers who crossed the Atlantic were looking for 
fabled mines of gold and silver, of which they had heard 
from the aborigines. After Cortez and Pizarro broke 
into the natural treasure-vaults of Mexico and Peru the 
idea of finding metallic wealth in other regions became 
firmly established. The tales of El Dorado, the gilded 
man. and of Cibola, the seven cities of untold riches, 
fevered the imagination of the first European adven- 
turers. The gilded man proved a myth that arose from 
the swamps of Venezuela, and the seven cities were found 
at last to be no better than adobe dwellings in the desert 

of Arizona. The visions of finding hoards of pre. -ions 

metal had their day in stimulating the pioneers of civ- 
ilization in Ihe north as well as in the BOUth, hut the 
recognition of the wealth to be derived from the trade 
in furs in the northern parts of America became general 
at the close of the 17th century and thenceforward served 
as a spur to discovery ami exploration into tin- back- 
ground of the coastal colonies. 

Competition in the fur trade at first was unrestricted 
by treaties or territorial limitations, and culminated 
therefore, as was to be expected, in disputes that left 
their mark on the map of North America. I shall at- 
tempt a brief review of the history of commercial ex- 
pansion in tlie North-West, because upon it was founded 
the migration on which the country depended for its in- 
dustrial development-, more particularly the development 
of its mining industry and the eventual discovery of the 
ore deposit that became the basis of the important min- 
ing enterprise to which this series of articles will be 

The earliest curiosity concerning the north-western 
part of this continent was aroused by the idea of finding 
a way from Europe to India. The fable of a supposed 
transcontinental water-way, called the Strait of Anian, 
enticed the Spanish pioneers northward from Mexico, as 
the similar tale of a Northwest Passage took the English 
navigators into the Arctic ice. Cabrillo sailed up the 
Pacific coast from Mexico to San Diego in 1542; Drake 
voyaged as far as Vancouver island in 1558 ; Portola dis- 
covered the Bay of San Francisco in 1769 ; Perez in 1775 
went to where Sitka is now; and Cook, in 1778, on his 
last voyage, reached the Alaskan coast from Hawaii. ' 

The Spaniards established themselves in northern Cali- 
fornia in 1770, and shortly afterward claimed the entire 
Pacific coast as their own, but English and Russian 
fur-trading vessels began to come around Cape Horn in 
order to barter with the Indians, and the English even 
made a tentative settlement at Nootka, on Vancouver 
island. The Russians had discovered Alaska in 1741, 
when Alexis Chirikoff, sailing from Kamchatka, anchored 
in Cross Sound, and returned to the Asiatic' mainland 
with a fine assortment of furs. Soon trade was estab- 
lished with the Aleuts, and the promishleniJci, or fur- 
traders, came regularly from Siberia to hunt the sea- 

=It is noteworthy that at this time the fur business, which 
led to the early development of the Oregon territory, is the 
liveliest industry in the Yukon and Alaska on account of 
•Pioneers of France in the New World", by Francis Park- the appreciation in the value of furs and the depreciation 

of gold. 


January 3, 1920 

otter. In 1783 Nhilikoff erected a factory on Kadiak 
island and in 179!) the Czar Paul gave control of the 
Alaskan colony to the fur-traders doing business under 
the name of the Russian-American Company. Conflict 
between them and the English did not mature until later. 
but the dispute between Spain and England was adjusted 
in 1789, when Spain agreed not to extend her claims 
farther north than latitude 42°N., which is the present 
northern limit of California. On May 11. 1792, Capt. 
Robert Gray, commanding the 'Columbia', entered the 
mouth of a great river in latitude 46°19' north and 
named it after his gallant ship. The natives thought 
the ship was a floating island ; they feared that the land- 
ing crew were cannibals, but, as they were well treated. 
they proved friendly. On putting out to sea, Gray fell 
in with Vancouver and told him about the great river, 
furnishing him with a chart of the entrance. Vancouver 
explored it, and his lieutenant, Broughton, ascended the 
river more than a hundred miles, getting a sight of a 
snowy peak, which he named Mount Hood. 

Meanwhile hunters and explorers from the Atlantic 
seaboard were endeavoring to cross the continent and 
establish communication with the Pacific coast. The 
French voyagevrs, or professional carriers and canoe- 
men, and their comrades the cnun ins des ftw'.s', or rangers 
of the woods, were the leaders in penetrating the in- 
terior in furtherance of their trade with the Indians. 
At first the fur trade was conducted chiefly along the 
lower St. Lawrence and the Saguenay rivers; later, the 
Ottawa and the Great Lakes proved more productive 
and made Montreal the great market for furs. In 1615 
Champlain reached Lake Huron and Lake Nipissing. 
In 1670 the Hudson's Bay Company, an English enter- 
prise organized by Prince Rupert "and seventeen other 
nobles and gentlemen", under charter from Charles II, 
was given exclusive privilege over the back country, and 
"the Governor and Company of Adventurers of England 
trading into Hudson's Bay" began their career of com- 
mercial expansion westward. The French had broken 
the furrow, but the British conquest of Canada in 1762 
prevented them from reaping their harvest. During the 
wars between England and France, the agents of t the 
Hudson's Bay Company were much harassed by the at- 
tacks made upon their posts by the French, but these 
depredations ended with the cession of Canada to Great 
Britain in 176:!. The fur business began to attract many, 
and fierce competition ensued, resulting in the wasting 
of merchandise and credit in unscrupulous dealings with 
the natives. The Indians were debauched by the sale of 
spirituous liquors and their respe*t for the white man 
was undermined by bloody feuds between rival parties 
of fur-hunters, who turned the trade into lawless con- 
fusion. To correct some of these evils, the Northwest Fur 
Company of Montreal was formed in 1787. The agents 
of this company, like those of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany, were mostly Scots of thrifty habit and hardy 
physique. Their names are to be found all over the map ; 
the frequent 'Mac' reminding us of the dour forerun- 
ners c f civilization in the days when the Highlander held 

sway over the Jakes and forests of western and northern 
Canada. The reduction of competition to the Hudson's 
Bay and the Northwest companies served to restore some 
measure of dignity and decency to the fur trade. The 
success of these enterprises led to the starting of others, 
such as the Mackinaw company, which pushed its way 
south-westward into what is now United States territory. 

In 1754 the French explorer De la Verendrye got as 
far as the Yellowstone. Many efforts were made to cross 
the continent: by John Ledyard in 1788. by John Arm- 
strong in 1790, and by Andre Miehaux in 1792. These 
failed, but on July 22, 1793, an intrepid Scot. Alex- 
ander Mackenzie, fortified by experience in north-western 
exploration and traveling by way of Lake Athabaska. the 
Peace river, and the Eraser, reached tidewater. 

Then others came overland to share in the lucrative 
trade developed on the Pacific coast. Possession of the 
region now covered by Oregon, Washington, the southern 
part of British Columbia, and the northern part of Idaho, 
was contested by various claimants. By the treaty with 
France, in 1763, Great Britain had obtained control of 
the country west of the Mississippi, but the province of 
Louisiana, held first by Spain and then by France, ex- 
tended into the vague remoteness of the North-West to- 
ward the Columbia watershed. In 1789, as we have seen, 
Spain limited her claims along the coast to a point 290 
miles south of the mouth of that river, for the Spaniards 
had made no settlement and had obtained no foothold so 
far north. The Canadian fur companies sent their agents 
overland to trade with the Indians on the coast, and deal- 
ers from New England came in ships, around the Horn, 
to compete with them. Meanwhile the Russians were ex- 
tending their trade southward from Alaska, and the Rus- 
sian-American Company was claiming suzerainty over 
this terra nulUus, by virtue of discovery and occupation 
southward, even below the mouth of the Columbia. In 
order to finish with the Russian participation in this 
boundary question, I shall anticipate by saying that in 
1823 John Quiney Adams, Secretary of State, boldly con- 
troverted the Russian claims and in 1824 a treaty was 
signed limiting the Russian sphere of influence to north 
of 54°40'. Thus the Spanish, French, and Russian claims 
were eliminated, making room for the English-speaking 
peoples, for after 1783 there were two such peoples, 
which thereupon became rivals for the possession of 
'Oregon', as the watershed of the Columbia was called in 
those days. See maps No. 1 and No. 2.* 

The commercial activities of Canadian companies op- 
erating southward were noted by the government of the 
United States ; the leaders of the new American nation 
looked askance at the growing influence acquired by for- 
eigners over the aboriginal tribes within its own terri- 
tories; therefore in 1796 an effort to counteract these 
activities was initiated by the American government and 
an attempt was made to establish rival trading-posts on 
the frontier, but unsuccessfully, because "the dull patron- 
age of government failed to outvie the keen activity of 

•These maps are reproduced from 'The Jefferson System", 
by Edward Channing. 

January :S. 1920 


Map No. 1 


January 3, 1920 

private enterprise". 3 What the Government failed to do, 
the energy and enterprise of an individual succeeded in 
accomplishing. John Jacob Astor was the man. Astor 
was born in the German village of Waldorf, near Heidel- 
berg, on the Rhine. He started his commercial career in 
London 4 , where he was living at the time of the American 
Revolution. In 1783 he determined to follow an elder 
brother, who had been residing in America for several 
years. The ship on which Astor sailed, together with a 
stock of merchandise into which he had put his savings, 
was detained by ice in Chesapeake bay, off Baltimore, and 
during the three months of inaction he became acquainted 
with a fellow-German who happened to be a furrier by 
trade. From him he obtained information concerning a 
business to which lie had already been attracted by what 
he had heard about it. On arrival at New York, Astor 
sold his merchandise and invested the proceeds in furs, 
with which he returned from New York to London in 
1784. He disposed of them satisfactorily and came back 
to New York the same year. Thereupon he devoted him- 
self, perseveringly and thriftily, to his career as a fur- 
trader. He made visits to Montreal, where he made pur- 
chases of furs, shipping them direct from Canada to Lon- 
don, because until 1795 there were many restrictions upon 
trade between Canada and the United States. Immedi- 
ately after a treaty had been signed, lifting these restric- 
tions, Astor made a contract with the Northwest com- 
pany, which established the first posts beyond the Rocky 
Mountains, north of the Columbia, in 1806. In 1807 
Astor embarked in the trade on his own account, ceasing 
to be merely a broker or middle-man. He had now the 
capital and resources requisite, but he soon found that 
despite his knowledge and enterprise he could not over- 
come the opposition of the Mackinaw company, which 
controlled most of the trade within American territory. 
He appealed to the American government for help, offer- 
ing to turn the whole business of that part of the conti- 
nent into American channels. His plans were warmly 
approved at Washington. In 1809 he obtained a charter 
from the legislature of New York State incorporating the 
American Fur Company with a capital of $1,000,000. 
This capital was furnished by Astor himself; in fact he 
constituted the company. In 1811, in conjunction with 
certain partners of the Northwest company and others 
engaged in the fur trade, he bought out the Mackinaw 
company and merged it with the American Fur Company 
into a new association called the Southwest Company. 
This was done with the knowledge and approval of the 
American government. Unluckily the war of 1812 sus- 
pended the operations of the new company, and after the 
war it was dissolved, Congress having passed a law pro- 
hibiting British fur-traders from doing business within 
the territories of the United States. 

During the time that Astor was building up his busi- 
ness overland from the Atlantic coast, others were push- 
ing their way by sea, around Cape Horn, for the same 

s' Astoria', by Washington Irving. 

••Where his great-grandson William Waldorf Astor died a 
British viscount on October 18, 1919. 

purpose, skirting the north-western rim of the continent 
from California to Alaska. In 1792 there were 21 vessels 
under different flags on the coast and trading with the 
natives. Many of these belonged to merchants of Boston. 
They would spend two summers on the coast, wintering 
in the Hawaiian islands,* and then sell their cargo of 
peltries in China, where they loaded themselves with tea, 
fabrics, and other merchandise, returning home! after 
an absence of three years. Meanwhile the Russians had 
established permanent trading-posts on the Alaskan coast 
and among the Aleutian islands. China was then the 
great mart for furs and the Russians had the better access 
to the northern parts, where they were most in demand, 
whereas their American competitors had to sell at Canton, 
from which the furs had to be distributed northward. 
Among the American ships in the fur trade was the 
'Columbia', commanded by Captain Gray of Boston, who 
discovered and named the great river, as we have seen. 

Then came the Louisiana purchase and the Lewis and 
Clark expedition, to which we must digress, leaving. Astor 
for a while. 

In 1803 the purchase of the immense territory called 
the Province of Louisiana was arranged between Thomas 
Jefferson, then President of the United States^, and 
Napoleon Bonaparte, then First Consul of France.' This 
central portion of what is now the United States was 
claimed in 1682 by the explorer La Salle for France, 
which continued to bold the title to this vast domain until 
1762, when it passed by treaty to Spain, only to be, ceded 
back to France in 1802, in consequence of Napoleon's 
military domination of Spain. Jefferson did not like to 
see New Orleans and its hinterland passing into the-hands 
of France. Spain did not matter; she was quiet and 
feeble, whereas France was restless and aggressive under 
Napoleon, who had dreams of founding a French colonial 
empire on the American continent. Therefore Jefferson 
hinted at an alliance with England unless France! ceded 
the region for an equivalent in money. The expression 
of American feeling that Jefferson elicited came asa sur- 
prise to Napoleon, who concluded that a contest Was not 
worth while, for his navy had been shattered by England 
and it was evident that only maritime supremacy! could 
serve to retain this trans- Atlantic colony; so he resolved 
to put it out of the grasp of England and at the same time 
replenish his military chest by selling Louisiana to the 
United States. The price was 60 million francs. Perhaps 
he had an idea that when he became master of the! world 
he could compel a retrocession. The completion of the 
sale was facilitated by the house of Baring, in London, 
not without the cognizance of the British government, 
which was quite satisfied to see the transfer of the prov- 
ince from France to the United States. By the terms of 
this purchase a vast tract of land was added to tjie na- 
tional domain; it covered more than a million square 
miles, or more than the total area of the United States at 
that time. Not only did it double the territory of the 
United States, but it gave to the United States indisput- 
ably the control of the western hemisphere. Louisiana 

"Then known as the Sandwich islands. 

January 3, l!»L'o 








- I 

-1- " 

5 a 





January 3, 1920 

included the present States of Louisiana, Arkansas, 
Missouri, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, South Dakota, North 
Dakota, Wyoming, Montana, Oklahoma, and parts of 
Minnesota, Colorado, and Idaho ; but its limits northward 
were vague, so that historians do not agree as to the exact 
portion of country it embraced. For instance, it is not 
certain how much, if any, of Idaho was included. If it 
was limited to the watershed of the Mississippi, it would 
not include Idaho, which is drained by the Snake, the 
Salmon, and the Spokane, all of which are tributary to 
the Columbia river. At that time the entire population of 
this vast region, exclusive of the Indian tribes, consisted 
of 90,000 persons, of whom 40,000 were negro slaves. The 
white inhabitants were principally French. 

In order to explore and investigate this new domain, 
President Jefferson, just before the actual transfer (on 
April 30, 1803), asked the Congress to appropriate $2500 
for an expedition, which was placed under the direction 
of Capt. Meriwether Lewis,* who chose Capt. "William 
Clark as his chief assistant. This famous Lewis and Clark 
expedition consisted of 28 men, including the two leaders. 
Nine of them were young frontiersmen from Kentucky, 
14 were soldiers from the U. S. Army, and two were 
French voyageurs. 5 At that time the country beyond was 
quite unknown, weird tales were current concerning it, 
and when the explorers started to cross from the head- 
waters of the Missouri to the upper reaches of the then 
newly discovered Columbia, they were hardly expected to 
return. To show the vague notions in the mind of Jeffer- 
son as to the route likely to be taken on the return jour- 
ney, it may be noted that in his instructions to Capt. 
Lewis he said : ' ' Our consuls, Thomas Hewes, at Batavia, 
in Java, William Buchanan, in the Isles of France and 
Bourbon, and John Elmslie at the Cape of Good Hope, 
will be able to supply your necessities by drafts on us. ' '° 

The party set forth up the Missouri on May 21, 1804. 
They wintered on the north bank of the river opposite the 
spot on which years later Fort Clark was established in 
what is now McLean county, North Dakota. They as- 
cended the Yellowstone and then the Jefferson. In 
August of the following year the}' entered what is now 
Idaho, reaching the junction of the Salmon and Lamhi 
rivers. In his journal Lewis speaks of the Shoshone 
Indians. He describes their migratory life, rendered 
necessary by search for food — salmon in summer and 
buffalo in winter — and their constant fights with the 
Pahkees, "the roving Indians of the Sascatchewan". He 
found them friendly, largely owing to his own considerate 
treatment of them. "The Shoshones are not only cheer- 
ful, but even gay; and their character, which is more 
interesting than that of any Indians we have seen, has in 
it much of the dignity of misfortune. In their inter- 
course with strangers they are frank and communicative ; 
in their dealings they are perfectly fair ; nor have we, 
during our stay with them, had any reason to suspect that 

"Who was Jefferson's private secretary. 
s'First Across the Continent', by Noah Brooks, 
page 7. 

<>Brooks, p. 13. 


the display of* all our new and valuable wealth has 
tempted them into a single act of dishonesty. While they 
have generally shared with us the little they possess, they 
have always abstained from begging anything from us. 
In their conduct towards us they have been kind and 
obliging ; and though on one occasion they seemed willing 
to neglect us, yet we scarcely knew how to blame the 
treatment by which we were to suffer, when we recol- 
lected how few civilized chiefs would have hazarded the 
comforts or the subsistence of their people for the sake 
of a few strangers." 

On August 30, 1805, the expedition started to cross the 
Bitter Root range. They "pushed on through the track- 
less wilderness, sometimes traveling on the snow that now 
covered the mountains". Soon all signs of game dis- 
appeared, so that, on September 14, "they were forced to 
kill a colt, their stock of animal food being exhausted. 
They pressed on, however, through a savage wilderness, 
having frequent need to recur to horse-flesh." Some of 
it was supplied by shooting wild horses, which had 
strayed from Indian camps. On September 20 the party 
"descended the last of the Bitter Root range and reached 
level country. They were at last over the Great Divide." 
Here they found some hospitable Indians and stayed with 
them several days. These Indians called themselves 
Chopunnish, or Pierced Noses, a name now commonly 
rendered nes percSs, following the lead of the Freneh 
voyageurs. However, it is recorded that these people, as 
far as known, did not pierce their noses. The expedition 
rested on the Kooskooskie (now the Clearwater) river, 
near the present site of Pierce City, at one time the 
county seat of Shoshone, the county in which is the great 
mine to which this writing is directed. Here they ob- 
tained information about the western watershed. The 
chief, named Twisted Hair, drew a chart of the river on a 
white elk-skin, explaining the relations of the Clearwater, 
the Snake, and the Columbia rivers. Having found a 
place where good timber was abundant, they started the 
building of boats. On October 8 the party set out in five 
canoes. They found the river full of rapids, so that 
progress was limited to 20 miles per day. At the conflu- 
ence of the Clearwater and the Snake rivers they camped 
on the site of Lewiston, named after Captain Lewis. 
From this point they crossed into the present State of 
Washington. On October 17 they reached the 'Great 
River', as the Indians called it — the 'River of the North' 
or the 'Oregon', as the Columbia had been known to 
earlier explorers. On November 2 they reached tide- 
water and heard a few words of English from an Indian. 
In approaching the ocean they were exposed to a heavy 
storm, which fortunately they escaped by landing on the 
shore of Baker's bay on November 12. They had com- 
pleted the crossing of the continent. On December 3 
Captain Clark carved on the trunk of a big pine-tree this 
inscription : 

"Wm. Clark December 3D 1805 by land from the 
IT. States in 1S04 & 5." 

On the return journey, in 1806, they made the crossing 
of the Bitter Root range with much less trouble, because 

Jauuan i. 1920 

MINING AND N || N I II li PRI.s.s 



the snow was hard enough to bear their horses and the 
fallen timber was so covered with snow as to obstruct 
them less, but the shortage of fodder compelled them to 
return to camp among their friends the Nez Perces in 
Quamaah Hats. On June 26 they made a fresh start aud 
three days later they Were OUt of the snow and fairly on 
their way into Montana, reaching the present site of 
Missoula on .Inly ;i. Four days later they went through 
the pass in the Rocky Mountains now named after them. 
On the plains they found themselves in the midst of great 
numbers of buffalo, so numerous that they seemed one 
immense herd. "Hanging on their flanks were wolves; 
hare and antelope were also abundant." On September 
3 they reached St. Louis. "We arrived at 12 o'clock ; and 
having fired a salute, went on shore and received the 
heartiest and most hospitable welcome from the whole 
village." So writes Capt. Lewis, who announced his 
arrival to the President in a letter dated September 23, 
1806. Jefferson's reply was dated October 20. the differ- 
ence in dates suggesting the slowness of the mail service 
in those days. In bis letter the President expressed his 
"unspeakable joy" at their safe return.' No news had 

been received from the explorers for two years and four 
months. The first post-office in what is now the city of 
St. Louis was established in 1808 and mails between that 
"village" and the Atlantic seaboard required six weeks 
\<i pass either way. 

Let me digress again for a moment. The search for the 
Northwest Passage yielded much knowledge concerning 
the navigable rivers of the American continent and 
opened the eyes of the explorers to the fur resources of the 
regions that they traversed. The rivers became the 
natural highways to the interior, and up them went the 
early colonists, the trapper and the trader leading the 
advance. Through the middle of the American continent, 
from the Arctic Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico, there runs 

■ ^Both these pathfinders were by birth Virginians. Lewis 
had been private secretary to Jefferson. After his return 
from the West in 1806, he was appointed Governor of Louis- 
iana. He died by violence, mysteriously, in Tennessee on 
his way to Washington in 1809. Clark, on his return, was 
made Brigadier General and agent of Indian affairs. For 
seven years he was Governor of the Territory of Missouri. 
He died in 1S38, at the age of 68, much respected. 



J ~ ^ 




January 3, 1920 

a wide trough, which is crossed by the valley of the Great 
Lakes, on each side of which there is a low rim that 
separates the northern from the southern watersheds and 
the streams that once connected them. Short portages 
afforded the French voyageurs a method of linking the 
waterways north of the Great Lakes with those south of 
them : indeed in times of flood the connection was un- 
broken. Thus the French fur-traders, by adopting the 
use of the Indian canoe, paddled along a Canadian river 
into one of the lakes and across it, southward ; then, carry- 
ing their boat for ten miles or less, they launched it on a 
stream that carried them into the tributaries of the Mis- 
sissippi. The accompanying map shows these portages. 8 
After the Mississippi valley had been entered and colon- 
ized, the finger of exploration pointed westward, where 
the barrier of the Rocky Mountains intervened an impos- 
ing barrier to the migration of the people coming from 
the Atlantic coast. Again a river afforded a way of ap- 
proach for the trapper and prospector. The Columbia 
throws mighty arms as far as the headwaters of the Atha- 
basca in the north, and as far as the sources of the Platte 
and Colorado in the south ; it penetrates the heart of the 
Rocky Mountains and almost touches fingers with streams 
that feed the Missouri. Lewis and Clark followed the 
Missouri and then its most westerly branch, the Yellow- 
stone, to the mountain barrier, through which they pene- 
trated by the Indian trail over the Lemhi pass, thereby 
reaching a branch of the Salmon river, which would have 
led them to the Snake and thence to the Columbia; but 
the Salmon was not navigable, so they turned northward 
over the range until they struck an upper branch of the 
Clearwater, down which they floated in their canoes first 
to the Snake and then into the Columbia itself, to the sea. 

The movement of population from the eastern seaboard 
to the regions behind the Alleghanies began before the 
Declaration of Independence, but the Lewis and Clark 
expedition was the first to break through the barrier of the 
Rocky Mountains and start "the winning of the West." 

Now we return to Astor. The reports published by 
Lewis and Clark showed him the practicability of main- 
taining a line of communication across the continent. He 
decided to establish trading-posts along the Missouri and 
the Columbia, with others between. As the mouth of the 
Columbia he would have his chief establishment and to it 
he would send a ship each year from New York with sup- 
lilies and merchandise suited to the trade with the 
Indians. He submitted his scheme to Jefferson, who gave 
it his warm approval, because the President foresaw that 
it would facilitate the spreading of the American people 
toward the Pacific Coast and thereby promote the growth 
of the nation. "With the approval of the Government, 
Astor organized two expeditions, one by land, under 
Wilson Price Hunt, of New Jersey, and another by sea, to 
go around the Horn to the mouth of the Columbia. For 
this he provided the 'Tonquin'. a ship of 290 tons burden, 
mounting 10 guns, and with a crew of 20 men. She car- 
ried a varied assortment of merchandise, including seeds. 

^'American History and Its Geographic Conditions', by 
Ellen Churchill Semple. Page 28. 

The captain was Jonathan Thorn and with him went 
Alexander McKay, Duncan McDougal, and David Stuart, 
these three being former agents of the Northwest com- 
pany who had been taken into partnership. A number of 
clerks and artisans, besides 13 Canadian voyageiirs, were 
included in the expedition. 

On September 8, 1810, the 'Tonquin' set sail. The 
ship's company did not behave well and caused the Cap- 
tain much trouble, disobeying his orders and prompting 
him to be unnecessarily harsh, besides quarreling among 
themselves. On Christmas Day the 'Tonquin' doubled 
Cape Horn. Early in February she anchored off the 
island of Owyhee, one of the Hawaiian group, then called 
the Sandwich islands. There the members of the expedi- 
tion rested for 16 days. On March 22 they arrived at the 
mouth of the Columbia, where they had trouble in land- 
ing, eight men being lost in the first attempt. The 'Ton- 
quin' anchored in Baker's bay, as the Lewis and Clark 
expedition had done. A site for the trading-house was 
selected near Point George and was named 'Astoria'. On 
June 5, 1811, the 'Tonquin' was sent up the coast with 23 
persons on board, under Captain Thorn. Off Vancouver 
island he got into a quarrel with the Indians,- who then, 
under cover of trading, swarmed on board, killing most 
of the white men, the survivors blowing up the ship and 
taking more than a hundred Indians with them to death. 
The news of this loss struck dismay in the hearts of the 
pioneers at Astoria, but they kept a brave heart and pro- 
ceeded energetically to build their trading-house, a com- 
modious mansion completed on September 16, 1811. They 
were awaiting the arrival of the party under Hunt. 

In July 1810 Hunt started from Montreal, where he 
had equipped his expedition, and on July 22 he reached 
Mackinaw, the old French trading-post on the island of 
that name at the junction of lakes Huron and Michigan. 
There he recruited voyageurs. On August 12 the expedi- 
tion started for St. Louis, arriving on September 3. St. 
Louis had grown now to a considerable frontier settle- 
ment and served as the last outfitting depot for the 
Indian trade of the West. On October 23 Hunt set forth 
in three boats up the Mississippi and thence 450 miles up 
the Missouri to the mouth of the Nodowa (or Nodaway), 
which he reached on November 16. Opposition from the 
Missouri Fur Company delayed him repeatedly. He did 
not resume his advance until April 28. Then he crossed 
the Black Hills of South Dakota and the Bighorn range 
of the Rocky Mountains. On September 24 he reached 
one of the streams tributary to the Columbia and came 
within sight of the Three Titans. The party crossed the 
desert that stretches between the Snake and the Columbia 
rivers. By this time they were short of food and suffer- 
ing from hardships. It was December, and the snow 
impeded them in crossing the mountains. They lived on 
the flesh of horses captured from the Shoshone Indians. 
A milder climate and plenty of food gladdened them 
when they reached the Umatilla. On January 31. 1813, 
Hunt reached the falls of the Columbia and on Fehraary 
15 he arrived at Astoria, after 11 months of wandering 
across the wilderness. The distance he and his party had 

January :t. 1920 


I ; 

traveled, from St Louis to Astoria, was 3500 miles, al- 
though in a duvet line it is only 1800 miles. 

The news cif the outbreak of war between Great Britain 
and thf Doited States had reached Astoria, by tea, on 
January 1">. 1818. On October 16 there appeared a vessel 
with agents of the Northwest company on board. These, 
contracted for the purchase of the American company's 
property — "establishments, furs, and stork in hand" 

" Astor's local representatives were largely 
Canadians with ;i Criendl} feeling toward the Northwest 
company. While the transfer was being concluded a 
p.ritish sloop of war arrived with orders to capture 
Astoria. The sale having been made, its terms wrv,- re- 
spected. "The American Bag was replaced by the Brit- 

Thomps on , of the Northwest company, had tried t" fore 
stall Hunt's party, representing Astor'i company, but lie 
had been delayed in crossing the mountains. Nevertbe 

less ho laid claim to various points BS he descended the 

Columbia and erected flagstaffs flying the British colors 
tin tins performance the British government based its 
elaini to suzerainty in 1826. This comer of the continent 
continued to be a disputed territory, but the establish 
nient of the northern border of the United States was 
under way. Russian control on the Pacific coast had been 
fixed at 54°40' north and Spanish, or Mexican, rule at 

42°, leaving an interval of nearly 13 degrees, equal to ' 

miles. There remained the conflict with Great Britain 
In 1826 the 49th parallel of latitude was accepted tem- 


ish, and Astoria was re-christened Fort George." 3 The 
touch of military conquest given to the affair, by the pres- 
ence of the British warship, caused the restoration of 
Astoria to the United States under the Treaty of Ghent 
in 1818, but it was held by the Northwest Fur Co. until 
1821, when it passed with other possessions of that com- 
pany into the hands of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

For ten years after the capture of Astoria, scarcely an 
American was to be seen in this region. An agreement 
for joint occupation was made in 1818 between the 
United States and Great Britain, but this failed to de- 
cide the opposing claims and only served to accentuate 
the conflict of interests. The agreement that this region 
should be open to the inhabitants of both nations was for 
ten years, and in 1828 it was extended for ten years more. 
The Hudson's Bay Co. extended its posts; the Columbia 
River basin was occupied by British subjects and gov- 
erned under British law. In the spring of 1811 David 

9'A Brief History of Rocky Mountain Exploration', by 
Reuben Gold Thwaites. Page 196. 

porarily by both parties as the frontier up to the Rocky 
Mountains. Interest in the subject grew to excitement as 
migration over the Oregon trail increased. In 1843 an 
expedition of 1000 persons, including women and chil- 
dren, with herds of cattle and horses, trekked from Mis- 
souri to the valleys of the Willamette and Columbia. In 
1844 another 2000 emigrants of like character joined 
them, and in the following year 3000 more. The Hud- 
son 's Bay agents objected to this peaceful invasion because 
it spoiled their hunting-grounds. Congress was slow to 
act, but, thanks to the exertions of Senator Thomas II. 
Benton, a treaty was concluded amicably in 1846, the 
British protocol being accepted, whereby "the Oregon 
territory was divided by the 49th parallel from the 
Rockies to the Straits of Fuea, and thence by a line fol- 
lowing the main channel of these straits to the sea". 10 
Two years later, in 1848, Oregon was created a Territory. 

i°'The Winning of the Far West', by Robert McNutt Mc- 
Elvoy. Page 127. 

(To be continued) 



January 3, 1920 

A Contribution to the Study of Flotation — I 


*As one of those who, in 1905, were concerned in the 
discovery of the essential facts on which modern notation 
is based, the author submits the following paper on the 
principles underlying what is now recognized practice. 

Some of the earlier attempts to explain flotation will 
not bear close scrutiny ; this is hardly to be wondered at. 
in a subject whose facts even now lie so close to the 
border-line of our knowledge. On the other hand, many 
of the phenomena involved have received mathematical 
treatment too abstruse for the needs of the working 
metallurgist, who in turn has accumulated facts and an 
empirical knowledge of conditions often unknown to the 
mathematician. In this paper an endeavor is made to 
link-up and explain the complex of facts, in simple non- 
mathematical language, upon the broad lines of the 
molecular hypothesis, to the exclusion of operative detail. 

In some quarters adverse criticism has been levelled 
against the original patentees of the froth-flotation 
process on account of the delay in publishing their ex- 
perience and knowledge for the benefit of the industry; 
but this inaction was forced upon them and the owning 
company (Minerals Separation, Ltd.) by the litigation in 
which they have been involved almost continuously dur- 
ing the past 14 years. 

The term ' flotation ' is now narrowed in practice to ore- 
concentration processes whereiu metallic sulphide or 
other particles suspended in an aqueous ore-pulp are re- 
covered therefrom in an air-bubble froth. A short time 
since this method was more closely defined as 'froth- 
flotation' or the 'agitation-froth process' in order to dis- 
tinguish it, from other forms of float-concentration which 
employed other buoyant means; also from 'film' processes 
and from methods of oil-adhesion not involving buoy- 
ancy. 4 

Such other processes may conveniently be grouped un- 
der the following heads : 

(1) Those utilizing surface-tension effect at a water 
surface, or filming processes; such as De Bavay. Brad- 
ford, and- MacQuisten. 

(2) Methods where oil is employed both as the ad- 
hesive and the buoyant medium for the particles sep- 
arated, or 'oil-buoyancy' processes. , These include the 
use of a mass of oil, as in the Elmore bulk-oil process ; in 
such the buoyant effect of the oil may be increased by 
the inclusion of some air-bubbles, oil-coated sawdust, or 
the like. 

(3) Methods depending on the adhesion between oil 
or grease and the separable particles but not on final re- 
covery by flotation, termed 'adhesion' processes, such as 

* Abstract of a paper presented to the Institution of Min- 
ing & Metallurgy, in London, on November 20. 1919. 

the grease-plate, oiled-band, Murex, Cattermole, and simi- 
lar methods. 

(4) Processes where a mineral froth is produced 
through the agency of gases other than air, generated by 
chemical reactions, in which the minerals may sometimes 
take part ; such as Potter, Delprat, and Froment. 

(5) The Elmore vacuum process, and 'plus-pressure' 
methods, where air-bubbles are generated upon mineral 
and oiled particles by the aid of pressure differences. 

The above classification is but a rough one, as connect- 
ing links exist between processes included in more than 
one of these classes; closer definition, however, would in- 
volve needless elaboration. Thus oil has been used in 
filming methods; oil-flotation has been employed to save 
metal suspensions not associated with gangue; and al- 
though in theory oil is not essential for froth-flotation, in 
minute amount it is still employed as a useful, if not in- 
tegral, addition. No appraisement of the respective 
merits of any of these processes is attempted or intended. 

Nearly all sulphide ores, as well as those in which 
native metals and non-metals (sulphur and graphite) 
occur in practicable amounts, are amenable to concentra- 
tion by flotation. Owing to the simplicity and economy 
of the operation and its ability to recover slimed min- 
eral, flotation has rendered profitable the exploitation of 
many hitherto valueless ores ; thus a deposit of a sulphide 
ore containing only 0.8% copper with but small silver 
values is now being treated profitably. The same factors 
greatly increase the returns of many productive mines; 
it is computed that the method now deals with about 
60,000,000 tons of ore annually. 

Originally thought to be applicable only to the types 
of ore above-mentioned, experience has shown froth-flota- 
(ion to have a much wider field. Oxidized ores of lead 
and copper (without the intervention of any 'sulphide- 
filming' process) are being treated commercially, while 
recent research has shown that other oxide minerals such 
as cassitcrite may be flocculated and thereafter floated; 
even gangue-minerals betray distinct differences in their 
tendency to float or to remain wetted and sunken. Floc- 
culation of a substance in the state of a time suspension 
is the step antecedent to its flotation, hence the problem 
in all cases is first to secure 'selective' or 'differential' 
flocculation of the mineral it is desired to float. With 
closer knowledge of the small yet often determinative 
margins of adhesion to water or other liquids which all 
varieties of minerals display, the possibilities of flotation 
promise enlargement in many directions, since any min- 
eral flocculated can be froth-floated: the effective sep- 
aration of this from oilier substances is conditional -upon 
the retention of the latter as 'suspensoids' in water. As 

January :i. 1980 



in eunterite, continued investigation indicate its sue 

eeaafal differentiation t'lom tin- various accompanying 
gaiigne-minerals, and the advenl ol a oommereia] flota- 
tion proceaa at do very distanl date; it baa even been 
roond possible to separate barite Prom its uaociated 
gangue by differentia] flotation. Froth-flotation proves 
to nave applications beyond those of metallurgy, and is 
already applied in certain branches of industrial chem- 

When an aqueous ore-pulp is agitated with a minute 
quantity of oil or other 'reagent', its content of sulphide 
mineral is yielded as a coherent froth on ceasing the agi- 
tation. Saving regard to the large volume of prior work 
in oil-flotation and filming methods it may seem strange 
that so apparently simple a method was not discovered 
before. The main reason would appear to have been the 
assumption that oil was the necessary flotation agent and 
not air; hence previous inventors used oil in excess of the 
extremely small amounts which were later found to limit 
and determine froth-flotation, any excess over such quan- 
tities being inimical thereto. Cattermole in his ingenious 
process for 'granulating' the sulphide minerals into small 
sunken shot-like agglomerates, separable from the un- 
affected gangue particles by gravity methods, was the 
Brat to reduce the oil 1o an amount small relatively to 
the mineral saved. Upon further reduction of the oil to 
an almost disappearing quantity, and in the presenci of 
an assemblage of finely divided air-bubbles, the Catter- 
mole phenomenon was found to be reversed ; in place of 
forming shot-like agglomerates the mineral now rose in 
completeness to the surface, as a mineralized air-froth. 

The method did not therefore arise from employing oil 
as the buoyant medium for mineral, since oil ceased to aet 
as such when its volume becomes very small ; a mineral- 
sinking stage is passed through before the proportion be- 
comes sufficiently minute to permit the production of a 
froth. In 1903 a patent was tiledt for separating min- 
eral from an ore-pulp by sending through it a current of 
air-bubbles laden with the vapor or spray of oil. This 
method, however, did not lead to the production of a 
froth, nor to any practical results, as the other ante- 
cedent conditions essential for froth-formation had not 
at that time been ascertained; it is now known that to 
introduce a relatively substantial film of oil upon the in- 
terior of a bubble is to prejudice flotation of the min- 
eral. It was also found that ore particles could be tem- 
porarily suspended in the froths yielded by aqueous so- 
lutions of amylic alcohol and other substances, not so 
readily in one of soap and not at all in those of saponin, 
ox-gall, or tannic acid ; but for similar reasons these ex- 
periments were at that period unproductive of practical 

It was not until later that the necessary minuteness of 
the oil amount was realized : indeed froth-flotation does 
not depend essentially upon the use of any oil whatever. 
as air-bubbles will readily adhere to metallic sulphide 
and other particles in its absence ; oil, though a useful 
auxiliary, is neither causative nor a necessary inter- 

tSulman and Picard. No. 20.419. of 1903. 

mediaiy. Apart from the use of ■ •• ■ t ■ oily and completely 
soluble reagents such as oreaol and amy] alcohol, a sun 
pie current of air-bubblea alone, passed through an 

aqueous ore-pulp, will yield practical flotation results. 

I.. A. Wood ilevised a sub-aeration machine of this type 

which did excellent work, even nf a 'differential* char- 
acter. This is nut surprising, since mineral particles of 

considerable size float freely by surface-tension, and 
many finely divided particles are absorbed at a plane 
water surface which may be regarded but as ;i port inn nf 
a bubble of infinite diameter. 

Prior to or shortly after Cattermole 's invention, which 
in 1905 had been introduced on a commercial scale in 
Australia, a large amount of work had been done in 
'oiling' or •filming' processes. Several methods had 
achieved success, notably those of the Elmore i vacuum i 
process, plains for which were installed in various coun- 
tries; of Potter. Delprat, and De Bavay, at Broken Hill, 
and others. 

Proth-flotation was. therefore, the final link in a lung 
chain of effort. All these methods were developed em- 
pirically, physical and chemical science having afforded 

little if any previsionary aid: success in every inStai 

was attained by methods of patient trial. Science even 
yet is unable to offer a full explanation of all the facts 
involved, although the actual procedure is so simple, and 
the results so immediate, that at first sight an equally 
concise theory would seem possible. 

The essentials of froth-flotation are that an aqueous 
ore-pulp, in general not less than four parts by weight 
of water to one of ore. shall be agitated for a longer or 
shorter period with certain reagents, which may eon- 
veniently be classified as follows: 

(a) A froth-producing material, such as. cresol, amy] 
alcohol, the soluble portion of an oil: this by slightly re- 
ducing the surface-tension of the water permits the 
formation of an extensive bubble system, or froth, on the 
surfaces of which the mineral particles become attached 
or adsorbed. 

(b) A froth-stabilizing substance, usually a minute 
amount of insoluble oil: this is adsorbed at the sulphide 
mineral surfaces and by increasing the water-mineral 
contact-angle stabilizes the composite Troth to an extent 
greater than is possible with untreated particles. The 
oil-film on the floated mineral must be of ultras-micro- 
scopic tenuity. 

(c) A gangue modifying addition (a mineral acid, 
alkali, certain alkaline or other salts, sunn sols), which 
acts by increasing the adhesion between the gangue par- 
ticles and water: that is. intensifying the water-wetting 
effect and preventing their flotation by air. 

Requirements (a) and (b) may be furnished by a 
single oil of a suitable character. 

Thorough agitation of the ore-pulp with tin- r 'agents is 
necessary : 

(11 To secure uniform suspension of all ore-particles 
in the water in order to ensure the maximum wetting 
effect possible at this stasre. and to disseminate the froth- 
ing agent through the water: 



January 3. 1920 

(2) To break-up and distribute the immiscible oil in 
order to permit the uniform coating of the sulphide par- 
ticles with a film of ultra-mieroscopic thinness, a step 
akin to the prior temporary emulsification of the oil; 

(3) To allow the modifying agent to deflocculate ag- 
glomerates of the particles it is not wished to float, and 
to free the more floatable particles from such agglomer- 

(4) To promote some degree of flocculation of the 
particles it is desired to float. 

(5) The agitation system employed in the older 
'standard' Minerals Separation system also serves to in- 
troduce the air into the ore-pulp, and there to break it 
up into minute bubbles, resembling an air-water emul- 
sion. But if the first four of the above conditions are 
provided by the preliminary agitation, a certain time- 
factor being necessary, the air-bubbles may be produced 
otherwise and, as in sub-aeration apparatus, showered 
upward through the prepared pulp. 

The explanation of flotation may be based on the dif- 
ferences shown by various substances in the degree to 
which they are 'wetted' by water or other liquids. Com- 
plete immersion of a solid in a liquid, even if the former 
lie devoid of an actual or hypothetical air-film envelope 
and therefore involving actual contact, does not imply 
the complete wetting of one by the other, nor even that 
two different solids immersed in the same liquid will be 
wetted to a similar extent. On withdrawing the solid, it 
may, according to the nature of its surface (a property 
as inherent as its density, hardness, or color), tend to 
remain 'wet' in greater or less degree, or may appar- 
ently repel the moisture from its surface with less or 
greater rapidity and so become wholly or partly 'dry'. 
Wetting, which depends on the degree of adhesion estab- 
lished at the plane of contact between liquid and solid, is 
therefore a condition of wide variability, and a theory of 
flotation must be based largely upon the physics of 

Substances capable of being wetted completely by any 
liquid, given sufficiently fine sub-divisions and neglecting 
effects due to differences in density, become true suspen- 
sions therein, that is, 'suspensoids' or possible 'sols'. 
The first tendency of such suspensions to become less 
completely wetted due to decreased adhesion between 
liquid and solid, is shown in the coagulation of sols and 
flocculation of suspensoids. When this step has been 
made, it is usually easy to take advantage of the de- 
creased wetting and to enhance the 'drying' process by 
bringing a sufficient area of the solid into contact witli 

The particles may then appear to be thrust partly 
from the water into the air. either at a plane-water or 
a bubble surface, where they are held by the surface- 
tension of the liquid. The phenomena of flocculation. 
adsorption, and air-flotation are thus closely related 
stages in differential wetting, and the latter is at the root 
of all flotation phenomena. 

The moleulacr principles involved will be reviewed 
briefly, but it may here be stated that the degree of wet- 

ting may be influenced by the molecular porosity of the 
solid surface, and indicated more or less quantitatively 
by the 'contact-angle' made between the free surface of 
the liquid and the solid. 

Such views supersede the previous ideas which en- 
dowed solids with specific 'surface-energies' supposedly 
capable of bringing about air or gas-condensations upon 
them in preference to liquid adhesions. Inasmuch as 
flotation effects were first observed to be pronounced in 
regard to many of the elementary solids, such as finely 
divided metals, the non-metals boron, carbon, silicon, 
sulphur, and selenium, and scarcely less so for metallic 
sulphides, most of these being substances of hich chemi- 
cal energy in relation, for example, to oxygen, the view 
was held that the chemical energy of the solid was re- 
flected in a like surface-energy. We now know that 
where no actual chemical reaction is involved,, the sur- 
face molecular-energy of any solid has little or no direct 
connection with the inter-atomic forces which constitute 
chemical activity. Moreover, the earlier theories did not 
account for all the facts, since an element of such low 
chemical activity as gold floats as readily as the more 
chemically energetic elements carbon and sulphur, and 
the various sulphides ; further, completely oxidized com- 
pounds such as calcite, copper-carbonate, cassiterite, and 
several gangue-minerals can be floated almost as readily 
as the elements and sulphides. The surfaee-energy of 
solids, though as essential a factor in wetting phenomena 
as that of liquids, has nothing in common with the chemi- 
cal activity of the solid. 

Even in regard to the film-flotation of dense solids, 
erroneous ideas were prevalent ; the particles were often 
thought to be borne in a depression of the resistant water 
surface as in a hammock, instead, in fact, of being sus- 
pended in the liquid, by the tension of the liquid surface. 

The physical reactions concerned deal with molecular 
forces of high intensity, which act only over minute dis- 
tances; it is necessary to examine these in some little 

Although the mathematical theory of surface-tension 
enunciated by Laplace remains of fundamental value, it 
is alone insufficient to account for an accumulation of 
newer facts. Laplace, who lived in the phlogiston era 
of chemistry, regarded solids and liquids as practically 
continuous media, their particles as stationary, existing 
in close contact without spatial divisions and devoid of 
the polarity which modern views on crystallography de- 
mand. He therefore treated of liquid and solid surfaces 
as mathematical planes ; but the problems presented by 
colloid chemistry and physics, and the vast technical in- 
dustries these affect (flotation may be regarded as one) 
are no longer explicable on this basis. 
(To be continued) 

An advance statement by the U. S. Geological Sur- 
vey gives the value of the mineral products of Alaska 
for 1919 as $18,850,000. Gold produced is valued at 
$9,000,000, and since 1880, when the mining industry be- 
gan in Alaska, gold produced totals $437,400,000. 

January 3, 1930 



Pine-Grinding in Ball-Mi 1 1> 


l \ i BODucnoN. The adoption of ball-mills as grinding- 
machines to reduce the ore of the Inspiration mine 
started a ball-mill wave thai swept over every mining dis- 
trict of the country and from the time the Inspiration 
mill was i »n t inio successful operation there has been 
practically n<> new plants of importance in which Borne 
type of ball-mil] or cylindrical mill, as a grinding-ma- 
. - i » iii.-. has not found a place. 

The great enthusiasm brought about by the simplicity 

Crushing Resistanc] op Different Oreb. Some in- 
teresting work has been done by Luther Lenox of the 

Portland Mining; Co. on the crushing resistance of vari- 
ous ores. Some time ago. when at Cripple Creek, it was 
my privilege to talk to Mr. Lenox about these experi- 
iii' nis and to see the various BCreened products from these 
laboratory tests in glass bottles, whereby a graphic view- 
was obtained of the crashing resistances offered by the 
different ores at the different stages of diminution. By 

K.-.nit- of > p.m. 11 1. . Testa 

Mi -li LOOfl 

M«-h lam 


Mesh-tana X 100 





An 1 




P Q A 

. 1 unlink' 

■ MMII. 

10 mm 

.i nin, 

10 min. 

.1 nun. 

10 min. 

B min. 

10 min. 



of ore 





2 |2Q 

| 880 
















.. 45 

•The cnubed • ra 


preen tin 1 .i« 


of StW 

. as 

shown on 



of ball-mill operation as signalized by the Marcy slogan 
niu easy step", for various reasons, has been somewhat 
dampened by the experience of the past four years in 
operating plants; first, it has been found that the big 
capacities promised on the soft Inspiration ore do not 
apply to the harder ores of other districts; secondly, in 
some instanees where the ball-mill was installed to take 
a crusher-product, it has been found a decided advantage 
to break away from the "one easy step" and place crack- 
ing-rolls between the crusher and the bin supplying the 
ball-mill feed. Thus, by delivering to the ball-mills a 
much finer feed than the crusher-product, the capacity of 
ih. ball-mills has been greatly increased and the cost of 
crushing noticeably reduced: thirdly, the maintenance of 
tin- ball-mill has been much heavier than the earlier ex- 
perience indicated. This, no doubt, is largely due to in- 
ferior manganese-steel being used in manufacture, owing 
to war conditions, and to the increased cost of these in- 
ferior products. 

The ball-mill, however, is no longer an experimental 
machine. Its usefulness has been firmly established. In 
fact, the ball-mill may justly be termed a standard ma- 
chine in all fine-crushing plants, but it has its limitation, 
and even now it would be ill-advised to install ball-mills 
on a large scale upon the basis of single or two-stage 
reduction without thorough preliminary experimental 
work to determine such problems as the capacity of the 
mill on the particular ore to be handled, as well as to 
ascertain the most suitable feed to deliver to the mill for 
the greatest economy in operation. It has been amply 
demonstrated during recent years that a ball-mill has not 
nearly as great a capacity when taking a crusher-product 
having : a: maximum size of 2§ inches as when taking a 
feed having a maximum size of one inch or one-quarter 

Hash-tests on Above Ores After Grinding In Small TiiUf-MUlt 

New Cornelia 



1 10 12.85 

14 27.98 

20 39.47 

28 49.88 

3.". 57.11 

48 63.01 

II". 68.71 

100 74.01 

150 79.69 

200 82.41 

tSee Bulletin. A. I. M. E. 

■ min. 



IT I" 
.".1 24 
Aurust. 1918. 

10 rain. 












5 rain. 10 min. 

B 25 


::i si 





1 50 



the courtesy of L. D. Ricketts, I was given the data show- 
ing the comparative crushing resistance of Inspiration. 
New Cornelia, and Portland ores, but before quoting this 
information, I want to state briefly how the data were 

The grinding-macMrie used in the Lenox experiments 
was a cylindrical tube-mill, 8 inches in diameter by 
12| in. long. This mill was charged with about 7| lb. of 
: , : -in . steel balls, one pound of ore and an equal weight of 
water. The mill was revolved at a speed of 84 r.p.m. 
The feed to the mill in each case was identical as to 
screen-analysis, being artificially prepared from screened 
products. The period of grinding was five minutes on 
the first prepared charge of ore and ten minutes on the 
second prepared charge from each of the ores upon which 
the comparative tests were made. 

After each of these grinding operations, the mill- 
charge was dried and a screen-analysis was made. The 
screen-analysis of the feed to the mills and the discharge 
from the mill after the five and ten-minute grinding- 
periods respectively, are shown mi the accompanying tal - 
ulations. which also show the relative grinding-resistance 
of the Inspiration and New Cornelia ores. Sheet No. 1 
shows the plotted curves on the plus 200-mesh. On Sheet 
No. 2, in addition to the curves of sheet No. 1. are plotted 



January 3, 1920 

the minus 200-mesh on a smaller scale to bring out the 
minus 200-mesh characteristics of the ore. 

From the tabulated data using 1.00 as the grinding- 
resistance of the Portland ore, that of New Cornelia is 
0.7;j and that of Inspiration is 0.45, as shown on the 
tabulated data and plotted curves of Mr. Lenox's tests. 

In Bulletin No. 140 of the American Institute of Min- 
ing Engineers, Mr. Lenox, in a splendid article on the 
'Crushing-Resistance of Various Ores', shows the com- 
parative crushing-resistance of 23 different ores tested in 
a way similar to that described above. Taking the Port- 
land ore in these tests as having a crushing-resistance of 
1.00, that of the Calumet & Hecla jig-tailing was 1.33, 
and that of the Pay Consolidated was 0.37. Of the 23 
samples tested, the last two represent the two extremes. 
The Calumet & Hecla jig-tailing, the highest in crushing- 
resistance, is shown to be 3.6 times that of the Ray Con- 
solidated, the lowest in crushing-resistance. 

Just how reliable the data obtained in such a series of 
tests would be in making estimates as to capacities of 
ball-mills on different ores based on comparative crush- 
ing-resistance tests, I would not venture to state, but I 
believe that preliminary tests of this kind when using 
representative samples of ore from a mine, the crushing- 
resistance of which has already been determined by 
actual mill-operation and comparing this to an ore whose 
crushing-resistance lias not been determined in actual 
mill-practice, should give a good indication of the ca- 
pacity of ball-mills upon the latter ore. 

There is, of course, the objection to this kind of an ex- 
periment that it is 'batch' grinding and does not conform 
to the regular ball-mill practice of continuous discharge ; 
and there is the further objection that on ores of different 
crushing-resistance the blow required to crush the ore 
would have to bo increased in proportion to the increase 
in crushing-resistance and therefore the grinding media 
used in one case would not be suitable in the other. In an 
article in Bulletin No. 146 of the Institute, by E. "W. 
Davis, to which I shall have occasion to refer later, it is 
indicated that the size of the balls used in ball-mills 
should be such as to make it possible for the smallest ball 
to break the hardest axid largest piece of ore fed into the 
mill. The experiments carried on by Mr. Davis do not 
indicate that a f-in. ball is large enough to break a hard 
ore having a maximum size of $ in. as satisfactorily as 
larger balls. In other words, while the J-in. balls might 
do the most satisfactory work on softer ores, the same 
thing would not necessarily apply on ores having the 
greater crushing-resistance. It is, of course, also im- 
possible to determine the relative amount of work done 
on the different ores beyond minus 200-mesh by the ordi- 
nary screen-analysis. This further complicates the prob- 
lem of finding the exact relative erushing-resistance of 
different ores. Nevertheless, if it is found that for the 
most economical metallurgical results, it is necessary to 
reduce an ore to a point where a definite proportion is to 
be minus 10(1 or 200-mesh. and any additional reduction 
in size beyond that point does not affect the metallurgical 
recovery, then it would seem that for all practical pur- 

poses the only thing that needs to be determined is the 
machine or machines that will have the capacity to re- 
duce the required tonnage of ore to the necessary fineness 
in the most economical way. It would therefore appear 
that while tests like those made by Mr. Lenox may not 
give an absolutely reliable basis for making estimates as 
to the exact capacity of a ball-mill of a given size supplied 
with a feed of a given size, yet I am of the opinion that 
a reasonably close estimate may be made from such tests 
based on the comparative grinding-resistance of the dif- 
ferent ores. The tests show that there is a wide difference 
in the work required to reduce an ore like that of the 
Portland mine as compared to the work required to re- 
duce a much softer ore like that of the Ray Consolidated. 
That there is great variation in the capacity of a ball- 
mill on two different types of ore, not only in the capacity 
of the mill but also in the wear of balls and liners, is 
proved easily in actual practice by making a survey of 
the data obtainable in operating plants where these ma- 
chines are in use. It is, therefore, not surprising to find 
that a ball-mill rated at 200 or 250-ton capacity based on 
the duty of mills when working on soft ore has this nom- 
inal capacity cut in two when the mill is put to work on 
a harder and different type of ore. 

At this point I would like again to refer to the article 
by Mr. Davis on 'Fine-Grinding in Ball-Mills' in greater 
detail. In this paper the many phases of fine-grinding in 
ball-mills are discussed exhaustively, not only from the 
standpoint of the particular test-runs in the series of ex- 
periments but also from the strictly theoretical viewpoint 
of ball-mill grinding. Without making any comments on 
the purely theoretical part of the article, I would like to 
summarize briefly the scope of the Davis experiments and 
the conclusions reached. 

The ore used in the tests was a hard and tough iron ore 
from the Mesabi range ; the hardness was 7 and the spe- 
cific gravity of the ore was 3.4. This high specific gravity 
was due to a high magnetite content. The purpose of the 
tests was to find the most economical way of reducing the 
ore from ^-inch to 200-mesh. The equipment used was 
an 8-ft. by 22-in. Hardinge conical mill and a duplex 
Dorr classifier of the bowl type. The mill carried a load 
of 28,000 lb. of balls. Tests were made on light and 
heavy feeds, open and close circuit, single and two-stage 
crushing, large and small balls, and various speeds of the 

The deductions made from the tests can be summarized 
as follows: An increase in the tonnage fed to the mill re- 
sulted in an increased crushing efficiency; close-circuit 
crushing is more desirable than open-circuit; two-stage 
crushing is more efficient than single-stage. The proper 
adjustment between the size of the balls and the speed of 
the mill can be secured by a screen-analysis of the dis- 
charge from the mill or from the sand from the classifier. 
If this sand is crowded witli the finer sizes, then either 
the balls are too large or the speed of the mill is too high. 
On the other hand, if the classifier sand is crowded with 
the coarser sizes, the indications are that the halls are too 
small or the speed of the mill is too slow. The smallest 

n '• 1920 



ball of uniform si/.- thai can .rush the ore should bi 
but imlls smaller than oaa .-rush the largest partiole of 
ore should nol be kept in the mill, at they ink'' up space, 
absi rb power, and are inefflcienl fur crushing. Th- 
ductiona are interesting, even though it is impossible to 
subscribe to all without reservations. It is obviously u 
advantage to have the ball-load consist of Imlls no larger 

than are required to do the work. 1 anse more of the 

smaller sise of halls can be eharged to the mill, and if the 
to the mill is s sised product having t-inch as the 
maximum size, ss was the case in the Davis tests, it is 
apparent that balls approaching more nearly to uniform 
si/.- can be used than it' n mixed feed or crusher-product 
was delivered to the ball-mill. 

Tl xperience of ball-mil] practice has been that when 

s coarse mixed f 1 is delivered to the mill, it is necessarj 

to maintain a ball-load of mixed sizes; and in tube-mill 

practice it has always l n my experience that pebbles of 

mixed sizes gave better grinding-efficiency than pebbles 
of uniform size. 

Anyone that has attempted to start a tube-mill with 
pebbles of the same size, especially if the feed to the mill 
is such as to require pebbles of large size to crush the ore. 
has found that a mill operating under these conditions 
gave unsatisfactory results and that the efficiency of the 
mill gradually increased as the pebbles wore down to a 
can. ty of sizes. Furthermore, to tic best of my knowl- 
edge there, is nothing in ball-mill experience that would 
indicate that the size of the smallest ball in the ball- 
charge to the mill should be such as to make it possible 
for it to break the hardest particle of ore in the mill-feed, 
and such objections to the use of small balls as that of 
preventing the freer migration of the ore through the 
mill does not carry much weight, for when a mill is in 
action there is ample chance for the movement of ore 
through the mill under proper pulp-dilution, without 
going into such refinements as the interstitial spaces be- 
tween the balls. It must also be borne in mind that the 
pressure exerted on a particle of ore, or the blow struck 
by a hall, is not only dependent, upon the mass of the 
hall and the distance of the drop, but also upon the posi- 
tion of the particular ball in relation to the other balls 
in the mill. 

AVhile it. is impossible to be in full accord with the de- 
ductions drawn by Mr. Davis, his many test-runs render 
his artiele exceedingly suggestive. It would be interest- 
ing to know what machines will be adopted to reduce the 
ore in question from a erusher-product to the final 200- 
mesh fineness. I opine that three-stage crushing at least 
will be employed, no matter what machines are used in 
the operation. 

Knowing the character of the ore, the fineness to which 
it must be reduced to obtain economic metallurgical re- 
sults, and the tonnage to be handled, the fine crushing 
problem should resolve itself into one of the following 
methods, if ball-mills are to have a place in the fine- 
crushing operation. 

1. Reduce erusher-product in a single-stage ball-mill 

2. Reduce erusher-product in a two-stage hall null op 
■'■ Redi rusher-producl in cracking rolls followed 

by single-stage hall-mill operation. 

I. Seduce crusher-product in craoking-roUs followed 
by two Btage ball-mill 

■">. Redi rusher-product in coarse and line rolls fol- 
lowed by single-stage hall-mill operation. 

6. Reduce crusher-product in coarse and tine rolls fol- 
lowed by two stage ball-mill operation. 

I am. of course, not prepared to prove that one of these 
combinations is the best and only way to reduce ore, for 
I am fully aware that in many instances the Symmons 
disc-crusher in one or more stage-crushing can prac- 
tically do the same work as the rolls, nor am I unaware 

that the stamp in some instances seems to defy replace- 
ment. And furthermore at the present time there is 
much work being done to place an improved mechanical 
rod-mill on the market. The grinding principle of rod- 
mills — a series of small rolls — is good, and it is possible 
that a machine of this type, when mechanically right, 
will make inroads upon the work of the hall-mill. It may 
he suggested further that if the ore is reduced to 4 or 
8-mesh in rolls, why not complete the grinding operation 
in tube or pebble-mills in accordance with the old prac- 
tice. These are all questions that are rightly open to dis- 

It is. nevertheless, a fact that nearly all late installa- 
tions of fine-crushing equipment for reducing ore for 
all-sliming, and especially for concentrating purposes, 
embrace one of the six combinations mentioned above. 
"While this is not proof absolute, it is at least good evi- 
dence that one of these combinations in fine crushing con- 
forms to the best practice of the day. 

In commenting on the first of the six combinations, it 
would appear that to reduce an ore from a crusher- 
product having a maximum size of 2-in. or 24-in. ring to 
a 50-mesh product in a single-stage ball-mill operation is 
only justified in plants of limited capacity or in case of 
an ore having a low crushing-resistance, and even in this 
latter case it would seem of doubtful economy and be- 
come a question of local determination. The two-stage 
fine-crashing combination, on the whole, would seem ad- 
visable where the capacity of the plant requires two 
grinding-maehines, and the present practice would indi- 
cate that a two-stage reduction from a crusher-product 
to an all-slime product is not only more elastic but also 
more economical than single-stage reduction. 

In some recent fine-crushing equipments it has been 
found necessary, or at least advisable, to precede the two- 
stage ball-mill operation with cracking-rolls in order to 
give the primary ball-mill a finer feed than the erusher- 
product. It is. of course, possible that using larger halls 
in the primary mill might overcome the difficulty of 
crushing exceptionally hard tough ore. At the Alaska 
Juneau, I am told, 5-in. balls that failed to do satis- 
factory work were replaced with 7-in. halls to great ad- 
vantage, increasing the crushing-efficiency of the mill. 

In the combination having coarse and fine roll-reduc- 



January 3. 1920 

tion preceding the final grinding in ball-mills, the prac- 
tice at the Alaska Gold mill is a good example. The ore 
is there reduced to about 8-mesh in coarse and fine rolls, 
and it is doubtful if this type of ore is now being reduced 
anywhere from a crusher-product to 8-mesh in other ma- 
chines equally economical. It would certainly appear 
that it cannot be done in ball-mills. It is, of course, diffi- 
cult to make true comparisons of cost between different 
plants, as identical conditions as to character of ore and 
final diminution of ore rarely obtain. There are also 
certain objections to dry-crushing in rolls, especially 
where the ore is soft and dry on account of ' dusting'. In 
this connection, it is worth recalling that such plants as 
the Anaconda and 1'tali Copper, where dry-crushing in 
rolls plays such an important part, little or no incon- 
venience is experienced in this regard. 

Two-stage roll operation followed by two-stage ball- 
mill operation may be justified in exceptionally large- 
scale operations where the crushing resistance of the ore 
is high and great fineness is required in the final product. 
Rolls, while they require more attention than ball-mills, 
are more or less fool-proof machines and they are excep- 
tionally elastic as to capacity. The wear on roll-shells. 
when compared with the wear on balls and liners in ball- 
mills, is so much less as to offer no comparison ; this, in 
part, may be explained by the fact that there is less wear 
in crushing ore dry than in crushing it wet. Moreover, 
when a roll receives a heavy feed a great deal of the 
crashing is 'ore against ore', as only a small part of the 
ore actually comes in contact with the roll-shell. In ball- 
mills, the crushing is either by impact or attrition; in 
cither case there is certain to be considerable wear of 
'iron against iron'. 

There may be those who are so firmly wedded to the 
ball-mill that they object to complicate the crushing 
scheme by the introduction of rolls, and it is possible that 
a primary ball-mill of exceptionally heavy construction, 
designed especially for coarse crushing with large balls, 
would do in a single operation practically the same work 
as would be done by coarse and fine rolls. This method, 
even if it required a three-stage ball-mill operation, 
would simplify the final crushing, but I believe at » con- 
siderable increase in operating costs as compared with 
dry-crushing in rolls. 

A single operation, such as the "one easy step", would 
greatly simplify the grinding problem, but a machine like 
the human animal has its limitations and it is apparent 
that, as yet, there is no way to escape from stage-crush- 
ing. In large operations, we may look for refinements in 
more stage-crashing. Certainly any progress in rod-mill 
reduction would depend on sized feeds, and a series of 

Such phases of ball-mill crushing as the relation of the 
wear of the balls to the speed of the mill, the size of the 
mill and the volume of the ball-load, offer interesting 
problems for definite and conclusive solution. Mr. Davis, 
in Iris paper, makes the statement that the ball-load 
should not occupy more than 60% of the mill-volume on 
account-' of interference between the balls, and not less 

than 10%, of the mill-volume on account of slippage. 
This range seems much too great, for it is evident that 
carrying a load of only 10% of the mill-volume does not 
work the mill to its capacity. There are also other rea- 
sons why the volume of the mill occupied by the ball-load 
should bear some definite relation to the total volume of 
the mill. Some time ago my attention was called to the 
work of a tube-mill in which pebbles were replaced by 
balls. The ball-load was made up of the same weight as 
the original pebble-load ; the wear of the balls under these 
conditions was almost prohibitive. When the inside di- 
ameter of the tube-mill was reduced from 5 ft. to 3 ft. by 
wooden lagging, there was not only a saving in power but 
the consumption of balls was also greatly reduced with- 
out reducing the grinding efficiency of the mill. 

Similar reductions in the diameter of the Hardinge 
mills at Anaconda when using steel balls instead of peb- 
bles was made for a good and sufficient reason. Likewise 
a reduction in the speed of mills has sometimes resulted 
in the economy of power and wear, without decreasing 
the efficiency of the mill. 

The crushing in ball-mills is by impact and attrition. 
The amount of work done by impact is naturally de- 
pendent upon the cascading action of the balls. This lat- 
ter action is in turn dependent upon the speed of the 
mill. When treating fine mill-feeds, the crushing can be 
done by attrition, and there should be less occasion for 
impact crushing and it would be interesting for some one 
in a position to do so to determine the relative ball-wear 
and crushing-efficiency when operating mills at such 
speeds as will give rolling and cascading action to the 

The U. S. Bureau of Mines gives some interesting de- 
tails of the mine operations at the Ottawa shaft of the 
Oglebay-Norton Co.. Montreal. Wisconsin. Typical sub- 
level open stoping is used, as the capping rock is hard 
and stands well, with small orebodies at the top of not 
over 50 ft. average width. Raises for chutes are driven 
frequently enough so that no shoveling is required. 
This is one of the few companies on the Gogebic range 
using underground magazines for explosives. The usual 
precautions are taken by having separate magazines for 
caps and dynamite. All caps ai-e crimped on standard 
fuse lengths by a powder man on each shift and requisi- 
tions, issued by the shift boss, are required for dynamite 
and caps. A compressed-air receiver is situated on each 
working level in the mine, instead of having a large re- 
ceiver near the compressor. This practice is followed, 
according to the superintendent, to furnish dry air to 
the machines, and at a higher pressure than could be 
obtained by the usual practice of having the receiver on 
the surface. A machine-drill man inspects all machines 
each day. Drills needing repairs are taken to a repair 
shop on the main level and repaired at once. " This mine 
has an underground drill-sharpening and blacksmith 
shop. Oil is used for fuel and the gases are exhausted 
into the upcast main hoisting shaft. The shop is situated 
at a station near the main hoisting shaft. ' ! '' 

January 8, 1920 



The Read ion of the Manganese Industry 


•During the tirst nine months ol the year L919, 34 
shippers of high-grade manganese ore reported sliip- 
mtnti of . r >:;,77i! tons of ore containing ■'!•">'; or more of 
manganese. I >n rinir the corresponding period in 1918, 
192 similar shippers reported shipments o£ 228,901 tons 
of ore containing 359 or more of manganese, or 4.'J"> 
times as much. From July l to September 30, 1919, in- 
clusive, only 9233 tons of high-grade ore was shipped, 
and virtually all of this came from Arkansas and Mon- 
tana. California and Colorado, which had previously 
horn two of the largesl producers, Bhipped practically no 
ore of this grade. The decrease in the shipment of high- 
graide ore during the tirst half of the year was continued 
into the third quarter, in most districts reaching the 
point of no shipments whatever. 

The shipments of ores containing 10 to 35 r , of man- 
ganese for the first nine months of 1019 amounted to 
164,539 tons, whereas the shipments for the correspond- 
ing period of 1918 amounted to 595,708 tons, or 3.62 
times as much. During the third quarter of 1919 the 
shipments of ore of this grade amounted to 7S.381 tons, 
which was almost as much as was shipped during the 
first six months of the year. This substantial increase 
came almost entirely from Michigan, Minnesota, and 
Nevada. The increase in the output of Michigan and 
Minnesota was due largely to the opening of the lakes to 
navigation during the summer rather than to an increase 
in demand, although the high iron content of both the 
intermediate and the low-grade ores shipped from Michi- 
gan and Minnesota, particularly from the Cuyuna range, 
has probably contributed largely to the demand for ore 
from those districts. 

The operators in Nevada have been able to maintain 
a high rate of production because practically all the ores 
mined there are sold to smelters for use in fluxing, so 
that the conditions which apply to ore used in the manu- 
facture of manganese alloys do not affect the Nevada 

The shipments of 5 to 10% ore during the first nine 
months of 1919 amounted to 83,560 tons, all of which 
came from Minnesota. During the third quarter of the 
year Minnesota shipped 66,688 tons of this ore, which 
was more than 4.26 times the shipments from this State 
for the previous six months. This great increase in ship- 
ments was due largely to the opening of the lakes to 
navigation and to the subsequent shipment of ore pre- 
viously mined. During the first nine months of 1918 
the shipments of ore of this grade were 188,186 tons, or 
2.25 times the shipments during the first nine months of 
1919. The production of low-grade ores during the first 

*A preliminary report, U. S. Geological Survey. 

nine months of L919 more nearrj equaled the production 

of lik -cs during corresponding periods in 191S, hut 

the same cannot be said of the production of the higher- 
grade ores. The following table shows the shipments by 

States for the first nine months of 1919: 


mill Maliguliifrrou* On- shipped During till* Flrftl sin* llonl'ia 

of mm. ii> stale. 
35% or over 10 1.- .". I* lie. 

Number Grow* Number Groan NuwK-r Grose 
of tons of torn, «•: tow 

shipper* shipped Bhlppen shipped shipper* ■ 


. . . 1 


. . . 3 




. . . 5 






. . . 1 





. .. 6 


. . . 1 



New Mexico 



. . . a 


. .. 5 








85 800 



tl till. 013 

Total 34 53.772 »10 •104.530 t6 183.560 

•Fluxing ore from Colorado not reported quarterly and not included in 


tOre from Wisconsin containing- approximately 5% manganese not In- 

eluded in totals for the United States. 

The imports of manganese have in general suffered a 
decrease as great as that of the domestic shipments. The 
imports for the three months ending September 30, 1919, 
have been only 43,426 tons, whereas those for the pre- 
vious six months were 225,985 tons, making a total for 
the first nine months of the year of 269,411 tons. Had 
the rate reached during the first six months been main- 
tained the imports for the first nine months of the year 
would have nearly equaled those of the corresponding 
period of 1918. 

During the third quarter of the year only 30,136 tons 
of ore and oxide were imported from Brazil, which is 
about 17.4% as much as was imported from that country 
during the first six months. Costa Rica, England, 
Mexico, and Asiatic Russia contributed most of the re- 
maining 13,290 tons imported during the third quarter. 
The imports from Asiatic Russia during the third quar- 
ter were 4089 tons. These were the first imports from 
that country during 1919. The following table shows 
the imports of manganese ore by countries for the first 
nine months of 1919 : 

Manganese Ore and Oxide Imported Into the Tnlted States During the 
First Nine Months of 1019 

Country Long tons Country Long tons 

Portugal 400 Colombia 10 

Russia (in Europe) 1.327 Ecuador 20 

England 4.432 British India 1.300 

Canada 207 China 1 

Costa Rica 9.088 Hongkong 1.200 

Panama 2 Japan 508 

Mexico 5.309 Russia (In Asia! 4.089 

Cuba 33.788 Australia 548 

Argentina 2.305 British South Africa 144 

Brazil 203.132 

Chile 441 Total 269.111 



January 3, 1920 

The decrease in imports might be encouraging if it was 
the result of an increased use of domestic manganese ore 
in the steel industry, but no such increase has been re- 
poi ted. As it is the custom of the makers of f erro-man- 
ganese and steel and the brokers to maintain stocks suffi- 
cient to supply the demand for six or eight months, the 
decrease in the domestic production and imports indi- 
cates that a great supply is on hand which cannot be 
utilized until the steel industry becomes normal. The 
decrease in imports must therefore be considered tem- 
porary, and a reaction may be expected soon after the 
steel industry becomes stabilized. The principal reasons 
for a probable increase in the imports of manganese are 
the high grade of the foreign ores, the cheapness with 
which they can be mined, and the low cost of transporta- 

Since the Armistice was signed the decrease in the pro- 
duction of domestic manganese ore has been continuous 
and rapid. Nearly all the domestic ore shipped in 1919 
has been shipped under war contracts that did not expire 
until the summer of the year. "With the expiration of 
these contracts very few producers have been able to 
market their ore, and the industry has therefore suffered 
a serious reaction, which has caused considerable losses 
to many operators. 

The causes that have combined to produce the present 
conditions are many and various, and. notable among 
them are the sudden removal of the war demand, the re- 
lease of shipping for importation of foreign ore, labor 
troubles among both producers and consumers, the in- 
ability of the domestic ore to compete in cost and grade 
with foreign ore, the large stocks on hand, and the con- 
servative interpretation maintained as to the scope of 
the War Minerals Relief Act. 

The cessation of the war demand for steel was neces- 
sarily followed by a decrease in the demand for man- 
ganese, and consequently there was soon accumulated 
considerable stocks of manganese. These cannot be 
utilized until the steel industry becomes adjusted to peace 
conditions and the peace demand and production of steel 
increases and becomes stable. 

Labor conditions, particularly in the coal and steel in- 
dustries, have decreased the production of steel and have 
therefore diminished further the demand for manganese. 
This demand is based primarily on the actual production 
of steel; consequently before an increase in the demand 
for manganese is possible the actual production of steel 
must be materially increased ; an increase only in the de- 
mand for steel can have no effect on the manganese in- 
dustry until the steel producers "are able to respond to 
that demand. There is now undoubtedly an increasing 
demand for steel, but an increased production of steel is 
at present probably impossible on account of the condi- 
tions of labor in the steel and coal industries. 

The tremendous impetus given to the domestic manga- 
nese industry during the War was due not so much to 
economic conditions as to strategic considerations. Early 
in the American participation in the War it became evi- 
dent that the country would soon be facing the danger of 

a very serious ihortage of manganese, due, of course, to 
the success of the German submarines in sinking cargo 
ships, to the increasing demand for transportation of 
men and supplies overseas, and to the tremendous increase 
in the demand for war materials made by the American 
government upon the steel producers. To avert this 
danger a carefully planned campaign for the encourage- 
ment of domestic production of manganese was begun. 
This campaign consisted of a careful examination, largely 
by the United States Geological Survey, of all the known 
possible domestic deposits, together with a direct and 
general appeal by several Government agencies to the 
producers for more manganese. The response with which 
this appeal was met is best indicated by the fact that in 
the third quarter of 1918 the United States supplied 
almost a third of its requirements. 

Much of the production was made at an actual loss, in 
spite of the high prices current during the period. Some 
of the loss was due to the fact that the actual cost of min- 
ing the ore was greater than its price. At some proper- 
ties, however, the ore was produced at a profit, but the 
demand was of such short duration that a sufficient 
amount of the ore could not be sold to cover the initial 
cost of purchasing and developing the properties. 

The cost of mining manganese in the United States 
being so much higher than the cost in foreign countries 
and the grade of the domestic ore in general being lower 
than that of the foreign ore, the domestic producers can- 
not readily compete with, the foreign producers under the 
present tariff as long as sufficient shipping is available. 

An effort is being made to put a protective tariff on 
many minerals, metals, and alloys, manganese among 
them. If this effort is successful the manganese industry 
will undoubtedly enjoy considerable immediate pros- 
perity, but in a very few years of normal steel produc- 
tion, four or five at the most, the known manganese re- 
sources of the country will be exhausted. Tariff hearings 
on manganese have been held in Congress, but no definite 
action has been taken so far. In the event of another 
war after the domestic manganese deposits had thus been 
practically exhausted, or at least very seriously depleted, 
the country would be facing a much greater danger than 
it did in the critical days of 1917 and 1918. 

During October $12,269,679 in silver was exported 
from the United States, over 90% of which was shipped 
to China, and $8,722,430 in silver was imported, the 
bulk of which came from Mexico. The following tables 
show a comparison of imports and exports during Octo- 
ber 1919: 

Sliver Exports to 

China $10,266,671 

Honskoi«j 1,013,5*2 



West Indies 
All others . . 



Silver Imports from 

Mexico SO. 000, 765 

Peru 990.216 

Central American States. 803,635 

Canada 515.284 

Dutch East Indies 164.959 

Chile 105.091 

Colombia 48.635 

All others 33,245 

January ::. 1920 








mi. minium 

■ it illinium urn i imiimiiiimmi i mi I 


holiday SHUT-DOWN AT bisbee.- 



Jerome. — The Shea Copper Co. will start shipping ore 
early in January, arrangements having been completed 
with the United Verde Extension smelter to handle from 
300 to 400 tons of ore per month. The ore is high grade, 
with eopper running from 10 to 25%, and should net 
from $150 to $200 per ton. Approximately half a million 
dollars worth of ore is said to be blocked out underground 
between the 200 and 300-ft. levels. Control of the prop- 

smelter was begun several months ago, but as the railroad 
was under lease to the Arizona United mines, a fleet of 
three four-wheel-drive trucks was purchased and ship- 
ment started from Cochise. Lately bad roads caused by 
heavy rainfall have retarded shipment to a great extent. 
With the opening of rail communication the volume of 
shipment is expected to be increased. There is enough 
ore in sight to warrant shipment at the rate of one car per 
day for several months. The power-plant will be put in 
operation when a car of fuel oil is received. Ed C. Rice, 
superintendent, will start driving on the 400-ft. level of 


erty has passed from D. J. Shea and the new management 
intends to sink the shaft 200 ft. deeper and do consider- 
able lateral development. 

Benson. — The Mining & Development Corporation, 
with headquarters at Benson, has been made a party to 
the lease of the Dragoon Northern railroad extending 
from Dragoon, 23 miles east of Benson on the main line 
of the Southern Pacific, northward to Johnson where the 
company's Copper Chief mine is situated. The first two 
carloads of ore from the mine under the new arrange- 
ment were sent to Douglas for smelting during the latter 
part of December. For several months the company has 
been developing the Copper Chief on which it holds a 
ten years lease, but as three large orebodies were en- 
countered shortly after development started, most of the 
work has been done in ore. Shipment to the Douglas 

the company's vertical shaft to find orebodies of which 
there is evidence on the upper levels. 

Bisbee. — The mining properties of this district gave a 
four-day holiday, December 25, 26, 27, and 28, during 
which nothing but pumping and necessary repair work 
was done. The managers of the operating companies an- 
nounced that this opportunity w r as given the men to enjoy 
Christmas. At the same time it gave the Copper Queen 
and Calumet & Arizona smelters at Douglas an oppor- 
tunity to catch up on their ore stocks, as all bins at the 
Copper Queen were full and there was no storage for an 
additional ton of ore, while the C. & A. was in almost as 
bad a position. 

SwiSSHELM Gold-Silver. — Robert Randall, superin- 
tendent for the Swisshelm Gold-Silver company took the 
first car of 50 tons of silver ore from Webb to the C. & A. 



January 3, 1920 

smelter at Douglas, December 20. The property expects 
to ship steadily. It is situated 30 miles north-east of 
Douglas in the Swisshelm mountains, 12 miles east of 
W bb which is the nearest rail point. The ore is highly 
silicious, containing gold and silver, and the contract with 
the C. & S. smelter is understood to be advantageous to 
the company. The company is under the management 
of Ben Heney. Ore is freighted by wagon from the mine 
to "Webb, a fairly good road being in existence. The ad- 
joining property, the Great American, owned by Colo- 
rado capital, is starting development work preparatory 
to a period of activity, after being idle since 1884 when 
the last shipment to the Pueblo. Colorado, smelter showed 
returns of $14 in gold and 119 ounces of silver. The 
recent activity in the silver market has encouraged the 
eompany to start active operation once more. The Great 
American ground, composed of four claims, was patented 
during the early mining history of Cochise county. The 
value of the ore deposition was not appreciated until 
1905, when the original owners of the group now belong- 
ing to the Swisshelm Gold-Silver company, first acquired 
the property. 

Gleeson. — A small force has gone to work on the Tejon 
mine belonging to W. H. McKittrick, who is expected to 
make a visit here shortly after the first of the year. His 
visit is taken to mean that operations will be opened on a 
larger scale. J. W. Bennie, manager of the Copper Belle 
properties of the Shannon company, has moved his head- 
quarters here from Douglas and definite announcement 
of the company's intentions for future operation is ex- 
pected to be made soon. Thomas Cowan, who owns sev- 
eral promising silver, gold, and copper properties, is ship- 
ping to the smelter at Douglas some good ore which be 
recently opened up. 



Tellubide. — The heavy snowfall of the past month has 
curtailed ore shipments considerably. The railroad was 
blocked for a period of one week, from December 8 to 15. 
The Tomboy is now shipping concentrate from the new 
mill. The Smuggler Union Mining Co. is operating the 
new ball-mills at full capacity. A new brick assay-office 
is now under construction, replacing the one destroyed 
by fire. 

Ophir. — An important mining deal was closed when 
the ownership of the Carbonero passed to an Eastern 
syndicate, at a reported price of $250,000. The mine has 
been a producer for the past 20 years, keeping up a 
steady production of ore averaging $50 per ton. There 
are still large ore-reserves. Johnson, Klang & Troseth 
have leased the Santa Cruz mine in the Iron Springs 
district, from Painter, Toll & Brown, the owners of the 
property, and are making shipments of ore. The Santa 
Cruz carries an ore of a similar character to that of the 
Carbonero. The Silver Canon Mining Co., a Michigan 
corporation, is developing its property, and shipping ore. 
J. M. Belisle is disposing of some of his numerous proper- 
ties in the vicinity, the Dead wood mine to a Michigan 

company and «the Crown Point to Gideon Baril. Mr. 
Ruuttilla is starting development of the Favorite, having 
installed a gasoline hoist and will open up virgin ground 
through contract. 



Houghton. — The actual output of copper mines of 
Michigan for the month of November is practically the 
same as the output for October. In the larger mines 
there was little change. "White Pine, a Calumet & Hecla 
subsidiary which re-opened in October, did not get its 
stride until November. La Salle and Superior, two 
smaller Calumet subsidiaries, dropped out altogether in 
the November figures. Limited work is being done at 
these properties, entirely exploratory in its nature, and 
the copper ore that is coming into the market ia negli- 

Calumet & Hecla showed a decrease in output. This 
was not due to any change in general mining conditions 
but rather to the suspension of operations at one of the 
flotation plants. This production from the sandpilc in 
the lake is becoming more and more a factor for the 
future consideration in the grand total of the Calumet & 
Heela's record of output. Osceola continues to fall off a 
little month by month, in ore tonnage, in copper output, 
and in the quality of the production of the mine, the 
average being just over 15 lb. per ton. Ahmeek con- 
tinues to be the best high-grade producer for the Calumet 

The most remarkable demonstration of continued high- 
grade output is Mohawk. The showing of 24 lb. per ton 
in October was better in November when figures show 
25.31 lb. This is the highest average that the Kearsarge 
lode is showing anywhere at this time. It is interesting 
to observe that the mine is maintaining a cost sheet which 
is creditable. Champion, Baltic, and Trimountain did 
not quite maintain their October showing in November. 
The figures follow: 

Ore Pounds per ton Refined Refined 

Mine tonnage Nov. Oct. Not. Oct. 

Ahmeek 69.000 23.2 24.56 1.604.600 1,670.142 

Allouez 18.000 18.2 19.86 328,100 337,628 

Baltic 17.400 36 34 626.400 697,000 

Calumet 4 Hecla 202.277 25 25 5,056.926 5.313.583 

Centennial 7,000 14.4 16.9 101,000 114.500 

Champion 37,000 40 40 1.480.000 1.640.000 

Isle Royale 65.000 19.4 19.18 1,260,573 1,304,036 

Mass Con 14.000 15 15 210.000 198.632 

Michigan 5.000 20 23 100.000 112.000 

Mohawk 40,828 25.31 24.34 1,033.322 1,062.279 

Osceola Con 59,000 15.3 16.14 904.714 936.252 

Quincy 94.000 18 18 1.692.000 1.728.000 

Trimountain 13.000 25 25 325.000 350.000 

Victoria 6.750 16 14.4 108,000 110.160 

Wolverine 22,567 14.53 16.62 327.970 399.249 

Winona 9.000 15 15 135,000 95.000 

White Pine . . 242.843 13.600 

"Winona will start working both 'heads' this week, due 
to increased ore production. "Winona continues to add 
to the underground working force by employing men 
formerly working at the Mass Consolidated. The 
Quincy 's new hoist at No. 2 shaft will be ready to 
operate by June 1, 1920, according to present plans. 
"White Pine is putting on additional men, and the grade 
of ore quality is holding up to average. 

January .«. 1-120 



Ditidbj- Eighteen inches of ore assaying ^'ii'" and 16 
in. assaying $760 has been opened in a cross-cut driven 

i ..hi the botto ( the 300-ft Caldwell shall of the 

Divide Extension, according to unofficial reports. The 

work on the 200 ft level of the Divide Ex. has 1 a the 

centre of interest in the district for b long period. A 
fault continuing from the upper levels was thought to be 
the hanging wall of the vein when first out Duly unim- 
portant assays were secured at this point ami the work 
m;i-. continued, leading to tin 1 opening of the rich ore. 


The new shaft of the Belcher Extension, now slightly 
over 100 ft. deep, is in ore of an average value of from 
-$100 to $125. No lateral work has been done to deter- 
mine the width of the vein. The shaft of the Tonopah 
Divide, being sunk from the fifth, or 580-ft. level, is 630 
ft. deep. 

Goldfield. — Preliminary estimates indicate that the 
production of the Goldfield district for 1919 was close to 
$700,000. Latest estimates put a value of $260,000 on the 
output of the Florence. Including bullion produced 
from the mill clean-up, the Consolidated output was 
$263,300, most of this sum coming from the clean-up, as 
only 5165 tons of ore was milled to February 1, when the 
mines and mill were taken over by the Development com- 
pany. A segregation of the $263,300 is not available. 
The Development produced 4575 dry tons of a gross value 
of $134,028, or a per ton value of $29.30. The Jumbo 
. .Extension produced 132 dry tons of a gross value of 

19914 as a result of work by leasees, and the output «( the 
tin'at Bend was 85 tons of a gross value ol $2055. Tins 
giVM I total of over $t;tlH.(l()tl and it is believed the linal 

figures will reach $7on.ii<io beeause many of the important 
items in the Consolidated estimate are net. The Florence 
for 1920 have been Let and an announcement from 
the management giving details is expected in a short 
time. The Florence Divide is expected to sign an agree- 
ment giving thai company the most desirable part of the 
block mined last year. The Cracker Jack is understood 
to have sectored a valuable part of the block. 

Sinus Distiik -t.- A full face of silver-lead ore assay- 
ing $12 has 1 opened in a cross-CUt driven 80 ft. to the 

v. in from the bottom of the 280-ft. shaft of the Simon 
Mina. A snow-covered road to the mine that is in poor 
eondition makes economical operation difficult and it has 
been decided to suspend work until March. 

Arrowhead. — Seams of rich silver-gold ore are being 
cut in a raise from the south-east drift on the 175-ft. 
level of the Arrowhead, indicating approach to the ore- 
shoot and proving that it rakes sharply in this direction. 
Fifteen inches of high-grade ore has been found beyond 
what was thought to be the foot-wall of the vein on the 
100-ft. level. The average width of the ore at this depth 
is 8 ft. and the shoot has been opened for a length of 60 
ft., with the face of the drift still in high-grade material. 

Eureka. — The Silver Lick group of 10 claims in the 
Adams Hill part of the district has been sold to Hayden, 
Stone & Co., of New York, for a price reported to be 
$100,000, with a cash payment of $10,000. The claims 
have been developed to a depth of 150 ft. through two 
shafts and it is said that they have heretofore produced 
$250,000 worth of silver-lead ore. The Bullwhacker Con- 
solidated Mines Co. has been formed to re-open the Bull- 
whacker and Silver West in the same part of the district. 
The company is controlled by the Eureka-Holly interests. 
The two groups, which adjoin the Holly on the strike of 
the vein, have been developed on a large scale to a depth 
of 300 ft. and have produced over $400,000. The main 
shaft is 400 ft. deep. Work has been stopped in the 
300-ft. winze from the 400-ft. level of the Croesus. Drift- 
ing has been started from the bottom of a 45-ft. vertical 
winze in the 'cave' orebody on the 200-ft. level, south- 
west of the Catlin shaft, and a promising shoot of rich ore 
is being opened. Ore of high grade is being found in a 
drift and raise on the 400-ft. level, far north of the shaft, 
where a search for the downward extension of the Dun- 
derberg orebodies is being made. 


review of Utah's production figures for 1919. — divi- 

Salt Lake Citt. — With the handicap of adverse eco- 
nomic conditions occasioned by the ending of the World 
War, mining activity in Utah during the past year has 
been greatly retarded. Added to the poor copper mar- 
ket conditions, the lead market for a large part of the 
year was in an unhealthy condition, so that the big lead 
producers naturally followed the copper producers and 



January 3, 1920 

curtailed operations. Coupled with the adverse market 
conditions, litigation involving some of the largest mines 
in the State, and a period of labor agitation in the Park 
City district, were factors in reducing ore production. 
All of the factors combined resulted in the production of 
metal in Utah dropping from a total value of $86,047,597 
in 1918 to approximately $45,737,683 in 1919. The esti- 
mated gold production in 1919 is $1,899,924, as compared 
with $2,949,170 in 1918. The estimated value of 11,719,- 
463 oz. of silver, assuming an average price of $1.09 per 
ounce, would be approximately $12,789,450, as compared 
with a production of 13,455,597 oz. during 1918, at an 
average value of $1 per ounce. The estimated production 
of copper during 1919 is 127,092,221 lb., as compared 
with 227,169,630 lb. in 1918, which shows a curtailment 
of nearly 50%. The value of the 1919 production of 
copper is estimated at $24,147,522, as compared with 
$56,110,899 for the previous year. The lead production 
for 1919 is estimated at 124,213,073 lb., as compared with 
167,008,224 lb. in 1918. Conditions at the close of 1919 
are encouraging to the silver and lead producers of the 
State, but the condition of the copper metal market is 
such that there is no immediate prospect of the State's 
copper mines going back to a 100% basis of production. 
All of the smelters in the State operated throughout the 
year at reduced capacity. On January 1, 1919, the Utah 
Copper Co. discontinued operations entirely at its Boston 
mine at Bingham, and closed down its leaching plant and 
the greater portion of the Magna plant at Garfield. On 
March 1, the Magna plant was closed down completely, 
only a small force of men being kept for construction and 
remodeling work; all tonnage mined was treated at the 
Arthur plant during the rest of the year. All of the mills 
erected to re-treat tailing at Park City are now out 
of existence and the plants dismantled. The Midvale 
Minerals Co. 's plant at Midvale, built for the purpose of 
re-treating tailing from the United States concentrator, 
also suspended operations after encountering financial 
difficulties. The Judge electrolytic zinc plant at Park 
City was closed early in the year and did not resume 

Eureka. — Operations at the Chief Consolidated mine 
were suspended from December 24 to 27, inclusive, dur- 
ing which time additional pumping equipment was in- 
stalled. Three new centrifugal pumps have been re- 
ceived. A new 8-in. water column was put down the 
shaft. "When centrifugal pumps were first installed the 
past summer, provision was made so the shaft for the dis- 
charge pipes was sufficiently large to carry water for four 
such columns as are now in use. The flow now is approxi- 
mately 800 gallons per minute, being increased during 
the last few weeks by the water drained from the new 
shaft by the Plutus drift. Work in the No. 2 shaft of the 
Chief mine is progressing rapidly, with no water to con- 
tend with, and there remains but 60 ft. before connection 
will be made with the raise from the drift on the lowest 
level of the mine. 

Operations at the Tintic Milling Co.'s plant are at a 
maximum. For the past few months the mill has been 
handling much of the low-grade product of the Chief 

Consolidated, tke Dragon Consolidated, and the various 
Jesse Knight properties. The plant is now treating about 
300 tons per day with a chloridizing-leaching process 
known as the 'Holt-Dern Process', originally developed 
at Park City. 

Ore shipments from this district for the week ending 
December 20, totalled 129 cars, a decrease of 14 cars from 
the previous week's shipments. A shortage of coal at 
several of the properties has caused some reduction. The 
Chief Consolidated shipped 36 cars ; the Tintic Standard, 
24 ; Dragon, 14 ; Iron Blossom, 12 ; Eagle & Blue Bell, 10 ; 
Mammoth, 6 ; Grand Central, 5 ; Centennial-Eureka, 5 ; 
Colorado, 5 ; Swansea, 4 ; Gemini, 2 ; Alaska, 2 ; Sunbeam, 
2 ; Victoria, 1 ; Ridge & Valley, 1. 

Directors of the Tintic Standard Mining Co. held a 
special meeting on December 22 and declared an extra 
dividend of 15c. per share, payable December 24. This, 
with the regular dividend of 8c, will make a total divi- 
dend of 23c. per share for the last quarter of the year. 
There are 1,175,000 shares of stock outstanding, so that 
the dividends for the quarter will total $270,250, bring- 
ing total dividends for the year up to $552,218, and the 
total to date $1,234,674. 

Park City. — Discovery of a bedded deposit of high- 
grade carbonate ore, four feet thick, is reported from the 
Silver King Consolidated mine. It is some distance south 
of the bedding opened in September, and is surrounded 
by unexplored territory. It is said that the ore is of the 
same character as the carbonate produced by the bedding 
in the north end of the 'Electric Light' claim, which 
averages $50 to $60 per ton. net. The usual rate of 
progress is being maintained by the company in driving 
the Spiro tunnel, which is in more than two miles and 
will soon be under a prospect shaft on the 'Marconi' 
claim, where there are indications of ore. Beyond this 
point the tunnel will pass in rapid succession through 
the series of fissures famous for their productivity in the 
Silver King Coalition and the easterly workings of the 
Silver King Consolidated. 

Shipments of ore from the camp for the week ending 
December 20 totalled 1978 tons, of which the Judge M. & 
S. Co. shipped 671 tons; the Ontario Silver, 548 tons; 
the Silver King Coalition, 505 tons; Iowa Copper, 55 
tons ; Naildriver, 55 tons ; and Daly-West, 143 tons ; total, 
1978 tons. 

Alta. — At a meeting of the directors of the Cardiff 
Mining & Milling Co. on December 19, a dividend of 15c. 
per share was declared, payable December 24. This will 
call for the payment of $75,000, and will bring the total 
dividends paid by the company up to $800,000. The 
present dividend is the first paid the stockholders since 
October 1, 1918. 

Through a deed just filed with the county recorder, two 
claims owned by the Tipperary Mining Co. become the 
property of the Emma Silver Mining Co. These two 
claims, the 'Revolution' and 'Mackay', cut into the prop- 
erty of the Emma Silver, and rather than have any diffi- 
culties in the future, the Emma company purchased the 
ground, and in so doing squared off their extensive 
holdings in the camp. 

Januiirx 8, 1980 



ltlUllsll lOllMIHA 

Victoria. — An agreemenl is reported to have been 
reached between the operator! and the minora of Districl 
18, Qnited Mine Workers of America, which comprises 
eastern British Colombia and the Province of Alberta. 
The agreement reached covers an increase of 14 r , in the 
men's pay ami also stipulates thai only members of the 
tl. M. \Y. of A. may work in tlu- mines of District 18. G. 
Robertson. Minister of Labor, in discuasing the situation 
said: "1 have no statement to make regarding the 'One 
Big Union' other than that contained in my letter to 
Henry Beard in reply to a communication thai be ad- 
1 to me. I feel that from the information con- 
tained in my reply the public will approve ami endorse 
the course taken by the coal operators and the United 

tiiient, assaying between IG and m\ . The Texas Creek 

mine was opened in 1914 and taken over by the present 

company in September 1918, Sir then the company 

has made cuts to 900 ft. and has taken out Iti tons of ore, 
half of which was shipped to Ontario while the remainder 

still is on the dump. All shares in this company are said 
to have been taken off the market. 

That the Lbrne and another of the operating pi'operties 
of Cadwallader creek has been bonded by the Mining 
Corporation of Canada is reported on good authority. 
This eorporation recently acquired the Pioneer mine on 
the Bame waterway. 

Stewart. — The Algonquin Syndicate, of Belgium, has 
bonded the Northern Light group of eight claims from 
Charles and William Bunting, original locators of the 
Premier mine, the Woodbine group, the fraction owned 


Mine Workers, and approved by the Director of Coal 
Operations for the purpose of preventing as far as possi- 
ble a deliberate attempt, without cause, on the part of the 
0. B. U. to bring about a tie-up in the coal industry un- 
less they were recognized. That, of course, is out of the 

The main points in the Minister's letter to Henry 
Beard are that it is obviously impossible to recognize two 
organizations as having jurisdiction to negotiate wage 
agreements for the same workmen ; that the United Mine 
Workers have a well established reputation for respecting 
and fulfilling agreements made; that the organization 
Mr. Beard represents has by its acts and utterances of its 
leaders indicated no tendency to respect or fulfill any 
contractual obligation, and that the 0. B. U. as an organ- 
ization was wholly unreliable and untrustworthy. 

Lillooet. — Attention has recently been directed to the 
property of the Index Milling & Mining Co., situated on 
Texas creek, 12 miles from Lillooet. This company 
claims to have the highest-grade molybdenite on the con- 

by David O'Leary and Charles Lake, and the Cobalt 
group of three claims, owned by John Hovland. A con- 
siderable part of this property adjoins the Premier. 
There are nine veins on the Northern Light group that 
have characteristics similar to those on the Premier, while 
on the Woodbine a body of milling ore has been uncov- 
ered 100 ft. in length and 70 ft. in width. W. A. Mel- 
loche, who is acting for the Belgian syndicate, has let a 
diamond-drill contract to Lynch Brothers, of Seattle, who 
will put three drills to work as soon as the season opens, 
next spring. W. B. Tanner has acquired the property ad- 
joining the Forty-Nine group, and is forming a syndicate 
to develop it. A vein of milling ore 27 ft. wide is re- 
ported from the New Alaska, on the United States side of 
the boundary. A Vancouver company is being formed to 
take over the property adjoining the New Alaska from J. 
Schwenter, Angus McKenbie, and E. Borson. The new 
government road from Stewart to Hyder has been com- 
pleted. Though it is only a little more than two miles 
long, it has been a costly and difficult piece of construe- 



January 3, 1920 

tion, more tlian half of it being trestle and rock work 
around a steep bluff. Besides connecting the two towns, 
the road connects the groups of. mines in the Salmon 
River and Bear River valleys, making the mines readily 
accessible to both of the towns. 

Greenwood. — The Bell mine, at Beaverdell, which has 
been shipping monthly two cars of copper ore assaying 
100 oz. silver per ton, recently shipped a car of ore that 
assayed 502 oz. per ton in silver. After all charges had 
been paid the car returned the shippers $17,000. 

Trail. — The Consolidated M. & S. Co. has cleared the 
refuse from the fire at the copper-ore crusher, and will 
erect a much larger plant in its place. The new building 
will be of reinforced concrete and will cost in the vicinity 
of $50,000. The company is doubling the capacity of its 
machine-shop by the addition of a new wing, having a 
floor-space of 42 by 100 ft. T. fiopkins, who has returned 
from England, where he had charge of munition work, 
has been made superintendent of the electrical work at 
the smelter. The extremely cold weather has caused a 
shortage of water, and the Consolidated company has had 
to close its concentrator. 

Anyox. — The Granby company blew-in an additional 
furnace last month, and is now smelting 80,000 tons of 
ore per month, an increase of more than 25%. 

Cariboo. — Robert Bryce and associates, who hold an 
option on the Independent and the Imperial groups, on 
Proserpine mountain, have secured an option on the 
Dufferin group from David Moore. Mr. Bryce has driven 
between 200 and 300 ft. of tunnels on the former prop- 
erties, as well as a considerable amount of open-cutting. 
and is anxiously awaiting the arrival of two diamond- 
drills that are on their way to the property. 



Toronto. — The report of the invention by John O. 
Arnold, Professor at Sheffield University, England, of a 
new steel of superior hardness, molybdenum being one of 
its constituents, has created much interest in Ontario 
mining circles. During the War molybdenum was much 
in demand and several important deposits of molyb- 
denite, principally in the Ottawa valley, were developed. 
Owing to the employment of tungsten as a hardening 
metal the demand for molybdenum fell off, and since the 
War there has been no production. Simultaneously with 
the announcement of Prof. Arnold's invention comes the 
report of the finding of large deposits of molybdenite in 
Pontiac county, Quebec. Should the new process prove 
successful a revival of the molybdenite mining industry 
on a large scale is anticipated. 

The Lignite Utilization Board, appointed by the Cana- 
dian government to install and operate a plant in west- 
ern Canada for the briquetting of lignite coal, of which 
there are large deposits in Saskatchewan, reports that the 
plant will be in operation by next August with a capacity 
of 30,000 tons of briquettes per annum. The Board, 
which has made an exhaustive examination of the process, 
visiting many plants in the United States, states that 

briquettes can be produced equal to anthracite in heat- 
value and keeping qualities, and sold for about $9.40 per 
ton in Winnipeg. The plant will be situated near Este- 
van, Saskatchewan. Though the output as compared with 
the requirements of Manitoba and Saskatchewan will be 
but a 'drop in the bucket', it is hoped that the project will 
considerably relieve the fuel situation by proving the 
commercial feasibility of the process and inducing pri- 
vate capitalists to engage in the industry. 

Larder Lake. — Contracts by the Associated Goldfields 
for 5000 ft. of diamond-drilling are approaching con- 
summation. The work has been successful in indicating 
some rich ore and large bodies of low-grade material. 
Underground work is proceeding on six faces all in ore. 
A high-grade shoot 25 ft. wide developed on the 500-ft. 
level of Block B has been encountered on the 400-ft. level. 
The company is increasing its working forces. The Lar- 
der Swastika Prospectors Association has been organized 
in the interests of this district and the adjoining area of 
Swastika. It has actively taken up the transportation 
question and is urging the Provincial government to con- 
struct a railroad to the camp. 

Cobalt. — The development of a large amount of high- 
grade ore during the past several months at the Nip- 
issing, as well as recent discoveries of rich ore-shoots on 
such properties as the Crown Reserve, Beaver Consoli- 
dated, and Temiskaming gives promise of a moderate in- 
crease in the output from Cobalt during the next few 
months. The Nipissing continues to produce at the rate 
of close to $12,000 daily. As a consequence of having 
accumulated a surplus of some $4,300,000 the company 
will disburse a bonus of 5% in addition to the regular 
January dividend of 5%, the total disbursement amount- 
ing to $600,000. 

According to authoritative advice the Crown Reserve 
is producing silver in greater volume during the current 
month than for several months past. Some of the ore 
recently encountered is equal in richness to the best ever 
found in the mine. A considerable tonnage containing 
several thousand ounces per ton has already been pre- 
pared for shipment. 

The Temiskaming Mining Co. after a lapse of some two 
years has resumed dividend disbursements and in Janu- 
ary will distribute 4%, amounting to $100,000. The 
McKinley-Darragh is producing at the rate of 1918, when 
904,543 oz. was the output. The oil-flotation plant is still 
being operated but will probable close some time in Feb- 
ruary, to be shut down until May. In a semi-annual re- 
port just issued by the Peterson Lake Mining Co. it is 
stated that adequate finances have been secured with 
which to conduct the contemplated exploration and de- 
velopment work. A recent shipment of ore netted the 
company $13,727. In addition to this, the report men- 
tions the sale of 385,000 shares of treasury stock at 15c. 
per share. 

The Cobalt mining companies are giving more atten- 
tion to the Gowganda and Elk Lake silver-bearing area 
where promising results continue in the exploration of 
numerous prospects: 

Jtnufun :t. 1980 


AKI/us \ 

Kingman. Messrs. Downer, King, and Clark of Tonopah 
have taken over the Estaleah-Cerbat Silver Mining Co. 'a 
property In the Cerbat district on behalf of the Divide Min- 
ing Co. Extensive development work is being planned. A 
considerable amount of development was done by the old 
company and a large tonnage of lead-silver ore was shipped 
from the upper workings, some of the shipments assaying 
«8% lead. $30 gold, and 35 oz. silver. 

A 4-ft. orebody on the 300-ft. level of the Senate silver 
mine has been opened. This development proves the con- 
tinuity of the orebody to that depth. The vein varies in 
width from 3 to 9 ft., and a large tonnage of ore was taken 
from the surface years ago. The 300-ft. level of the Senate 
corresponds to the 400-ft. level of the Hackberry Consoli- 
dated from which ore is being shipped containing 200 to 300 
oz. silver per ton. 

The drift on the 300-ft. level of the Telluride mine at Oat- 
man is now in ore assaying $30 in gold over a width of 30 
In. To date a length of 100 ft. has been proved and the ore 
continues to improve as progress is made. 

Mayer. — The Rebel and Kicker claims adjoining the Glad- 
stone have been purchased by the United American Copper 
Co. These claims were owned and operated by the Amal- 
gamated Copper Co. in the 'eighties. They have been leased 
from time to time, development having been carried to the 
200-ft. level. A large number of profitable shipments have 
been made. A power plant, hoist, and compressor are to be 
installed at once. 

The Arizona Copper & Mining Co. is installing newer and 
larger equipment on the Pentland mine. Development work 
has now reached a depth of 800 ft. and preparations are 
being made to mine and ship ore from the 500 and 600-ft. 


Nevada County. — The Penn-California Mining Co., of 
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, owner of 15 properties approxi- 
mating 1000 acres, is still driving its tunnel into the hill, 
having already penetrated 100 ft. of hard granite. An- 
other 200 ft. will probably be necessary before raising into 
the ore-channel. The tunnel was surveyed by E. C. Uren, 
and is 53 by 7 ft. in the clear with a 6% grade. A 15-stamp 
mill has been completed near the tunnel outlet. The officers 
of the company are: Charles L. Walther, president; A. W. 
Hoge. first vice-president and general manager; W. H. 
Ketchum, second vice-president. 

Sierra County. — It is reported that James F. Hunt has or- 
ganized a company to operate the Oxford mine near here, 
and plans to start work at once. A tramway will be built 
to the Gold Bluff mill, where the ore will be crushed. Two 
Gibson mills will be installed to re-grind the tailing from the 
mill, and take the place of concentrators. Work will begin 
at the apex of the vein. 


Mayday. — Fred Brandiger and Geo. W. Avery have opened 
up a new orebody at the Idaho. The vein is said to be three 
ieet wide and to assay on an average $50 per ton in gold. 

A carload has been taken out ready for shipment to the 

The Idaho shut-down four years ago, when Its ore was 
said to have been exhausted, after a record as a steady ship- 
per of high-grade ore. Several carloads shipped from the 
dump during the past summer assayed from $32 to $50 per 
ton. The Idaho has produced approximately $2,500,000. 


Coenr d'Alcnc. — The Montana-Idaho Copper Co., engaged 
in a large development enterprise near Adair, has suspended 
operations because of a shortage of water, according to W. 
J. Klrby, secretary-treasurer. The company has operated 
continuously for the last four years and will resume when 
conditions permit. 

The Caledonia Mining Co. has declared its usual monthly 
dividend of $26,050, according to Stanly A. Easton, presi- 
dent. This is at the rate of lc. per share on an issue of 
2.605,000 shares. Payment will be made January 5. The 
forthcoming payment will increase the total of disburse- 
ments to $4,011,700. 

The Consolidated Interstate-Callahan company shipped 
5,825,389 lb. of zinc concentrate in November last. It 
shipped 2, 164, 90S lb. of lead concentrate and 20,017 oz. of 
silver in the same month. This showing was due to im- 
proved methods of handling and the oil-flotation system of 
metal recovery, according to report. 

Latah County. — Five feet of chalcopyrite ore, averaging 
10% copper, has been struck by the Merger Mining Co. in a 
shaft 30 ft. deep, according to E. R. Northrup, secretary. 
The vein at this point has been cross-cut 11 ft. without dis- 
closing the foot-wall. Six feet of the vein toward the foot- 
wall will average 2 % copper. 

Shoshone County. — "In recent months we have put many 
additional tons of ore in eight by drifting on the vein, prin- 
cipally on the 700-ft. or old No. 2 tunnel level," is the state- 
ment of Henry H. Armstead, president of the Armstead 
Mines. "On this level the vein has been opened at points 
1600 ft. apart principally by drift, but partly by cross-cuts. 
The campaign for the winter includes drifting on the vein at 
points north and south from the raise and a continuance of 
the raise for 150 ft. above its top. The raise is about 600 ft. 
long and connects the No. 3 and 2 tunnels. 


Butte. — The Anaconda Copper company has declared a 
dividend of $1 per share, payable February 24 to stock- 
holders of record January 17. 


Hawthorne. — We are informed by John B. Platts, super- 
intendent, that a large body of minable ore has recently been 
opened in the old Sunrise mine, now called the Silver Dollar, 
situated about 20 miles south of Hawthorne. After sorting 
and shipping some high-grade ore 40 years ago the mine 
was closed down and allowed to cave. It was not re-opened 
until this year when the Oro Zona Mines Co. acquired the 
property and cleaned out the old workings. Cleaning out an 
old mine is a risky undertaking because the traditional rich 



January 3, 1920 

ore in the bottom is seldom there. In this case the oper- 
ators were agreeably surprised to find a large body of pay- 
ing ore almost untouched except for the development work. 
The ore contains gold, silver, and some lead, is 6 ft. wide, 
and the shoot is nearly 1000 ft. long. The shaft is a little 
over 100 ft. deep with good ore in the bottom. 

1'ioche. — The Prince Consolidated Mining Co. is speeding 
the sinking of the new shaft to the orebodles below. For 
the past two weeks an average advance of 5.8 ft. per day 
has been made in the deepening of the big working shaft, 
which has now reached a total depth of 475 ft. The water- 
level is still 70 ft. deeper, but at the present rate of progress 
it should be reached soon. A large station will be cut at 
the water-level to accommodate the pumps and other neces- 
sary equipment to continue work. The installation of the 
sterling boilers will be completed by January 15. All the 
necessary adjuncts to the pumping and power installations 
should also be completed by that time. A sub-track bin for 
coal is being built and the coal will be transferred from this 
track-bin to the big storage-bin, situated at the boiler plant, 
by a wide conveyor-belt. 


Quapaw. — The Charlotte Lead & Zinc Co. is just com- 
pleting a new 150-ton mill on its lease two miles east of 
Quapaw, and will begin operation early in January. The 
mill is of 150 tons capacity, equipped with gas engines. Gas 
and steam equipment have been furnished for the under- 
ground work. 

Two shafts have been sunk into ore, which was en- 
countered at 85 ft., being about equal in lead and zinc value. 
I. M. Holcomb of Oklahoma City is president of the com- 
pany. The Lead Boy Mining Co. is preparing to resume 
operations at its Lead Boy mill, two miles east of Quapaw, 
immediately after the first of the year. The mill has been 
closed down for the past three or four months, but has been 
cleaned up and put in first-class condition for steady work 
in 19 20. It is a 150-ton plant. 


Spokane. — Special interest attaches to the annual conven- 
tion of the Northwest Mining Institute in Spokane, Febru- 
ary 16-21, as the 'flu ban' prevented the annual gathering 
in 1919. An exceptionally good program has been arranged, 
including special days for Idaho, British Columbia, and 

Work of a permanent character has been done on the 
Gladstone Mountain mine, Northport district, recently, ac- 
cording to Dan D. Dodd, superintendent. The company has 
100 tons of clean ore on the dump. 

L. Oriard and associates of Marshall are working the 
Goldenrod mine near Chesaw and will ship their first car of 
ore shortly. This ore averages $40 in gold, $11 in silver, 
and $3 in lead, and is hauled six miles to the railroad and 
then shipped to the smelter at Northport. 

J. A. MacLean, owner of the Roosevelt mine on Copper 
mountain, near Chesaw, has closed a contract with the 
Northwest Magnesite Co., Chewelah, to ship 2000 tons of 
magnetic iron ore from his property there. Delivery to the 
Chesaw spur will be made by two m6tor-trucks handling five 
tons each per trip. 

The Electric Point Mining Co. expects to make 1920 the 
banner year in volume of production. The best year of the 
Electric Point was 1917, when it shipped 16,310 tons and 
after disbursing $158,700 in dividends had a surplus of 
$200,000. Since 1917 the company has installed a tram- 
way more than two miles long that eliminates a hard and 
dangerous wagon haul of several miles. The tramway will 
handle 200 tons per day with ease and can handle 500 tons 
daily under pressure, according to a recent statement of the 

The Editor invites members of the profession to Bend particulars of their 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers. 

Jay P. Graves is at Pasadena. 

R. C. Gemmell is in San Francisco. 

F. A. Goodale has gone to Australia. 

W. J. Elmendorf was recently at Sandon, B. C. 

Charles A. Banks, of Vancouver, is on his way to London. 

Theodore J. Hoover has returned to Palo Alto from New 

L. W. Lennox has returned to Cripple Creek by way of 
Los Angeles. 

F. W. Holler is superintendent of the Surf Inlet mine in 
British Columbia. 

W. D. Thornton was here from New York during the 
Christmas holidays. 

S. M. Levy, manager for the Calaveras Copper Co., has 
returned from New York. 

Charles F. Willis has become editor of the 'Arizona Min- 
ing Journal', published at Phoenix. 

G. M. Colvocoresses, manager of the Humboldt smelter, 
near Prescott, Arizona, has been in New York. 

Andrew W. Newberry has opened on office at 66 Broad- 
way, New York, as consulting mining engineer. 

Fred. B. Mechling, of Tonopah, was in San Francisco on 
his return from the Yale district in British Columbia. 

W. W. J. Croze, manager of the geological department of 
the Oliver Iron Mining Co., at Duluth, Minnesota, has gone 
to Brazil. 

P. G. Beckett has been promoted to general manager for 
the Phelps Dodge Corporation, with headquarters at Doug- 
las, Arizona. 

Norman N. Blye, superintendent of the Silver King Con- 
solidated mine at Park City, Utah, spent the holidays at 
Los Angeles. 

Arthur W. Jenks has just returned from Oregon and 
Idaho, where he has been making a series of examinations 
for Portland clients. 

Herbert S. Shuey, secretary to the Merrill Company, of 
San Francisco, was married on December 26, to Miss Flor- 
ence McAvoy, of Boise, Idaho. 

J. C. Lane, superintendent of the Kennecott Copper Cor- 
poration's milling plant in Alaska, is visiting metallurgical 
plants in Utah, Nevada, and Arizona. 

Sumner S. Smith, of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, was in 
San Francisco on his return from Anchorage, Alaska. He 
is now examining coal-cleaning plants in New Mexico. 

Charles W. Adams, recently appointed general manager of 
the East Helena plant of the A. S. & R. Co., was married to 
Miss Mary Crowley at Salt Lake City on December 26. 

J. Harry Hughes, of Mobile, Alabama, who served in 
France with the Rainbow Division, has become assistant 
superintendent for the Ranier Mines Corporation, at Wen- 
den, Arizona. 

E. W. Engelmann has been appointed to the position of 
consulting research engineer for the Utah Copper, Chino 
Copper, Ray Con. Copper, and Nevada Con. Copper com- 
panies, with headquarters at Salt Lake City. 

Charles Keith Blackwood, vice-president, assistant treas- 
urer, and a director of the Sullivan Machinery Co., died in 
Chicago on December 14. His sound financial judgment, 
keen foresight, and executive ability, had been important 
factors in the Sullivan company's growth during the past 
seventeen years, where he was a valued associate and loyal 

January :;. 1920 






San Francisco. December 30 

Aluminum dunt .vnts per pound 95 

Antimony. eantl l*-r pound 10.00 

Copper, electrolytic, emu per pound 10.00 

Lead, pis. cent* per pound 7 7.-, — h 75 

Platinum, pure, per ounce 1150 

Platinum. 10% iridium, per ounce $180 

Quicksilver, per flisk of 75 lb $85 

Spelter, cents per pound 10.00 

Zinc-dust, cents per pound 12. GO — 15.00 


(By wire from New York) 
December 30. — Copper is active and higher. Lead is drone and ad- 
vancing. Zinc is active and higher. 


Below are riven official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
099 fine. From April 23. 1918. the United States government paid 11 per 
ounce for all silver purchased by it. fixing' a maximum of SI 01 '-_. on 
August 15. 1918. and will continue to pay SI until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
May 5. 1919. all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being on March 25. 1910. on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10. 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine) in British currency is 46.65 
pence per ounce (925 fine), calculated at the normal rate of exchange. 
New York London 



24 133.50 

25 Holiday 

20 133 00 

27 182.60 

28 Sunday 

39 132.50 

30 131 50 




Average week ending 

18 125.73 

25 131.93 

2 132.00 

9 131.29 

16 131.20 

23 133,50 

30 188 SO 


. .75.14 

Feb 77.54 

Mch 74.13 

Apr 72.51 

May 74.61 

June 76.44 


Monthly averages 



July 78.92 

Aug 85.40 

Sept: 100.73 

Oct 87.38 

Nov 85.97 

Dec 85.97 



.IS M 



Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 




24 18.75 

25 Holiday 

26 18.75 

27 18.87 " 9. 

28 Sunday " 16. 

29 10.00 " 23. 

30 19.25 " 30. 

Monthly averages 

1918 1019 

23.60 20.43 

23.60 17.34 

23.50 16.05 

23.50 15.23 

23.60 15.91 

23.50 17.63 

Average week ending 



Feb 34.57 

Mch 36.00 

Apr 33.16 

May 31.69 

June 32.57 


July 29.67 

Aug 27.42 

Sept 25.11 

Oct 23.60 

Nov 23.60 

Dec 23.60 




Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 



25 Holiday 



28 Sunday 





Jan 7.64 

Feb 9.10 

Mch 10 07 

Apr 9.38 

May 10.29 

June 11.74 

.. 7.62 
. . 7.75 
Monthly averages 

1918 1919 

Average week ending 










July 10.93 

Aug 10.76 

Sept 9.07 

Oct 6.97 

Nov 6.38 

Dec 6.49 


Prices in New York, in cents per pound: 

Monthly averages 


Jan 44.10 

Feb 61.47 

Mch 54.27 

Apr 66.63 

May 63.21 

June 61.93 


























line i" quoted as ipeltar, 
in oenti per pound: 



26 Holiday 


2H Sunday 



■tanderd vYeateni brandf. New York delivery. 

s s;, 



Average week ending 









Monthly averages 


Jan 9.75 

Feb 10.46 

Mch 10.78 

Apr 10.20 

May 9.41 

June 9.63 







The primary market for 
the largeBt producer. The 
quantity. PrieeB. in dollars 
Dec. 3 : . . 


quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
price is fixed in the open market, according to 
per flask of 75 pounds: 

I Dec. 10 100.00 

. 96.00 " 23 05.00 

.100.00 I " 30 85.00 

Monthly averages 

1917 1918 
. 81.00 128.00 
.126.35 118.00 


Mch 113.75 113.00 

Apr 114.60 115.00 

May 104.00 110.00 

June 86.00 113 00 



July 102.00 

Aug 115.00 

Sept 112.00 

Oct 102.00 

Nov 102.50 

Dec 117.42 







78 00 



There have been persistent rumors that 'something was being done' to 
improve the European exchange situation. These reports have been lent 
color by a slight recovery in the sterling rate during the last few days. 
But investigation fails to uncover the existence of any new steps along 
thiB line, other than those already planned or outlined and which are being 
held in abeyance pending formal termination of the War. The Far Eastern 
exchange problem is less difficult and action intended to stabilize rates in 
the Orient are being taken. 

Three million silver dollars were shipped from San Francisco to China on 
Christmas Day. Consignment is being made on joint account by the Inter- 
national Banking Corporation. Park Union Foreign Banking Corporation, and 
Asia Banking Corporation. It is the first shipment which these institutions 
have forwarded to the Orient under the arrangement they have recently en- 
tered into with the Government for the purpose of stabilizing Far Eastern 
exchange and conserving this country's supply of gold. In accordance with 
the terms of agreement, the silver dollars have been procured againat the 
tender of current funds from the free supply carried by the Government 
in its general fund. That the silver pieces are being sent intact, without 
first being melted down into bars, is due, for one thing, to the approach of 
the Chinese new year, which begins February 1. This date in the Chinese 
calendar is the general settlement period, and the Chinese money market 
usually experiences considerable hardening. 

The present shipment is not the first consignment of silver dollars to 
China. Before the Government embarked on its present policy of selling 
silver dollars to the three institutions named above, an aggregate of 12.- 
000.000 silver dollars had been forwarded to China on strictly private ac- 
count. 3.000.000 on November 25 and 9.000.000 on December 10. Among 
the shippers of these earlier consignments were the International Banking 
Corporation, which initiated the movement, the Hongkong & Shanghai Bank, 
the Equitable Trust Co., and the Chartered Bank of India. 

A rather interesting feature connected with these consignments is the 
fact that the silver dollars were obtained from the San Francisco sub- 
treasury against the payment of current funds. Except under the plan now 
in operation, silver dollars can ordinarily be procured from the Government 
only against the presentation of silver certificates. But after some nego- 
tiations with the Washington authorities bankers succeeded in securing sil- 
ver dollars, against the tender of current funds, from the stock carried by 
the general fund. This explains the reduction in the amount of free silver 
dollars held by the Government from 67.000.000 in the latter part of No- 
vember to 52.000.000 on December 11. 

Large amounts of silver bullion have also been forwarded from this 
country to China during the paat several weeks. Bankers are inclined to 
anticipate a subsidence in the movement, if not a total cessation, in the not 
distant future. Future dollar exchange in Shanghai, for delivery about the 
first of February, which is usually the form of remittance to thiB country, 
purchased in Shanghai against shipments of the white metal from the 
United States, is already quoted below the export parity, and with the 
approach of the Chinese new year, it would not be surprising if a further 
decline should occur in the rate, particularly if silver continues to main- 
tain its present strength in this market. 

Foreign exchange quotations on December 30 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 3.79% 

Demand 3.78% 

France, cents : Cable 9.33 

Demand 9.31 

Lire, centB: Demand 7.69 

Marks, cents 3 16 



January 3, 1920 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, December 23. 

All the markets are generally quiet as is usual at" this 
season. Sterling exchange values still are a prominent fac- 
tor in determining prices of some metals. 

The copper market is very quiet but steady. 

Tin prices fluctuate with the changes in the pound ster- 
ling. Buying has been lighter than for some weeks. 

Lead is the strongest of all the markets and prices are 
still advancing. 

The zinc market has turned quiet and prices are slightly 
easier but steady. 

Antimony is quiet and unchanged. 


The end of 1919 witnesses steel mills still guarding 
against overloading their books. Some companies which 
have been refusing business since the beginning of the coal 
strike now have capacity open for the first quarter of 1920, 
hut the element of cost uncertainty still exists as an unde- 
termined factor. Quoting high prices has been purposely 
done to discourage business. Semi-finished steel is hard to 
obtain. Steel and iron production in the leading centres 
varies but little from that of recent weeks, the coal supplies 
not having increased to the extent indicated by reports from 
some mines. Expectation of considerable railroad business 
after January 1 is general and for rails alone orders running 
up to 800,000 to 1,000,000 tons are not improbable in 1920. 
Output of automobiles is still limited by the non-delivery of 
sheets and one large Detroit company has had to curtail 


The market has been quiet but sales are reported to have 
been fairly substantial, some of them to foreign countries. 
Japan has been again a heavy buyer. Prices have under- 
gone little change. Electrolytic copper for December and 
January delivery is steady at 18.75 to 19c, New York, with 
Lake copper at about 19 to 19.25c, New York. One large 
producer is reported as stating that sales in the last 60 days 
have been exceedingly large, while another authority asserts 
that between 250,000,000 and 300,000,000 lb. were con- 
tracted for this month, of which about 50,000,000 lb. is for 
export. Domestic business has been largely for December 
and first quarter of 1920, although some business is re- 
ported to have been booked for second quarter. Besides 
Japan, purchases have been made by Great Britain, France, 
Italy, and some by Germany, with the Scandinavian coun- 
tries also buyers. 


Conditions have changed but little from those obtaining a 
week ago. The market has been generally quiet. Less 
metal has been sold than during last week but price fluctua- 
tions have been erratic. Sterling exchange continues the 
predominating factor. Prices for spot tin are changing each 
day with the variations in the rate of exchange. As the 
result of a higher value to the pound starling yesterday and 
also a much higher London market, spot Straits tin was 
quoted yesterday at 55.50c, New York. In London spot 
Straits was £325 5s. per ton, or an advance over the previous 
day of £2 17s.6d. With the value of the pound at $3.80 
this makes the London price of spot Straits about 55.25c 
per lb. and not far from the American market. Because of 
the difficulty in obtaining future exchange there has been 
no buying or even quoting on future shipments. American 
pure tin is quoted at 54.25c with the 99% grade at 54c. 

Arrivals thus far this month have been 4928 tons, of which 
1190 tons is credited to Pacific ports. The quantity afloat 
is 3175 tons. 


"Exceedingly strong" — says a leading lead broker. It is 
the strongest of any of the non-ferrous metals. On Decem- 
ber 18 the American Smelting & Refining Co. again ad- 
vanced its price from 7 to 7.15c, New York, and 6.85 to 
6.90c, St. Louis. The tendency is decidedly upward and, 
while some regard the price as too high now, it is acknowl- 
edged that it may go higher. A pronounced scarcity as well 
as a good demand are two of the causes of the present high 
prices and there is also the factor of higher values abroad 
as well as less metal for importation. The London market 
yesterday was £43 15s. per ton for spot lead or £20 higher 
than six months ago. The outside market, which at present 
represents values, is quite a little higher than the Trust. 
Today lead has sold as high as 7.35c, New York, or 7.10c, 
St. Louis, which we quote as the market. Production gen- 
erally is reported as better and it is expected that this will 
be felt in lower prices by March 1920. 


Despite the fact that there has been quite a lapse in 
foreign buying and no increase in domestic demand, which 
has been light for some time, the market remains steady. 
The strength is evidenced by the fact that producers are 
comfortably sold up as far ahead as desired and are not 
pressing the market. The speculative position is also very 
favorable. Prime Western for early and first quarter de- 
livery is quoted at 9.30c, St. Louis, or 8.65c, New York. 
The London market has advanced very recently but owing 
to the wide changes in sterling exchange buying for British 
account has been checked. The London market was quoted 
yesterday at £53 15s. per ton, which is about 9c per lb. at 
the present value of the English pound in American dollars. 


No changes are recorded. Wholesale lots for early de- 
livery are quoted at 9.62*c, New York, duty paid, with 
demand light. 


For the best grades of virgin metal, 98 to 99 % pure, quo- 
tations are nominal at 32 to 33c, New York, for wholesale 
lots for early delivery. 


Tungsten: The market is dead and is expected to remain 
so until early in 1920 at least. Quotations are purely nom- 
inal at $7 to $15 per unit, depending on the grade of ore. 
Business in ferro-tungsten, if any, is probably a matter of 
negotiation as no open market quotations are heard of. 
Values are probably around $1 to $1.15 per lb. of contained 

Molybdenum: Conditions are unchanged and quotations 
are nominal at about 75c per lb. of MoS 5 in regular concen- 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: American producers of ferro- 
manganese have advanced their quotations to $130, de- 
livered, or $10 over the recent price at which a heavy busi- 
ness was done. The only British alloy known to be available 
is 1000 tons for second quarter at $120, seaboard. None of 
this is reported sold thus far, it having been before the 
market a week ago. Another British seller has a nominal 
authorized asking price of $125, seaboard. Spiegeleisen Is 
strong but quiet at $40, furnace. 

.Tamiar\ 3, 1920 



Copyright lSliQ. by Tho Goodyear Tiro & Rubber Co., Akroo, 0. 

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January 3, 1920 


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This oil feeder has been used in a large number of 
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Janu&rj 3, 1980 






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January 3, 1920 

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420 Market St., San Francisco 


Enclosed find $ 

Please ^jj|£ my subscription to the MINING and Scientific PRESS. 

Please send me a copy of 



Add $1.00 for Canadian Postage 
$2.00 for Foreign Postage 


Company employed by 

Julian :i. 1920 





2 — 60 H. P. Western Distillate Engines 
1 — 50 H. P. Western Distillate Engine 
1 — 35 H. P. Western Distillate Engine 
1 — 20 H. P. Fairbanks Type Y Oil Engine 
1 — 12 x 12 WG4 Sullivan Compressor 
1 — 16 x 10xl6WH2 Sullivan Compressor 

This is standard practice with all used machinery sent out by 





January 3, 1920 


Under this heading* announcements may be made of new and 
second-hand machinery or supplies, for sale or wanted. The cost 
is five cents per word, including- address. Minimum charge one 
dollar per insertion. Remittances MUST accompany order. Copy 
must be received by Saturday for the following- week's issue. 

1 MUCK CAGES for vertical shaft, designed to carry mine cat *it* 
1800 lb. of ore: outside measurement of platform 4 ft. 2 In. loav, 
ruidefl 4 In. x 4 in. and 2 ft. 11 in. apart; platform of gratinr and 
with track for 60 centimeter saute. 

8 MINK CABS, rotary dump, with roller bearing wheels and sxlet; 
capadty 1800 lb. of ore; total height 42 in. 

All of the above are new and packed for export shipment. 

An opportunity to obtain quick shipment at low prlee. 


§ 42 Broadway. New York tf | 







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A SUBSTANTIAL INTEREST in proven mine on California mother lode = 

i is available at extremely low price to assayer and surveyor or mining- en- = 

: gineer willing- to work for moderate salary during - development stage. Ad- 5 

dress P. O. Box 772. San Jose. Cal. tf £ 

PLACER GOLD PROPERTY? I know of a good one: have been working- I 

with the owner for years to get him in frame of mind to lease it; no I 

gamble; will stand strictest investigations. Am now looking- for man with = 

money to install equipment. Gravel lies on hillside and water is available. = 

This is a first-class hydraulic proposition. Address Mr. Czarra, Cantil, £ 

Cal. 1-3 | 

OPPORTUNITY — Diamond drilling on a new basis of cost, saving- you = 

one-half to one-quarter over present methods. Guaranteed work with best § 

up to the minute equipment, efficient and experienced help. Long- ex- = 

perienced and enthusiastic customers. Write for information. H. D. Staley, £ 

132 Lick Bdg-.. San Francisco. tf § 

WANTED — Lead . silver or gold property : Southwest preferred ; must I 

have sufficient tonnage in sight to justify installation of mining and milling = 

machinery. Will take in owners as partners if desired. Send full details = 

in first letter. Address Opp. 212, Mining and Scientific Press. 1-24 £ 

EXCELLENT SILVER-GOLD PROSPECTS for sale or trade. Write for | 

reports and liberal terms. Address Opp. 213, Mining and Scientflc Press. 1-3 = 

MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wants a permanent circulation rep- = 

resentative in every mining community in the world. Replies will be held = 

confidential if desired. Address. The Manager, Mining and Scientific Press | 

3iiiJiiitiititiiEiiiiiiJiiiiiiiji]iT4iMiiiMi(TtiiiuiJftiiiiPiiirii(iiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiriiiiiiiEiT>iriiiiriif iMitiMiriiiiMiiiiMiiiiiinriiiiiiiiiii iimiiiiel: £ 




1 — 5x30 Blake Challenge 

1 — 4x10 Blake 

1 — 7x10 Blake 

1 — 7x10 McFarlane 

1 — 7x10 Hendy & Meyer 

2 — 9x15 Farrell Blake 
1 — 9x15 McFarlane 

1 — - 9x15 Allis-Chalmers 
1 — 10x20 Davis Iron Wks. 
1 — 10x20 Allis-Chalmers 
1 — 13x24 McFarlane 
1 — 15x24 Power & Mining 

Mchy. Co. 
Extra Shafts for Blake Crushers 
Sizes 7x10 to 15x24 

2 — 414x6 McFarlane 
1 — 4%x6 McFarlane (New) 
1 — 5x 8 Dodge 
1 — 7x10 Dodge 
1 — 7x10 Davis Iron Wks. 
1 — 9x15 McFarlane 

No. 1 Gates 
No. 3 Austin 
No. 5 Austin 

1 — 7x15 Forsyth 
1 — 7x16 Samson 
1 — No. 3 Samson 
1 — No. 4 Samson 
1 — Size B Samson 
1 — No. 10 Symone 


1 — 6x 9 Parallel Sampling 

1 — 10x14 McFarlane 

3 — 12x20 McFarlane 

1 — 14x27 Colorado Iron Wks. 

1 — 14x27 Walker 

2—14x27 Davis 

2 — 14x30 Power & Mining Mch. 

1 — 14x36 Allis 

1 — 16x36 McFarlane 

1-— 16x36 Power & Mining Mch. 

1 — 16x36 Walker 

2 — Dorr Simplex 
3 — 30" Akins 
2 — Richards Vortex 
1 — 20" Allis-Chalmers 
1 — No. 1 Dorr Duplex 
1 — Dorr Simplex 

4 — 18x10 Thickeners 
1 — 22x 8 
2 — 24x 8 
1 — 30x10 
3 — 33x12 

3 — 12x10' 8" Agitators 
3 — 20x14 
3 — 20x20 

1 — 18" Perrin Filter Press 
1 — 24" Shriver Filter Press 
1 — 6'x6' Portland Filter 
1 — Kelly Filter 


= 1 — Steel Tank, 55.000 gal. capacity, supported by 10 columns of 7" 

= 9.75 channel irons 

§ 1 — 122'x8* No. 8 Steel Tank 

= i. — 34;x6' Storage Tank, %" thick 

6 — 14'x4' No. 12 Steel Tanks, capacity 4600 gal. 

£ 1 — 14'x3' No. 10 Steel Tank, capacity 3450 gal. 

= 1 — 7'x8',Vi" Steel Tank 

= 1 — 6'x5'.3/16" Steel Tank 

= 1 — t*x4' NO.JL2 Steel Tank 

I 3 — 30"x5' Closed Storage Tanks 

£ 2 — 18'x5' Acid Proof ' Tankr 

= 1 — 41"x42"x9' 3" Deep Boiling Tank 

5 3 — 8' Callow Tanks 

3 — 18x15x3 Wood Tanks (Oregon Fir) 

I 2 — 18x10x3 

= 2 — 16x 6x2 

£ 2 — 8x 8x3 " " " " £ 

I 1— 12x 6x2 " " " " = 

£ 1 — 24'xl6' Redwood Tank • = 

£ 1 — 30'x20' Redwood Tank = 

= 1 — 20' dia. x 16' deep Redwood Tank 

£ 1 — 22'xl4' Circular Redwood Tank § 

5 3 — 22'xl4' Circular Wooden Tanks = 

= Write us your requirements § 

Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co. 

1 1732 Wazee Street, Denver, Colorado 1 




| Concentrating Tables, Flotation Apparatus, Classifiers, | 
| Screens, etc 

1 W. A. BUTCH ART, 1326-1330 Eleventh St., Denver. Colo. | 

1 A. P. WATT. Eastern Representative, Room 1903, 52 VudeiDilt A« M New Yodt £ 








January 3, 1920 



Tin- 'ii-l «>f ;nlv.rli-Hi(j [or poallloni wanted t« 2 gni(| par word. 

,- .iddrr-m. Mininuint charge M ranU per InMDlloo. Replies 

.1 without f\tr.i rhanre Remittance* muni accompany 

order. Copy mu«l bo receivoi Saturday murmur lor Ihc following* 

week's term 







I People's Gas Bldg. Felt Bldg. Hollingsworth Bids = 
1 Chicago, III. Salt Lake City. Utah Los Angeles. Cal." = 
riiiiiriiiimiiiiiitiiiiinimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitmiiiiiitiiiiiK iiiiimiiiiiiimiiiniiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiiillillllllliie 

MINING ENGINEER urc 34 AngV technical graduate; thoroughly ex< 

- : in underground' nnd nurture operations exploration and geological 
■"'fk; rood executive and accustomed to hanoiing labor in Large twite; 
wan aftuatlon ls niperintendent, nasurtanl niperintendent or mining an- 
gideoN-ao objection io going abroad. Addreea i'W 333, Mining and Scten 

tiftV l*re*w. I-34 

AN ENGINEER, thirty-tone, Uichnif llr educated, potweeeed of common 
nana, abundant energy and fairly decent personality, thoroughly trained In 
the bu.tincw- of minnik*, milling and gmelung by eight yean experience ■*■< 
mucker, aurreyor, draftaman, chiei draftaman. mill Bupertntendent and 

mine engineer, wishes lo locate a position where the above qualifications are 
rvquirt-d Addre^w PW I'll, Mining and Sclent tflc Press. 1-3 

BOOKKEEPER, reliable accountant, aire 30. for mining and milling iu- 
duntry; tiniefceeplng, coal accounting or any kind of book work: practical 
f-cperieoce in mine development work; as an experienced bookkeeper in 
various line* of business I will give results that pay an. I pit-awe; wunlil like 
employment about January 1st or 15th. Address PW 219. Mining and 
Scientific Prewn. 1-10 

ASSAYER AND CHEMIST, also experienced in notation and leaching; 
long experience and references. Address P. O. Box 1067. Phoenix. 
An zona. 1-24 

MTNING ENGINEER AND METALLURGIST, technical graduate, age 34. 
manned, open for engagement as superintendent or assistant; ten years 
varied experience in mining and smelting of copper and lead ores, also as 
head of research department for large smelter. Address PW 320. Mining 
and Scientific Press. 1-3 

ORE DRESSING EXPERT, complete knowledge all modern methods of 
recovery, wants executive position near future. Specialty, big tonnage. 
frood extraction at reasonable cost. Now employed in large operations. 
References galore. Address PW 223. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-17 

SALES ENGINEER, with long foreign and domestic experience, wants 
position; technical education, practical experience; most familiar with min- 
ing, milling, cement and allied industries needs. Address PW 324. Mining 
and Scientific Press. 1-24 

ASSAYER AND METALLURGICAL CHEMIST, also experienced in cop- 
per and zinc metallurgy, on concentration and preparation of mine and 
assay maps. Address PW 215. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-10 

EXPERT RESEARCH CHEMIST in metallurgical and organic chemistry. 
rare metals and rare earths, experienced in electrolytic process and elec- 
trolytic zinc: dyes, foods and chemistry of materials; 25 years experience. 
Address PW 216. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-10 

SUPERINTENDENT available January 1 desires position. Capable in 
management of mining or milling operations; have just completed the suc- 
cessful development and operation of a quicksilver property, now closed for 
the winter; do own engineering if necessary; married; age 29; have Al 
references. Ad dress PW 318. Mining and Scientific Press. 1-3 

MINING ENGINEER, 43. thoroughly trained and experienced in both 
technical and business end of mine and mill operation; specialty, efficiency 
management : open for engagement in executive position. Speaks Spanish 
fluently; at present in consulting practice; highest references. Address PW 
2ll. Mining and Scientific Press 1-3 

POSITION WANTED by first class millman; 15 years experience, stamps, 
ball-mills, rolls, crushers, jigs, tables, classifiers, flotation, etc. Good 
mechanic; long experience silver, lead and zinc ores, also amalgamating 
and concentrating. References. Address PW 191. Mining and Scientific 
Press. 1-3 



= for sale at reasonable prices. Complete 300-ton mill with all ma- | 

I chinery in first-class condition. Includes crushers, rolls, tube-mills. | 

= classifiers, thickeners, tables, compressors, etc. Send lor list of | 

| material available. = 


416 East 10th Ave., Denver, Colorado 2-21 i 

1—8x8 Rix Air Compressor. 

1—6x6 Rix Compressor. 

1—24" Sturtivant Emery Grinder. 

2-1000 lb. Ore Cars. 

1-1500 lb. Ore Car. 

1-12" Blower. 

1—30 H. P. Doak Gasoline Engine with | 

clutch attached. 
2— Ingersoll-Rand Water Liner Jack- | 

hammer Drills, complete with water i 

tanks, hose, etc. 
1— Set 7" Rolls. 
1—6 x 6 Jaw Crusher. 



f Office and. Warehouse : | 

115-125 Main Street, San Francisco, Cal. | 




| 2%x9 Aldrich Quintuples, 50 gpm., 100O' head. 

| 6*4x13 Jeanesvllle Horizontal Triplex, 200 gpm., 750' head. 

| 7x13 Aldrich Qulntuplex Vertical, 500 gpm., 1200' head. 

| 7x13 Aldrich Quintuplet Horizontal, 500 gpm., 500' head. 

| 13x12 Aldrich Triplex Vertical, 1000 gpm., 280' head. I 

| 14x16 Aldrich Triplex Vertical, 2000 gpm.. 200' head. 

§ Allls-Chalmers R« idler, 350 gpm., 750' head, never used. 

| 8%x8 Demlng Triplex Slope, 325 gpm., 300' head. 

| Mo. 5 Byron Jackson nine-stage Centrifugal with 75-hp. G. E. S 

= 3-60-440 vert, motor, 1000 gpm., 190' head or 800 gpm., 250' § 

= head. Complete with 7" pipe and rods. 

I 8x10 Gould Fig. 1062 Deep Well Triplex. Complete with rods and = 

= guides, 275 gpm„ 300' head. = 

= Krogh Centrifugal Sinking Pump, S%"» four-stage with 35-hp. G. 1 

| K. motor, 3-60-440, 200 gpm., 350' head. | 

| 5x6 Knonies Duplex Electric Sinking Pump, 175 gpm., 400' head. | 

| 17 Lane & Bowler four to eleven-stage Centrifugals, 13", 14", 15", | 

E and 16"- sizes. All practically new. § 

All of the above ready for immediate shipment and in guaranteed § 
condition. We also have steam mine pumps In all sizes and mokes = 
ready for immediate shipment. Send for pump bulletin. 


| Denver, Colo. 3.7 1 

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| -Notary Public and Commissioner of Deeds for New York = 

= 805 Pacific Bdg.. Fourth and Market Streets. San Francisco = 




January 3, 1920 


Announcements in this column are secured through the co-opera- 
tion of many of the largest mining- companies in the United States. 
Advertisements under this heading' will be inserted two times without 
charge. Additional insertions charged at the rate of 2c. per word, 
including' address. 

-.'irii.iiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiimiiiMiiimiimiimmiiiummiimiimiiiimiiiiiiiiiimimMiiimmiiiiiiii-nii 


WANTED — HYDRAULIC PLACER FOREMAN to go to Alaska; experi- 
enced in northern conditions required; must be able to furnish, best refer- 
ences. Address PA 201, Mining: and Scientific Press. 1-3 

WANTED — PLACER SUPERINTENDENT for hydraulic operations in 
Alaska; must give satisfactory references and have had experience in the 
north. Address PA 200, Mining and Scientific Press. 1-3 

WANTED — Two mechanical draftsmen experienced in copper smelter 
work. Large corporation located in the southwest. In replying: please state 
age. experience, married or single, salary desired and when available. 
Address PA 112, Mining and Scientific Press. tf 

POSITIONS secured promptly for well qualified men in all branches of 
mining and metallurgical work; 16 years established clientage with largest 
companies in the industry. Business Men's Clearing House, Denver, Colo- 
rado. . tf 







Smelter Supts. 

Mine and Mill Supts.,, Foremen 


j Mine Surveyors 


Assayer Chemists 


Master Mechanics 




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CORDITE M. D. No. 8 

11 inches long, as used for 18 pounder 

FOR Nitro Cellulose (n.c.t.) 

seven perforations, granular, as used for 6 inch 
^^ _ _ ^_ and 8 inch howitzer ammunition. 

^^ 11 B B" QUANTITY — approximately 4,500 tons. 

^* m mB— ^" LOCATION — in Ontario. 

VALUE — for the manufacture of blasting powder or other 
commercial explosives, it offers a most attractive purchase. 

Full Information can be obtained from 


80 King Street East, TORONTO, ONTARIO, CANADA 

.Iitniiiirv ;;, 1920 






TttAXH WW >Htc>l«T«»rc w, «. twt, orr. 







i Cleveland, O. San Francisco, Cal. | 



I Immediate Shipment from Our [ 
San Francisco Stock 

I JOHN FINN'S Air Separated Zinc Dust for Cyanidlng. | 

j JOHN FINN'S Crank Pin and Empire Antl-Frlctlon | 

1 Babbitt Metals, universally used in the Mining and 1 

| Cement Industry. Also manufacturers of all grades of | 

I Solder and Type Metals. | 

1 Write or wire for prices on your requirements. | 

John Finn Metal Works 

| 372-398 Second Street, San Francisco, California. | 

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yumruiiiiimiiiii iiiHuiiiiimmiiiiiJitiiiiiiimiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiii uiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimmiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiimiiiiimniijiimii^ 


=. Renewed screw casing- costs one-hall to two-thirds less than stand- = 

= ard pipe Largo savings on standard pipe, fittings and valves: g 

= special fittings made to order. Pacific Pipe is thoroughly tested and = 

= guaranteed lor 150 pounds working- pressure: asphaltum dipped: = 
= serves every purpose. Let us save you money. Write 1 

| PACIFIC PIPE CO., Ift^cfscS 

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aimmumiuuiu tmrimmi iiiiiik iimm tirnt *i»m rimiiiiitm 




= For twenty years metallurgists and assayers 

= have looked upon Thompson Balances and 

= Weights as the acme of precision. Made in 

= a Btyle and size for every purpose. 

| Writ* for eatelog 


= Denver, Colo. 


^luimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiii iiiiim urn i MimiiiiiiMi iiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiiiiiiiiii u uiiiiiuif uiiuminE 


Most extensive and successful manufacturers. | 
Old plates replated — made equal to new. 

IMW1 Mission SU San Francisco E.G. DENNIS TON, Prop. | 
Get our prices. Catalog seat. | 

Telephone Market 2915. 
miiiiiuimiiiMuiiitinm iitiiiniiiuMiiiiiiuiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiHmiitiiiiiiiint nniiiiir; 


Guaranteed Rebuilt Machinery 


Immediate Delivery on Following, 
Subject to Prior Sale: 
(I to 250 H.P. 





1 Connentvllle. 1.2 cu. ft per rev. .. .,15000 

2 Bakers No. 4 Rotary, each 200.00 

1 I Ilk-IT-.ll I K.IIHl 


Slranrht Line Air 
1(1x24 300.00 

1 Gates Gyratory No. 1 300.00 

1 Blake. 10x4 300.00 


■?% HP. 
■ 20 H.P. 

40 HP. 

4(1 HP. 

HO II I>. 

75 HP. 





All sizes and styles at 50% cost of new. 
1 — 8x10 Jackson Geared Hoist. Steam. 

1 — 3 V4 'x4' Ball Mill 

1 — 8m' Huntington Allis-Chalmers. 





3x5 Vertical 90 00 

5x6 Vertical 125 00 

Brownell. 10x12 300 00 

Bay State. 10x12 250 00 

Frascr & Chalmers. 12x18 400 00 
Corliss 1000 00 

1 — 150 HP Corliss non condensing;. 

10x30 1800 00 

1 No. 3 Roots Gas Exhauster 350.00 

1 — 35 KW. Direct Current Generator. 
Volts no load 110. full load 120. 
Amps. 202 with Skinner Engine. 1000. 00 


Kewanee Heaters. 24"x64". each. 
No. 1-R Webster Vacuum Feed Water 

Heater and Purifier 125.00 

. 350 00 
. 250 00 

Second Hand. Iron and Wood at 50% 
cost of new 

1 No. 18 Niagara Punch, capacity Vi " 50.00 
1 — 2 % x2 lixriVi American Steam Pump 60.00 
1 — 3x2x4 Fairbanks-Morse Boiler Feed 

Pump 60.00 

2 — Hx4x<t Fairbanks-Morse, each 90.00 

1 — No. 8 Dourte Valveless 450 G.P.M. 000.00 
2 — 10x8x12 Piatt Iron Wks. Duplex, 

each 250.00 

1 — 12x8x12 Piatt Iron Wks. Center 

Packed 600.00 

1—16x2(1x18x24 Piatt Iron Wks.. Du- 
plex Compound 2600.00 

1 — 5'x24' Shell Boaster complete with 

trunions 1200.00 

1 Set 12x20 Davis Bolls 600.00 

% " to 12" at 50% cost of new. 


The Rebuilt Machinery Company I 





Established 1884 

| If you want core drilling 1 done, why not employ the "oldest and | 

= largest" drilling firm, noted for its accuracy and reliability? I 

= Prices not the highest. Booklet 13,113 

= Contract Drilling Department 


E 580 Market St., San Francisco E 

Sn ii ■iiiimiimiif ri in iif jinriiiitimuiiiiiKirf miiii i n mil miniiii lit n uni mini umi ntn niiintiim lit iitiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiniiut ininitnuaufi 





sales offices: = 

§ Bimmtbam. Ala-— Box 906. Chicago, III— 512 lit Nat. BL Bids = 

| Columbus, Ohio— 607 New Harden Bldg. Dallas. Tex.— 1217 Praetorian Bldg. E 

1 Minneapolis. Minn.— 712 Plymotb Btdg. Kansas City. Mo.— 716 Scamtt Bldg. E 

| New York City— No. 1 Broadway San FrancUco, Cal.— 71 1 Balboa Bldg. = 
= Los Angeles, Cal.— 339 Citizeni* National Bank Bldg. 




January 3, 192(J- 

The (MSjfiffigyB) Company 





17 Battery Place 
New York City 

Salt Lake City 

3mmiimiiifiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini timiMiiiiiiiiiiniiiiimiiiiimiiitiiimrimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiliii iiiimiimmiiiiimmiiiuj 


'«« SUNNY SOUTH " ; 

I Flotation Oils | 

Six Standard Pure Otis From Pine 

I FLORIDA WOOD PRODUCTS CO., Jacksonville, Florida I 

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Screens while it grinds | 

Simplest Cheapest § 

Interchangeable peripheral = 
or end discharge = 

Wet or dry | 

rat. March 23, 1916 { 

i Ions In 40 slot ... S 450 I 

20 " " " " ... 700 
40 '■ " " " ... 1000 

70 ' 1500 

110 2000 

3 Ion laboratory iron 
mill (175 

Repeat orders show merit 





800 tons — 10 lb. 


4500 tons — 56 lb. 

| No. 1 Industrial Rail, complete with angle bars. S 

| 1600 Braces for 56-lb. Rail. | 

| Tie Plates for 40-lb. and 5 6-lb. Rail; 5 in. and 5*-in. 1 

= Spikes. I 

| 14 — 40-lb. and 64 — 56-lb. Complete Switches. 5 

I Locomotives, both narrow and standard gauge; Box, 1 

1 Gondolas, Flats, Cabooses, Passenger and Com- j 

| bination Coaches. , | 

| Electric and Gasoline Mine Locomotives. | 

Send for Railroad Bulletin. 


Denver, Colorado 214 I 


MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS wantB a permanent circulation rep- 
resentative in every mining; community in the world. Replies will be held 
confidential it desired. Address. The Manager. Mining and Scientific Press. 


i The Standard Ball IVf ill 1 


Rugged Construction Long Service 

Simplicity ol Design Low Maintenance 

Lowest In Price Highest In Efficiency 

Write for foil specifications 
The following sizes kept In stock for immediate shipment 

Size of Mill 6x6 r,y~xli 5x4 4x4 4x3 3x3 

Ball Charge, Lbs.. 13,000 10,000 6,000 3,200 2,600 1,000 

Horse-Power 86 74 35 18 14 . 6 

Weight, Lbs 38,000 26,000 14,000 10,500 0,500 5,000 

. Any size made to order upon short notice . 

The Morse Bros. Machinery & Supply Co. 







1009 17th Street 101 Park: Avenue 16 South Street | 



Fuel Oil 

I — and — | 

Steam Engineering 

By Robert Sibley and Cbas. H. Delany 

1 A practical treatise dealing with Fuel Oil and § 

1 Steam Engineering, involving the elementary laws | 

| of steam engineering as well as considerable data 1 

| concerning burner, furnace, and fuel oil tests. I 
Cloth Bound— Illustrated— $3.00 

For Sale by 


| 430 Market St., San Francisco { 

January 3, 1920 

\1I\IV. AM) M I! Mil It l' 




Qipecially adapted for prospecting Mineral 
Lands, oil Lease*, ami f<.r cleaning out 
oil wells at Ion cost. 


All types can be furnished with L'as engine, 
steam or electric power. 

Catalog and Quotations on rcquett 


327 W. 2nd St., LOS ANGELES, CAL, 

iiiiiiriiiiiiiiimiiMiiiiiiiiii I minim muni miiiiiiMiimiiiimtit I I iiiiiiiiiniiiuil mil 




Iron Body, Bronze Mounted 


Made in Sizes X to 2" 


Screw and Flange 

All Parts Interchange- 

Good for 150 Pounds 

Steam Working 


The only Rubber Disc 
in an iron body valve 
in such small sizes to 
stand up to their speci- 


Write for 



TmeaWm Powell Co. 

^^^f^DEPENDABLE Engineering Specialties 

A Smith Hydraulic Turbine 

installed in a con- 
crete scroll case, 
fulfills the re- 
quirements of 


in the power and pump- 
ing equipment 
furnished the 


as shown in accompany- 
ing illustration 


214 H. P., 225 R. P. M. 


All Parti tatilu accettiblt tor impaction and 
due to action of tilt at certain uaioni, 

Similar anil now being bnlll lor Grand Valley Pro|ect In Colorado 

S. MORGAN SMITH ttL,w-u». 


76 W. Mo«ro« St. 

176 Ftdtnl St. 

405 Power Bld t . 

461 Market St. 

Send for Special Illustrated Catalogue 

i American SteeWire 

3any . 

= ,„„ „,„„„„„„„„ „„„„„,„ , umin , miimmm i ml mi ins am™ nit i.mii.i i im mm m n in .mmmmnmmmm. mmm* 



January 3, 1920 


By H. D. DEWELL, C. E. 



Eliminate the Waste of Materials by Properly Designing 

Your Timber-Structures 

IN the economical construction of mill build- 
ings, head-frames, trestles, flumes, ore-bins, 
tanks, and other structures for mines, 
the mining engineer will find this book in- 
dispensable. You can secure 'TIMBER FRAMING' 
in combination with a year's subscription to 
MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS, either on new sub- 
scriptions, or renewals, at a total cost of $5.50. 


Design and Construction of 
Head-frames, Flumes, Ore-bins, 
Trestles, Water Towers, and Mill 
Buildings. Rules for Grading 
Lumber. Unit Stresses of Ten- 
sion. Compression, Shear and 
Bending, Co-ordination of Tests. 
Truss Detail and End Connec- 
tions. Nailed, Screwed, and 
Bolted Joints. Intermediate 
Joints and Tension Splices. 
Foundation, Columns, and Con- 
nections. Specifications for 
Timber Framing. 


MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS, 420 Market St, San Francisco P5 

ENTER my subscription. to MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS beginning with the Current issue. 

RENEW my subscription to MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS at the expiration of my present 

subscription. A.lso send the new book "Timber Framing," by H. D. Dewell. For this I enclose $5.50, to be 
divided as follows: $4 for the MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRESS (U. S. and Mexico), and $1.50 for the 
book (price $2.50 if sold separately) ; Canada, $5 and $1.50 for the book; other countries in postal union, 
$6 and $1.50 for the book. 

Name Vocation 

Address • ■ Employed by 1.3.20 

Jaltuan ■'■. 1920 


I : 


Protect your lamps from breakage 
or unauthorized removal by utiog 


Expanded Steel Lamp Guards 

Flexco-lok Lamp Guards effect- 
ively protect the lamp against any 
sudden (hock to which it may be 

Flexco-Lok is very simple in con- 
struction and is easily adjusted. 
It is LOCKED with a key which 
prevents theft. 

A single broken or stolen'jlump 
costs more than a guard. Install 
Flexco-Lok Lamp Guards now. 

^"TPiexible Steel Lacing Co., 

MaimfachmTS of "ALLIGATOR" Sta-1 B<I| Lnrinj! 

Depl. LC26 

522 So. Clinton Street Chicago, III. 

y timimmiiijii mimnm irimi umi 


Rotary Air 

Compressors I 

Save SO'r Floor Space and Weight | 

Built along 'entirely 1 

new lines. Rotary— |. 

not turbine design — | 

but as distinctly a | 

positive displacement X 

compressor as the § 
piston type. 

Type 180 A. 
Capacity 180 Cu. Ft. Weight. 
2680 Lbs. Price S875.00. 

Only five moving] parts, 
always running in oil. All 
bearings Hyatt Roller — 
"high duty". 

Equipped with Intake and Discharge Unloaders. 

1 Cheaper Air and No Trouble | 

1 Light weight and no vibration means no expensive | 

I foundations. Easy to install. The rotary motion (well | 

1 balanced torque) means high driving efficiency and | 

| low operating cost. We can prove that Jackson Rotary | 

i Compressors deliver cheaper air, continuous service | 
I and no trouble. Write for bulletin No. 3. 


233 South Cherokee St., Denver, Colorado | 

fiimmiMmiiimmimimmmiiimiimiimimmim mm iimmmiiirmmmiiiimiimmii immii immmmT. 

Our service men 
will co-operate 

There is a Giant Service Man near you who will 
gladly help you solve your blasting problems. 

If need be, he will go right to your field of 
operation without charge or obligation. 

Your explosives will do more and better work 
for less money when you take advantage of Giant 
Service facilities. 

Write us in detail regarding the conditions of 
your blasting. Our response will be prompt, 
helpful and efficient. 


"Everything for Blasting" 

Home Office: San Francisco 

Branch Office*: Denver, Portland. Salt Lake City, Seattle. Spokane 



it's a«LITTLE 















January 3, 1920 


^Hoisting and 
Power Equipment 

"Western" Engines and "Western" Hoisting Engines, representing the highest types of power and hoisting 
equipments built, today are operating in some of the largest properties in the world. 

The service they are giving, under most severe conditions in some instances, is their best recommendation. 

Let us place such information before you for your guidance in selecting the most efficient, economical and 
dependable equipment for your properties. Simply write for complete data, stating size and type of equipment 

Western Machinery Company 

Branch; Rialto Bldg., San Francisco, Calif. 

3iiiiiiiiimijiiiiiiiimiimiiiimiiiiiiini[iiii[i imiimiiiiiimiiiiiniiiimiiimii liiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiini m ^ 


Are Not Affected by | 

Muddy, Gritty Water | 

The cylinder has large clearance and | 

the plunger is outside packed at the | 

top. The suction and discharge valves | 

are fitted with bronze taper seats and 1 

are easily exchanged by removing bon- | 

nets. The Jack Head works altogether | 

on the down stroke; the pump rod is | 

made to weigh just half the amount of 1 

pressure exerted on the plunger so that 1 

the load is equal and uniform at all | 

times whether on down or up stroke. § 

In this way | 

Balance Bob is Eliminated | 

thereby increasing the efBciency and | 

materially reducing 'cost of installation. | 

These pumps are made with capacities | 

of from 30 to 500 gallons per minute | 

and for elevations up to 600 feet. 8 


Established 1850 | 

299 Fremont St. San Francisco, Cal. | 


GRIND-don't CUT 

You can grind rock or placer-ground faster than you 
can cut it ; therefore, we use a shot-bit giving a grind- 
ing edge that fairly eats through the ground. 




your property. It's easy. The 
Dobbins brings up clean cores 
fifteen and twenty feet long — 
and does it uniformly. 

The Dobbins is in use the world ovei on 
every kind of rock or placer-ground. You 
can learn all about the Dobbins from one 
of our agents or 

Write diructly to us for 
booklet 16. mentioning the 
character of your ground. 


147 WEST 42nd STREET 



San Francisco and Lot Angela 
Salt Lake Coy. Utah 

.Itiniinry 8, 1920 

MINIM. AMI s, || N I II It I'KI ss 





The increasing tendency among machinery manufacturers, to offset higher first cost, is 
to design equipment that will give longer and more efficient service in operation. This 
idea has been carried out in the design of Pelton Type DS double suction pumps — high 
efficiency single-stage units. 

Type DS pumps are for use under medium heads and volumes, for any type of prime 
mover drive. They are double suction, single stage, split case units, constructed with the very 
best of materials and workmanship, and guaranteed for sustained high efficiency in operation. 

We u'ill be very glad to give specific details on Type DS pumps for particular pump installa- 
tions. Bulletin No. 10 gives general information on their design, construction and application. May 
we send you a copy ? 


1986 Harrison Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

86 West Street, New York, N. Y. 

| SAVES labor, by 
| using only one man at 
I the shaft bottom. 

| INCREASES hoist- 
| ing capacity by 25 to 

| 30%. 

| Dumps cars clean. 

| Cut costs in half by 
| using solid-body cars. 

| Maintenance expense 
I almost eliminated. 

Mine is kept clean, 
the cars being ore 
and water-tight, 
avoiding leakage 
along the drift. 

We make installa- 
tions in both old and 
new mines. 

We offer you improvements and protection under the 
Ramsay, Wood, Claghorn and other patents. 





| By A. J. HALE 

Cloth $2.65 148 pp. 

| A ready reference containing the following chapter 

| headings: Introduction; Methods of Generating the 

1 Current; The Electrolytic Refining of Metals; The 

| Electrolytic Winning of Metals; Electrolytic Produc- 

| tion of Hydrogen and Oxygen; Electrolysis of Alkali 

| Chlorides; Chlorine and Caustic Soda; Electrolysis of 

| Alkali Chlorides; Hypochlorites, Chlorates, Per- 

1 chlorates; Production of Inorganic Compounds; Pro- 

{ duction of Organic Compounds. 



| 420 Market Street, San Francisco, Cal. 

| Gentlemen: Enclosed find $2.65 for which send me 

| one copy of Hale's Application of Electrolysis in 

| Chemical Industry. 

I I Name 

s Address 

i (Formerly Wood Equipment Co.) Ub) f I 
F,i mn , iimmiilimiimi mi milium I I ' mm imumiiiuimimmmiuuiiiiiiimmm r. aMNnin 



January 3, 1920 

"The Economic Geology of South American Deposits" 

Mineral Deposits of Sooth America 

598 pp. $5.00 Cloth 










10— PERU 

Also contains a number 
of valuable illustrations 
and maps. 

At the end of each 
chapter is a bibliography 
of selected articles for 
further research. 


420 Market Street, San Francisco 

Gentlemen: Enclosed find S5 for which send me 
one copy of Miller and Singewald 'Mineral Deposits of 
South America'. 



It is understood if the above book proves unsatis- 
factory, I am at liberty to return it within ten days 
and refund will be made of the purchase price. 

Mc 1*20 


Handles all Dry Ores Successfully 

For working all kinds of Concentrating Ores in Quartz or Placer. 

Saves the fines as well as the coarse. No dust Utmost simplicity. 

Write lor Catalog B 

YOUNG & TYLER, 428 Wesley Roberts Bldg., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Weilman-Lewis Company 

Mechanical and Metallurgical 





Specializing flotation of Complex and Carbonate ores. 
Cyanide treatment of Silver and Gold ores. 

IF you are contemplating building a mill, let us figure 
with you upon designing and construction. We 
have the organization and equipment and can construct 
your mill quicker than you can, and at less cost. 

If your mill is not making a satisfactory recovery of 
the values, let us Investigate and place you upon a 
paying basis. We have a full staff of competent Metal- 
lurgical and Mechanical Engineers. 

900 Hibernian Building 
Los Angeles California 

.laiiuarv ;t. 1 92< i 




is a self-contained unit, consisting of a twin six-stage, Centrifugal, Direct Connected Pump 

It is fitted with flexible couplings and water-cooled, marine type thrust bearings. 

We have shipped several pumps of this type during the past few months. Examples of capacities 

and heads are as follows: 

225 G.P.M 840' head 

250 " 1020' " 

550 " 840' " 

450 " 1560' " 

1750 R.P.M. 
1750 " 
1750 " 
2300 " 

We build these pumps for heads up to 2000 ' 

Submit your pumping problems lo us. No obligalion. Write today lor Catalogue No. 7 1 

Byron Jackson Iron Works 

Sharon Building 
San Francisco 



Mill II III Ill Mill II III III HUM II Hill MINIM II III II III lllll lit I III II 1 1 

\ Callow 

\ Traveling Belt Screen JEFUMfr^ 

The \ ( For Wet Screening) 'T 1 *Jj*1 W 

SrrPPn \u ^ ne Callow Screen, used in closed 
v\ circuit with your crushing mill, 

C 1 \\\ 

OUpfeme Wi will screen out all particles crushed to proper size. Those too coarse for 
r w. the treatment machines are sent back to the mill to be crushed again, 

\\ while those particles already fine enough are not returned, as with 
Economy, \\ many other devices. 

W 1-r-- /// Galightr 

Simnliritv W The Callow Traveling Belt Screen is among the most efficient //Machines c, 
" *' \\ and practical screening machines on the market. Running /// % * k Lake City - 

17/TT ' \\\ . „ T . . , . ■. /// Send us Bulletin 

LluCiency V\ cost is small; operation is simple; a maximum capacity //no. too. 

y\ run is assured. '" 

V\ GUARANTEES an evenly crushed product; cleaner millings; 

V\ lower tailings. Send coupon for Bulletin 700. 





January 3, 1920 

„ because of 'tis sivonqik 
fougtmess atul fiex^btlthi, 
tt \s safe atvd durable 

because ofifs 
durability tf is 

Made by 

. £escKet\ & Sor\s 

'Rope Company 
St. CouiS.ttVo 
TVotOlJopK Ctvie&go "Denver 
Salt (ake Cifcq 5a.t\ 'Jr&tvcisco 



There are three distinct reasons why "National 
Quality" Tanks give the best of service: 
First, they are made from either Douglas Fir or Cali- 
fornia Redwood, the two best known woods for 
tank purposes. 
Second, they are securely bound with the best steel 

hoops which always hold the tank in shape. 
Third, by careful and painstaking workmanship the 
staves and bottoms are fitted together accurately 
and perfectly. 
All sizes and styles of National Tanks are furnished 
by us. You can get tanks for any purpose made to 
suit your needs. The U. S. government has used many 
carloads. Big mines use them everywhere. Careful 
attention given to special installations. 

Tell us your needs and get our prices 

NATIONAL TANK & PIPE CO. ^rtland.ore. 

^nilHillll[|lllt1llll!ll]IMIIIfllllllllllll)M1ll Mill Mill III lllllllilllllllllllllllll III Mill ll!ltllllllllllllllllli:illllll)lllllillll!llll!lllllllll[IIIM1IIIL: 



(Trunnion Type) § 

| The Marathon M»l has repeatedly demonstrated its superiority over E 

= ball, Chilian, pebble, and other typee of milla in official testa con- e 

= ducted by independent engineer* lor eome of America's most repre- = 

= eentative mining- companies. Pepeat orders have attested to the = 

1 Marathons decided superiority. | 

| Writ* for complete reports of competitive testa 

= showing from 2 to 4 times as much capacity per 

Horsepower and details regarding construction and 
| operation. 



| BECNBBT A LENZ, Ltd., Johannesburg;, 8. A, 

I L, i. HEALING A CO., Toklo, Japan 

5iiimmiJi>iiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiimiiiriimimimimiimiimmiimiiii ill i iiniiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiuiiiiiiiitinittitiitiiinirur 

iJillllllllltllllUllltlllltllllllllllllllllltllHIIIIlllllillllllllltiltllllllllltllllllltllJIUIllHlllllllllll mUllllllilUUUUllUIUlHIHHIUIIHIML 






Standard Pipe — Screw Joint Casing, Pipe 
| and Casing Fittings, 


1 Valves and Brass Goods 





has no superior as an s 

amalgamator. In numer- = 

our competitive tests it has = 

demonstrated its superior- = 

ity in this line of wortt. = 

Send for our Catalor No. 9 = 

and learn all about it. = 



106 W. Third St., = 

Los Anceles. Calif. = 
aHiniaiu'i in miaitiitu iitiititimi in urn utii muitiiiii iiih utii m iiiii urn n iniim urn tn iitmitiun iiiniiniiiiiiiii nniuitiniiimi m iitu n 

g miiiiimmiiiiiiiMiiiiimmniim minim i iihiiii miimiiiiui inMlllllluillllllllMIUllluiinpiiiuilliHiic .^iiiiiiiiiiiiilliilllliilllliililliiiiilllinililiiiiiiiiiii lit Mllllll mil miiiiiiiii i lilllllltllimiliilililliniMHfflHB: 


Backed by a record of 25 years 
of dependable service 


th e/ufkin RuleCo 

Tapes and 





U. S. and Foreign Patents 
Preliminary Searches 
Validity Reports 














- Write tor new Booklet j 

| General Naval Store* Co., 90 Weit Street, New York | 






Allis-Chalmers Co. Stearns-Roger Mfg-. Co. = 

Milwaukee, Wis. Denver Colo. = 

Harron. Rickard & McCone. San Francisco = 

Frank R. Perrot, Sydney and Perth. Australia = 


uillllluillliliTlilllllllllllllllllll i mi iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiDiuiiiiiMiitiDiiiiiiiiiuitiiiiiiiiiimiiuiiiiiiiiiil nuiim iitiiiiNiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiii mi turn llllllllllllllllllllllUlllllllllHlHiHlhl 


1 Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Company 1 

| F. E MAKINER, Prbs. Gull Point, Fla. | 





Switches, Frog,, and Equipment = 



January ::. i!»-_'o 






Blade in two si/rs to i t ever) stoping requirement. 

Tin' 'js Btoper weighs T."> pounds with a piston diameter of 

two inches and is i ommended for every class of work 

except the very hardest rook. 

The is Btoper weighs 100 pounds with a piston die ter 

of two and a half inches and is adapted to the drilling of 

the very hardest of rock. 

From 20 to 30% Greater Footage 

with the Cleveland Stoper is quite common performance, 
and yet the power consumption is decidedly lower. 

Cleveland "Poeket-in-Head" Stopers are made of a class 
of steel and forgings not ordinarily used in rock drill 
parts. Repair costs are decidedly lower than usual. 

Try One and Be Convinced. 

2S "NEW | 

CLECO valvca »nd nipples, "Nevcralip" hoae clamps, hose menders, "Neverleak" couplings 
and "Veribest" air hoae are all noted for long and satisfactory service. Send us a trial order. 


3734 East 78th St., CLEVELAND, OHIO 

4S "NEW 




They speak of a "Cement-Gun" 
as they would of a drill— 

The day js past when the "Cement-Gun" was thought of as one 
of a number of similar devices. Now, mining engineers say, 
"use the 'Cement-Gun','' just as they would say. "use an 

For there is only one "Cement-Gun." It is used the world 
over for lining shafts, fireproofing woodwork, preventing the 
weathering of rock, constructing fire bulkheads, lining 
reservoirs or flumes, and a thousand other purposes. 

If you are one of the few who has not yet become familiar 
with the "Cement-Gun" it will pay you to investigate. 

Detailed information on the uses for a "Cement-Gun" in min- 
ing work will be sent upon request and without obligation. 


Allentown, Penn. 

30 Church St.. New York City 612 Mohawk Block, Spokane, Wash. 
1414 Fisher Bldg\. Chicago. Bl. 812 Va. By. & Power Bide:.. Richmond. Va. 
'211 Put luii Bid?., Pittsburgh, Pa. General Supply Co., Ltd., Winnepegr. Man. 
Citizens Nat. Bank Bldgr.. Los Angeles 

Agencies In all Principal Foreign Countries 
Traylor Portable Steam or Dewey Combined Air Dryer Traylor Combined Mixer 
Electrically Driven Air and Water Heaters deliver JSghly mfxhTg sand and 
Compressors for Mine and DRY AIR to your "Gun cement for use in the 

Contractor. or Air Tools." ^ me ? i t "9. Dn makcB Dett * r 

(j unite. 

(ement - (un 

V. 7 (trade mahba ^C 

^flj sF 




January 3. 1920 

RATES: One-half inch, tS5 per year, subscription included. Combination rate with The Minina Magazine (London) one-hall inch in each. tt*0 per year, subscription indudtd 

riir«iijrt>(4 rirf i r rut 1 1 u 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 r 1 1 1 u m r 1 1 r 1 1 1 1 ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 T M l 1 1 M 1 r 1 1 1 ■ t ■ 1 P i r n 1 1 4 1 1 r I ri i t 1 1 1 1 t 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 m 1 1 ] 1 1 1 1 1 1 u 1 1 1 1 1 j i ] p 11 m 1 1 ■ f p i f ■ i M r n P 1 1 1 1 1 u M ] 1 1 k u M m ru m pn ti^ hir f II Li J Ml ■■ lii m j i tM mi m ru i m rn ti i lit mi mi iit ttiTMTiM 1 1 m ti 1 1 1 1 r< ti n P ■ ■ i ■ 



Specialty. Texas Geology and Appraisals 
502 Texas State Bank Bdg., Fort Worth. Tex. 

BEATTY, A. Chester 

25 Broad St.. New York 
No professional work entertained 
Cable: Granitic 


71 Broadway. New York 

ADDICKS, Lawrence 

6 Church St.. New York City 
Cable: Galie. New York 

Hamilton, Beauchamp. Woodworth, Inc. 


Specialty: Flotation 

419 Embarcadero, San Francisco 


Citizens National Bank Bdg., Los Angeles 



Examination, valuation and development of 

mines in Bolivia 

Casilla 176. Oruro. Bolivia 

BELL, J. Macintosh 

Office with Messrs. Bain, Bicknell & Co. Lums- 
den Bdg.. Toronto. Can. London Address % 
Bk. of New Zealand. 1, Queen Victoria St., E.C. 

CARR, Homer L. 

50 Broad Street. New York 

ALDRIDGE, Walter H. 

50 East 42nd St.. New York 


% Chile Exploration Co.. Chuquicamata 
(via Antofagasta) Chile. South America 

CHANCE & CO., H. M. 



839 Drexel Bdg\, Philadelphia 



Petroleum and Metals 

417 Burton Bdg., Forth Worth, Texas 

ARGALL & SONS, Philip 



First National Bank Bdg„ Praver 

Cable: Argall Code- Bedford McNeill 

ARNOLD, ]^aiph 


Onion Oil Bdr., Los Angeles, Cal. 

120 Broadway. New York 

Cable: Ralfarnoil Code: Bedford McNeill 

B. C. Austin W. V. Wilson 



805 Santa Marina Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 

Cable: Austin Usual Codes 

BENEDICT, William de L. 

19 Cedar St.. New York 


H. W. Blaisdell. President 
Specialty: Designing 1 and Constructing - Exca- 
vators for Circular and Rectangular Vats 
480 Pacific Electric Bdg\, Los Ang-eles. Cal. 

BOISE, Charles W. 


Foreign Exploration 

Cable: Mukeba 42 Broadway, New York 

BOSQUI, Francis L. 



90 West St., 

54 New Broad St.. 

New York 

London. E.C. 


61 Broadway. New York 

CHASE, Charles A. 


825-826 Cooper Bdg., Denver 

Liberty Bell G. M. Co.. Telluride. Colo. 

Edwin E. Chase R. L. Chase 

PHASE & SON, Edwin E. 

1028 First National Bank Bdg., Denver 

COHEN, Samuel W. 

Dominion Express Bdg., Montreal, Canada 

BALL, Sydney H. 


42 Broadway, New York 

Cable: Alhasters Rogers, Mayer & Ball 

BRAYTON, Corey C. 

2937 Magnolia Ave., Berkeley, Cal. 


P. L. 



American Trading Co.. 

25 Broad 

St.. New York 

BANCROFT. Howland 


Symes Bdg.. Denver 

Casilla No. 215. Oruro. Bolivia 

Cable: Howban Code : Bedford McNeill 

BRODEE, Walter M. 

47 Cedar St.. New York 

COLLBRAN, Arthur H. 

Seoul, Korea 


Edgar E. 







Pinners Hall. London, 

E.C. 2 



Usual Codes 

COLLINS, Edwin James 

Mine Examinations and Management 
1008-1009 Torrey Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 




11 Pine St., 





Code : McNeill 

BEAM, A. Mills 



807 Central Savings Bank Bdg-., 

Denver. Colorado 

Burch, Hershey & White 
BURCH, Albert 


Crocker Bdg 1 ., San Francisco 

Cable: Burch Usual Codes 

BURCH, H. Kenyon 


Phelps Dodge Corporation, 

Copper Queen Branch 

BiBbee. Arizona 

COLLINS, George E. 

Mine Examinations and Management 
414 Boston Bdg\, Denver 
Cable : Colcomac 

COLLINS, Henry P. 

66 Finebury Pavement, London, E.C. 

January 3, 1980 





Cable: Collin*. Pektnr Prklnr China 

EASTON, Stanly A. 


Manarrr Bankar Hill A Sullivan Mining h 

Conortitr.illnr Co . Krllon. Idaho 


\lll„ Rudolf 



804 Equitable 




CRANSTON, K.ilM-rt B. 

IH1 Babul IMv .-• Market St I 

H . 2 R«s si New York ' 

Cable: Recrana M.N.-ill 1008 | 






IMS Hobart 

San Fr.ini'i-. 11 


4011 Slate 

Turnip. id 



GARRET, George n. 



Itullilt! . I'hlladi'lphtu. Pa. 

DARLING, Harry \V 

Field EnrintHT for Crown 

Rewire M. Co.. Ltd. 

30 North Chapel SI. 

Alhnmbra. Cal. 

H. W Rtum J. C. Ballagb. 


P. O Box 1155. El Paao. Texas 


PERT, Richard M 


no Il.rwyn St.. Oralis New 





DAVLs, Leverett 

Examination. Development, Mtnaffement 

jui rooter . Denver, Colo. 



lytic M 





Wells Farco Nevada Nat. 



Francisco, Cal. 




Codes : \\ 

astern Ui 


(iosiiow, k. O. 

Speelalty: Blectrlc P 
504 Hilvr S. litis Waal 


\V. E. 


618 North 


Thinl Avenue 
c. Arizona 

PARISH, George E. 


First National Bank Bdg\. San FrandSCO 

2G Broad St.. New York 








Hobart Bile,. 

r»82 Market St.. 



Code : 

Bedford McNeill 

DE KALB, Courtenay 


Temporarily eng/ared on investigation of 

Spanish Mineral Resources for U. S. Dep't. of 

Commerce. Washington D. C. 

FARISH, John B. 

Office. 58 Sutler St.. San Francisco 
Residence. San Mateo. Cal. 
Cable: Farish 

GREENAN, James O. 


Mim:i. Nevada 

DEL MAR, Algernon 


Specialty. Mill Operation and Construction 

1424 Alpha St.. Los Angeles 

DENNIS, Clifford G. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco 
Cable : Sinned Code 





The Insurance 




Cable : Deerhodor 


McNeill 1908 

DOLBEAR, Samuel H. 


1415 Merchants National Bank Bdg., 

San Francisco 


John V. N. Dorr. President 
Denver New York London. E.C. 


704 Lonsdale Bdg.. Duluth. Minn. 

Lindsay Duncan Curti 


«4!> Mills Bile.. San Fi 

? Lindley. Jr. 


DW1GHT, Arthur S. 


20 Broadway. New York 
Cable: Sinterer 

Code: McNeill: Miners Sc Smelters 

DYER, S. C. 

Box 19. Bulawayo. Rhodesia 
Telegrams: Minerals Use 

Rowland King CIkis. Mailhot 



21111 Wall St.. Spokane. Wash. 










Fort Wayne 



J. R. 




S07. 45 

Dedar St. 





1st Nat. Bk. Bdg.. Denver. 423 Broad St.. New 
York. 820 Great Southern Bdg., Dallas. Tex. 
Cable: Calfishoil Usual Codes 

FITCH, Walter Jr. 




Mount Carmel, Pennsylvania Eureka. Utah 

FOWLER, Samuel S. 


Nelson. British Columbia 
Cable: Fowler Usual Codes 



Mine and Metallurgical Plant Design and 


1209 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

GABY, W. E. 

Phoenix. Arizona 

S. B Davis 


n Krnfftorp 



. Earl 



Old National Ba 


Bdir.. Spok 

ane. Waflb 



Specialty: Cyan. din? Gold and Silver Ores 

41!' The Embarcadero. San Francisco 

HANSON, Henry 

Specialty, Gold and Silver Ore- 
Plant Desipn and Construction 
Hobart Bde.. San Francisco. Cal 

HAWXHURST, Robert, Jr. 

234 Holbrook Building. 
58 Sutter St., San Francisco, Cal. 
Cable : Hawxhun-t 

Burch. Hershey & White 


Oscar H. 


Kellogg. Idaho 

Cable: Hershey 





% General Development Co.. 

Code: McNeill 1908 01 Broadway, New York 


22S Perry St., Oakland. Cal. 
Cable: Siberhof 



1025 Peoples Gas Bdg.. Chicago 

HOOVER, Herbert 

120 Broadway. New York 



January 3, 1920 


HOOVER, Theodore ,i. 

1, London Wall Bd?.. London. E.C. 
and 634 Mills Bdg-., San Francisco 
Cable; Mildaloo 

KIRK, Morris P. 


General Manager Yellow Pine Mining' Co., 

Goodspring-s. Nevada 



Andag-oya. via Buenaventura, Colombia, 

South America 

HOLLOW AY & CO., Geo. T., Ltd. 



13 Emmett St.. Limehouse. London. E.C. 

Cable: Neolithic Code: McNeill 






Bdg:.. Salt 

Lake City. 



Non-Ferrous Metallurgy 
4'2 Broadway. New York 

HOSKIX, Arthur J. 


Mining, Metallurgy. Geology, Oil Shale 


401 Eittredee Bid?.. Denver. Colo 

HOYLE, Charles 

Apartado 8. El Oro. Mexico 



217 Symons Block. 

Spokane, Wash. 


C. B. 










% Burma 



Jamshedpur. India 

McCarthy, e. t. 

10 Austin Friars. London 


811 Alaska Commereial Bdg., San Francisco 
Cable: Haruston 






■JO Broadway. 

3700. 1 

Dudley J. Inskipp John A. Bevan 



1 Broad St. Place. London. E.C. 

Cable: Monazite Usual Codes 






16 Kohl Bdtr 

. San 


i n cisco 

Cable : Ch 





JENKS, Arthur W. 

2601 Hillegass Aye.. Berkeley. Cal 



Goldfic-Id Consolidated Mines Exploration Co. 

Crocker Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 

LEHMANN, Charles 


Examination and Management of Properties 

Casilla 1364. Santiago. Chili. S. A. 


L. A. 




Ave.. Seattle. 


LEWIS, H. Allman 

Cochabamba, Bolivia 
The Berenguela Tin Mines. Ltd., 

Turu Ingrenio. Potosi Code: McNeill 1908 


Specialty: Pyro-Metallurgy of Copper and As- 
sociated Metals. 20 Broadway. New York 
Cable: Ricloy Code: McNeill 

Bewick. Moreing & 




62 London Wall. London 

E.C, 2 



Usual Codes 

LORING, Prank C. 

Sun Life Bdg., Toronto, Ontario, Canada 






Rakka Mines P 


District, Sinsrhbkum. 


Nagpur. India 

McGregor, a. g. 


Design of Metallurgical Plants 

Warren. Arizona 

MEIN, William Wallace 

43 Exchange Place, New York 
Cable : Mein. New York 

MERCER, John W. 


General Manager South American Mines Co., 

Mills Bdg., Broad St.. New York 

MERRILL, Charles W. 


121 Second St.. San Francisco 

Cable : Lurco Code : Bedford McNeill 



131 Second St.. San Francisco 

Cable : Lurco Usual Codes 

KEENE, Amor F. 

'-33 Broadway. New York 
Cable Address: Karoor. New York 

E. H. Keiuiam E. C. Bieree 



Mil] Design and Construction. Filtration. 

Hollingswnrlh Bde.. Los Angeles, Cal 

B. P. Kennedy L. K. Kennedy 


418 Foxcroft Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal., 


Moreing & Co. 




62. London Wall, London, and 

014 Crocker Bdg., San Francisco. Cal. 

Cable: Wantoness Usual Codes 



Diamond Drilling' and Shaft Sinking 


Manufacturers of Diamond Drills and Supplies 

General Office: 710-722 Security Bdg., 

Minneapolis, Minn. 

Cable: Long-co Code: McNeill 



Examines mines and oil lands; Engineers work 

of development and operation 

721 S. Hope St.. Los Ang-eles, Cal. 

MILLS, Edwin W. 


75 Yamashita-cho, 

Yokohama, Japan 

TelcgTams: Edmills Usual Codes 


Frederick H. 



East 40th St.. New 






KIXZIE, Robert A. 

First National Bank Bdg",. San Francisco 



Avenida Isabela La Catolica, Num. 25, 

Mexico City 

MITKE, Chas. A. 


Mine Ventilation — Mining- Methods 

Bisbee, Arizona 

KIRBV, Edmund B. 


018 Security Bdg-.. St. Louis 

Specialty: The expert examination of mines 

and metallursical enterprises 

LUXT, Horace F. 

Commissioner of Mines for Colorado 

Denver. Colo. 

No professional work undertaken 



1057 Monadnock Ed;.. San Francisco 

Cable: Fredmor Code: McNeill 

January 3, 1990 



WDDD, swliy W. 

■nam bkuinjuh 

UOfl Holllnrswortb Mr. Lo* Ansrlefl. Cal. 




minim; uararai 


1 Mill. Mi 


purimjton, r. \v. 


44 SvrtUnakala. Vladivostok. 


Cable Frdora" Code: A n r Billion 


John \. 

minim; geologist 

irkel St . Sun Fr.mclnco 


Frank \V. 



i :>■: 



Allf <*lr». 





Oode M 




120 Urn ,.|a ,v N.-w V.irk 

llllllnf ind Si ■ ■ ■ laity of 

1 ■■ LractJ 


C. H. 




Perak. Federated 



Cable: Omum 



XEIXL, Jnmcs W. 


169 Plerpont St.. Sail Lake City. Utah 
Pasadena. Cal. Snelllng. Cal. 

\KWllKltuv, Andrew W. 

Oo Broad way. NVw York 


Union League Club. San Francisco. Cal. 

Robert H Richards Charles E. Locke 



Tlostl for design of Flow B 
6° Manjeirhnntlle Ave.. Cambridge. Mas*. 

RICKARI). Edgar 

120 Broadway. New York 

RICHARD, Forbes 

Equitable Building-. Denver 


Editor. Mining- and Scientific Press 
No professional work undertaken 

scon'. Archibald it. 



Fir-t N ition.-il Bank Rdr . Denver. Colo. 

SCOTT, Robert 


ins S. Eleventh St San Jose. Cal. 

\V R, Sc.'iffrave 

W K. Ilunkle 

skagrave. W. H. 



L C. Smith Bdg.. 


SEARS, Stanley C. 

Reports, Consultation and Management 
70.". Walker Bank Bdg-.. Salt Lake City. Utah 
Usual Codes 

XOWLAXD, Ralph C. 

Hobart Bdg\, San Francisco 
In charge Exploration Dept. of D. C. Jackling- 


L. D. 







SHALER, Millard K. 


t>, Montague du Pare, 

Brussels. Belgium 

PAYNE, Henry M. 


1870 Hudson Terminal. 

50 Church St.. New York 

Cable: Macepayne Usual Codes 



Mining - investigations carefully made for 

responsible intending investors 

525 Market St., San Francisco 


, F. M. 






New York 

PEARSE & CO., Arthur L. 


Coal and Shale Treatment 

Worcester House. Walbrook. London. E.C. 

PERKINS, Walter G. 

587 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

PLATE, H. Robinson 

Hobart Bdg.. San Francisco. Cal. 

Code: Bedford McNeill 

Howard Poillon . C. H. Poirier 


63 Wall St.. New York 



Casilla 489. Santiago de Chile 

Cable : Kivapo. Santiago. Chile Code : McNeill 



% Oroville Dredging. Limited. 

Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 

PROBERT, Frank H. 

University of California. Berkeley. Cal. 

RITTER, A. Etienne 

Colorado Springs, Colo. 

ROBERTS, Milnor 


The Pacific Northwest 

British Columbia and Alaska 

University Station, Seattle, Wash. 


1108 Hobart Bdr„ San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 

ROGERS, Edwin M. 


32 Broadway. New York 

Cable: Emrog Code: McNeill 

ROGERS, John C. 

Examination and Exploration of Mining Prop- 
erties with a view to Purchase 
Copper Cliff, Ontario. Code: Bedford McNeill 

Allen H. Rogers Lucius W. Mayer 

Sydney H. Ball 


42 Broadway, New York 
201 Devonshire St., Boston, Mass. 
Cable: Alhasters 





Quebec. Canada 

Fundicion de Los Arcos, Toluca. 


P. O. Box 

160. Cobalt. Ontario 





1006 Hobart Bdg. 




Howard D. 


60 Broadway, 

New York 



Code: Western Union 

Franklin W. Smith Ralph A. Ziesemer 


Bisbee. Ariz. Code: McNeill 

SPDL.SBURY, E. Gybbon 

29 Broadwty. New York 
Cable : Spilroe 





Engineering and 



New York 



W. H. 




Broad St. 

New York City 





January 3, 1920 


STEBHINS, Elwj'n W. 

819 Mills Bde\. San Francisco 

STEVENS, Arthur W. 


Atlanta, Idaho 

STEVENS, Blarney 

Apartado 1620. Mexico City 


Vancouver Block. Vancouver, B. C. 

STEVES, Norman C. 

4, Moorgate Street, London, E.C., 2 
Codes : McNeill (both Editions) andBentley's 

STRAUSS, Lester W. 


Casilla 514, Valparaiso. Chile, S. A. 

Cable : Lestra-Valparaiso Code : McNeill 



Mgr. Bluestone Mining- & Smelting Co., 

Mason, Nevada 

SWIFT, Ernest Lee 


624 Kohl Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable Address : Leswif Code : Bedford McNeill 

SYMMES, Whitman 


Pres. and Met. Con Virginia. Ophir, Mexican, 

Union Consolidated, etc. 

Virginia City, Nevada 

Arthur F. Taggart R. B. Yerxa 


Operation and design of ore treatment plants 
Laboratory. 165 Division St.. New Haven, Conn. 


Contractors and Engineers 


1108 Hobart Bdg., San Francisco 

Code: McNeill 

TALMAGE, Sterling B. 

Geologic Maps. Examinations. Reports 
315 Judge Bdg., Salt Lake City. Utah 

TELLAM, Alfred . 


Denver Engineering Works Company 

Denver, Colorado 


45 Exchange Place, New York 



e /c Ropp Tin Ltd., P. O. Naraguta, 

N. Nigeria. W. Africa 

Codes : McNeill, both Editions 





% A. 

Chester Beatty. 

25 Broad St. 



Code: Bedford McNeill 



Mills Bdg., San Francisco 

Cable: Latite Code: Bedford McNeill 


Goldfield. Nevada 

TURNER, Scott 

1511 Bank of Hamilton Bdg., 
Toronto, Ontario, Canada 


534 Confederation Life Bdg., Toronto, Canada 
208 Salisbury House, London. E.C. 2, England 

VAN LAW, Carlos W. 

Vo Sinclair Consolidated Oil Corp., 
120 Broadway, New York 

WALLACE, H. Vincent 


320 Central Building 

Los Angeles. California 


42 Exchange Place, New York 


14 Copthall Ave., London. E.C, 2 
And Peking, China 
Cable: Natehekoo, London 

WEBBER, Morton 


165 Broadway, New York 

O'Rouke Estate Bdg., Butte. Montana 

WEEKES, Frederic R. 

233 Broadway, New York 

WEIGALL, Arthur R. 

General Manager The Seoul Mining Co. 

Tul Mi Chung (Nantei) 
Whang Hai Province. Chosen (Korea) 

WESTERVELT, William Young 


17 Madison Ave. (Madison Square East) 

New York 

Cable : Casewest Code : McNeill 

WHITE, Charles H. 

788 Mills Bdg.. San Francisco 


Bothin Bdg., Santa Barbara, California 

Burch. Hershey & White 
WHITE, Lloyd C. 

Crocker Bdg., San Francisco 

WHITMAN, Alfred R. 


Underground Programmes. Orebody Problems 

43 Exchange Place, New York 

Haileybury, Ontario (Cobalt District) 

WICKS, Frank R. 


Ore Treatment. Test Work, Plant Supervision 

7034 Holmes Ave.. Lob Angeles, Cal. 








Glendora. Cal. 

J. H. Devereux W. B. Devereux, Jr. 


London 120 Broadway, N, T. Mexico. D. P. 
Cable : Kenreux Code : Bedford McNeill 

WINCHELL, Horace V. 

1212 First National-Soo Line Bds., 
Minneapolis, Minn. 
Cable: Racewin 


Continental Bank Bdg-., Salt Lake City, Utah 

WISEMAN, Philip 


1210 Hojlingeworth Bdg.. Lob Angeles 

Cable: Filwiseman Codes: W. U.; McNeill 

WRIGHT, Charles Will 







Wright. Arbus 



WRIGHT, Louis A. 

Via Parlamento 22, Rome, Italy 

faROTH, James S. 

42 Broadway, New York 

Pope Teatman Edwin S. Berry 



Examination. Development and Management 
of Properties 

Room 706. Ill Broadway. New York 

Ikon a 

Bedford McNeill 



Offices and Laboratory 
Story Bdg 1 .. Lcs Angeles. California, U. S. A. 

Examinations and Reports on all Mineral 

Deposits, Formations and Processes 

of Extraction 

20 years experience in the Western States, 

Pacific Coast States. U. S. A., Mexico 

and Central America 

ZIEGLER, Victor 


Examination of oil lands and mineral deposits 

Geologic and structural maps 

415 Empire Bdg.. Denver, Colo. 

liuiuan :. 1920 



fo i^l% 

fibre /Jr Hf/uf one dr/7/ 
opera for says abour 

^g LONGYEAR "ll G^Wfi 10 

"I'm still on the job running 
your new screw feed. She sure 
is a dandy and we are getting 
from three to five feet more per 
shift since its arrival. I have not 
seen anything yet to compare 
with it. It has all the advantages 
of a hydraulic." 

A drill for every purpose. 
Send for Catalogues and prices 


Send for Catalogs 
and Prices 

Branch Office, TUCSON, ARIZ. 


a>ll1lll1Mlllltlllllltlltllltlllllllllllillll1illUMIIIIIIIIIIIIJ[IIIIIIIIIIMI|[|ltllll]tllllllllMIIIUIIIU1lllllllllMIIII1tllllllllltlllllllllllllllllllllllMU ^>ll II II I H I! I H II I M II 1 1 1 II I II I II [I I M I M I II I II 1 1 1 1 1! 1 1 Itl I [I I II I II III II 111 II Ml M 1 1 1 II II] III 1 1 II [II 111 M [I I II I IIM 1 1 1 1 1 1 H M 1 1 1 M III I! I M I ! I !l 111 1 1 II I M I ll 1 1 1 1, K 1 1. 








Aldrich Pumps 

For General Service 

A Divided Water- 
End Type, arranged 
to be operated by 
belt from motor or 
from countershaft, 
Designed for large 
quantities of water, 
and for lifts not ex- 
ceeding 350 feet. 
Especially adapted 
for water supply 
service in mills, 
sugar refineries, 
municipal water- 
| works, etc. Built 

| in capacities of from 350 to 1800 G. P. M. against lifts 
| up to 350 feet. Write for data. 

The Aldrich Pump Company 

= McCormick Building 

Allentown. Pa., U. S. A. 

30 Church Sbed 

Keeoao Building 

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January 3, 1920 


(P. W. Libbey) 

Assayers, Chemists and Metallurgists 


306-307 N. First St.. Phoenix. Arizona 


Assayers. Chemists and Metallurgists 


Flotation and Cyanide TeBts 

1008 South Hill St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



159 Pierpont Avenue. Salt Lake City. Utah 

Design and Erection of all Classes of Reduction Plants 



The 4th edition of our Ore Testing Bulletin is now ready for mailing. We shall be pleased to 

send it to you upon request 

New York Office. 120 Broadway. Room 2817. C. E. Chaffin. Local Manager 

Canadian Office. 363 Sparks St.. Ottawa. Canada 

Australian Agent: F. H. Jackson. 22 Carrington St., Wynward Square, Sydney. N. S. W.. Australia 

BARDWELL, Alonzo F. 


(Successor to Bettles & Bardwell) 

168 S. W. Temple St.. Salt Lake City. Utah 

Ore Shippers' Agent 



Technical and Chemical Analysis of Ores 

Minerals, and All Organic Materials 

223 W. FiTBt St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 





Flotation of Copper. Lead, Zinc, and Other Minerals 

Tests made on Lota of 1 lb. up to 5 Tons 


Laboratory and Office: 419 The Embarcadero, San Francisco 
Telephone: Sutter 5266 Cable address: Hambeau Codes: West. Union: Bed. McNeill 


Chemical, electro-chemical, metallurgical and 

electro-metallurgical investigations and 

reports. Processes developed 

604 Balboa Bdg.. San Francisco 

LEDOUX & CO., Inc. 


Independent samplers at the port of New York 

Representatives at all Refineries and Smelters on Atlantic Seaboard 

Office and Laboratory: 99 John Street. New York 


Shippers' Representatives 
Box BB. Douglas, Arizona 

SMITH, EMERY & CO. (Ore Testing Plant. Los Angeles) 


Represent Shippers at Smelters, Test Ores, and Design Mills 

651 Howard Street. San Francisco 246 South Los Angeles Street, Los Angeles 



El Paso. Texas 

Umpire and Controls a Specialty 


An Institution of Technology and Engineering. Full degrees, low cost, fine climate, new 
equipment, accessible to mines and smelters. Write for catalogue. 



Special problems in ore treatment 
29 Broadway. New York City 
Cable Address : Sinterer 

ERMLICH & CO., Geo. J. 


Control and Umpire Work 

Ore Shippers Agent 

1725 Champa St.. Denver. Colo. 

HANKS, Abbott A. 


Established 1866 

630 Sacramento St.. San Francisco 

Control arid Umpire Assays, Supervision of 
Sampling at Smelters 

Cable : Hanx Code : W. U. and Bed. McN. 



Oils. Hydrocarbons and Oil Shale Analysis 

169 South West Temple Street. 

Salt Lake City. Utah 

PEREZ, Richard A. 



I Established 1S95I 

120 N. Main St.. Los Angeles. Cal 

FROST, Oscar J. 

420 18th St.. Denver 

IRVING & CO., James 


Mines Examined 

702 South Spring St.. Los Angeles. Cal. 



1118 Nineteenth St., Denver 

Ore Shippers' Agent. Write for terms 

Representatives at all Colorado smelters 

GD3SON, Walter L. 

Successor to 
824 Washington St., Oakland 
Phone 8929 
Umpire assays and supervision of sampling. 
Working tests of ores, analysis. Investiga- 
tions of metallurgical and technical processes. 
Professor L. Falkenau. General Manager and 
Consulting Specialist. 

Wm. P. MiUer C. W. Nefl 





Mines Examined and Reported On 

Processes Investigated. Mills Designed 

Laboratory. 28 Belden Place. San Francisco 


Fresno, Cal. 



Suit* 619 Wesley Roberta Bdg.. 

Third and Main Sts.. Los Angeles, Cal. 



Umpires and Controls a Specialty 

Box 1736. Picher. Okla. 


(Established 1908) 

Chemists. AssayerB, Metallurgists 

Shippers' Representatives at Smelters 

99 Marion St.. Seattle. Wash. 

AND SCIENTIFIC TRESS carries a complete 
line of Technical Bocks on all subjects allied 
to the Mining Field. 

Jannan 3, 1980 



keep the world revolving 

Candy Original Stitched Cotton Duck Power and 
Conveyor Belts have been giving service indoors 
and out, the world over for mare than forty years. 

Use our Engineering Department 
sue and ply Candy Be't best sui 
particular work — and to be sure c 
ine Candy Belt, look for the Gr 
and Candy Trademark. 

[Bbraun B 



Orders filled promptly from Mill Supply House or direct. 


755 West Pratt St , Baltimore, Md. 

New York Branch: 36 Warren St. 

In Two Sizes for Laboratory Purposes 


GREATER CAPACITY for size of jaws than 

Sectional View Showing Jaws and Adjustment. 


San Francisco, U. S. A. 

Los Angeles, U. S. A. 

Manufacturers of Laboratory Labor Saving Machinery 
| Specialists In Laboratory Equipment and Testing Apparatus 

Dealers In Chemical Glassware and Chemicals 




January 3, 1920 



Machinery and Supplies of Dependable Manufacturers an here Listed 
Addresses will befound on the Sixth followinq Page ••• 
If you do not find what uou want communicate with Mining andSciENTincPREssSEHVKS' 

Acetylene Generators 
Bullard. E. D. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 


Buttress & McClellan . 
Chalmers & Williams 
ColliDS A Webb. Inc. 
Dorr Co., The. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
National Tank A Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Trent, Goodwin M. 

Air Receivers 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Reardon. P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Amalgamating Plates 

ButtresB A McClellan 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Gibson. W. W. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Sup. Co. 

San Francisco Plating Works 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Worthiugton Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 

Assayers' and Chemists' Supplies 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 
(See Index to Advertisers) 

Babbitt Metals 

Finn Metal Works. John 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Balances and Weights 

Ainsworth & Sons, Wm. 
Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Fairbanks. Morse A Co. 
Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Sup. Co. 
Thompson Balance Co. 

Balls for Bail-Mills 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 

Chalmers A Williams 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Hickok A Hickok 

Los Angeles Foundry Co. 

Mine Equipment A Supply Co. 

Ball-Mills (see 'Mills') 


Garratt & Co., W. T. 
Belting and Lacing 

Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Dodge Sales A Engineering Co. 
Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 
Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 
Gandy Belting Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Main Belting Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
United States Rubber Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

blowing Engines 
NOraberg- Mlg. Co. 


Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Bolts and Nuts 

Drake Lock Nut Go. 

Books, Technical 

Mining and Scientific Press 

Brick, Fire 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Briquet ting Machinery 
General Briquetting Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 


Atlas Car A Mfg. Co. 

Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wei Iman-Seaver-M organ Co. 

Burners, Oil 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 


Atlas Car A Mfg. Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 
Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Calculating Machines 

Marehant Calculating Machine Co. 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Carbide Flare Lights 

Ballard. E. D. 

Carbons, Borts, and Diamonds 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Atlas Car A Mfg, Co. 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Wellraan-Seaver-Morgan Co. 


Dodge Sales A Engineering Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 


Barrett Co., The 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Giant Powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Roessler & Hasslacher Cbem. Co. 

ChUean Mills (see 'Mills') 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chalmers & Williams 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Deister Machine Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co 

Dorr Co., The 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Classifiers, Dry 

National Milling A Refining Co. 

Clutches, Friction (see 'Transmis- 
sion Machinery') 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers A WilUams 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Fairbanks, Morse & Co. 

Gardner Governor Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Compressor Co. 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Norwalk Iron Works 

Pratt-GUbert Co. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Butchart. W. A. 

Chalmers A Williams 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Deister Concentrator Co. 

Deister Machine Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Gibson. W. W. 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

James Ore Concentrator Co. 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Overstiom Mfg. Co. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Young & Tyler 

Concentrators, Dry 

National Milling A Refining Co. 
Young & Tyler 

Concrete Mixers 

Buttress A McClellan 
Worthington Pump A Machi Corp. 

Contractors, Core Drilling 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Conveyors, Belt or Screw 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Gandy Belting Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
United States Rubber Co, 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Bacon, Inc., Earle C. 

Braun Corporation, The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Buttress A McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. A Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump A Mack. C*r». 
Young A Tyler 


Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Josepk 
Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 


Roessler & Hasslacher Chem. 9m. 

Cyanide Plants and Machinery 
Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Buttress A McClellan 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Co., The 

Hendrie A Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. ••. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy A Sup. O*. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank A Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Trent. Goodwin M. 
Worthington Pump & Mack. flaw. 


Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Company, The 
Morse Bros. Machy. A Sup. ••. 
Oliver Continuous Filter C#. 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Drafting Material 

Ainsworth & Sons. Wm. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Josepk 

Dragline Excavators 

Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Dredges and Accessories 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Lt4 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. 0*. 
Hickok A Hickok 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co.. A. 
MorriB Machine Works 
New York Engineering Co, 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Union Construction Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan C*. 
Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Drill Makers and Sharpeners 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Oo. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Air and Steam 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Cleveland Rock Drill Co. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Cochise Machine Co. 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Oo. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. A Sup. 9». 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine A Smelter Supply Co. 

Reardon, P. H. 

Rix Compressed Air A Drill ©•. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Core 

Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co.. E. J. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Drills, Diamond 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Longyear Co., E. J. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg Co. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
National Milling & Refining C*. 
Traylor Eng. A Mfg. Co. 

Dumps, Rotary 

Car-Dumper A Equipment Oo. 

(Continued on page 60) 

Jhmimi-.y 8, 1920 



tube mill linings 

Silex Usees 


Outwears same weight metal linings 

Direct from Producer— Reduced Cost 

right size— as desired 

Grinding Pebbles of Same Material 
are Most Efficient 

stock sizes immediate shipment 

Prices and Freight Rates on Request 


niltllll I r imiiuir imilililirillliiim 


ii ii immiimni m minium in ii m ii him nimi Minimi. ^f niiu j mr jiiipj jin i HiMtiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiniiiHiLiitiimiimiiitnnmiiitiiii: 



Perforated Steel Screens 

Of Every Description 


Grinding Balls and 
Mill Liners 

We guarantee these where recom- 
mended by us to reduce your ore 
on a dollar for dollar basis with 
any other grinding material used 
in the same mill under same con- 


2444 So. Alameda 

Los Angeles, CaF. 


Made for Service 

The Harrington & King Perforating Co. 

637 N. Union Ave, Chicago, 111. 
NEW YORK OFFICE: 114 Liberty St. 

= mi IIIMI , ,„ „„ ,„ minmiiitiiimn HlllltlHllim tllllimiiiiiiiimiiii I mi mine a I tiiiimmimiiitiiiii miiinmiiit iiiiiiiimiimiiiimtmiiimmi Minmiimmmmiimimmii 



January 3. 1920 


iiiiiiiiii ur urn iirim: hiLiiiMin i^iif ii nriiiii ji; in !■ hid en bin: ji>iu ileii 1 1 ; 1 1 1 1 > 1 1 > p 1 1 1 n I ■ 1 1 > ■ I j 1 1 r n I > 1 1 : t u 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n j iiim d iu mi n til mtiii j liiti i n immiimmmmiimmiuimi 

Electrical Supplies 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Employment Bureau 

Business Mens Clearing House 

Engineer* (Designing and Contract- 

General Engineering Co. 
Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
W oilman-!* wis Co. 

Engines, Internal Combustion 

Allis-Chalmers MIg. Co. 

Chicago .Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Weou. inc. 

Fairoanks, Morse & Co. 

Hendrie & BuiUiolf Mlg. & Sup.£o. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Macny. & Sup. Co. 

.Nordoerg Mfg. Co. 

Novo Engine Co. 

Kearaou, ir*. H. 

Box Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Engines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Morris Machina Works 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Nordberg Mfg. C». 
Eosenuerg & Go. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 


Du Pont Powder Co. 
Giant powder Co. 
Hercules Powder Co. 

Fans* Ventilating 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Henorie & Boitrholi Mig. & Sup. Co. 


Braun Corpuruuan, The 

Brauu-KuecuL-neiniauu Co. 

Chalmers & vvunaaia 

Colorado irou Works Co. 

Gaiiguer Machinery Co. 

Merrii Co., The 

Morse Bros, machy. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

United Filters Corp. 

Worthing tun ramp « Mach. corp. 

FUter Presses 

Braun Corporation. The 

Bruun-B-uechi-HeinianB Co. 

Buttress is McOielian 

Gahgher Machmwy Co. 

Merrii Co.. The 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

United Filters Corp. 

Worilungtou Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Fire Extinguishers 

Bullard. E. D. 
Justrite MIg. Oo. 

First Aid Equipment 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun •K.uechL-B.eimann Co. 
Bullard. E. i>. 

Flotation Apparatus 

Braun Corporation, The 
Brauu-KDecht-Heimanu Co. 
Butcharl, W. A. 
Butters Co., Ltd.. Cnas. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Overetrom Mfg. Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Southwestern E*ig. Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 


Buttress & McClellan 
Camden Forge Co. 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Frogs and Switches (see 'Railway 

Fuel Oil 

Standard Oil Co. 

Furnaces, Assay (see 'Assayers and 

Chemists Supplies') 

Furnaces, Boasting and Smelting 

Allis-Gh aimers Mfg. Co. 
Colorado iron Works Co 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Gas Producers 

Wellman-Seaver -Morgan Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dodge Sales & Engineering Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Johnson Gear Works 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Generators, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellau 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Giants, Hydraulic (see 'Hydraulic 
Mining Machinery') 


Gardner Governor Co. 
Graphite Products 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan 
Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co., Joseph 

Grinders, Laboratory 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co, 

Heaters, Feed Water 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Hoists, Electric 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Hoists, Oil and Distillate 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Hoists. Steam or Air 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nordberg Mfg. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Cochise Machine Co. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co.. Inc. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. F. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Hydraulic Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
American Spiral Pipe Works 
Garratt & Co.. W. T. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Sacramento Pipe WorkB 
Senn Concentrator Co. 

Ice Machines 

Norwalk Iron WorkB 


Galigher Machinery Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Iron Cements 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
National Milling & Refining Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Senn Concentrator Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg., .Co. 
Union Construction Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Laboratory Supplies (see 'Assayers' 
and Chemists' Supplies') 

Lamp Guards 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co. 

Lamps, Arc and Incandescent 

General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Lamps, Miners' 

Braun Corporation, The 
Braun -Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard. E. D. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 
Pratt-Gilbert Co. 
Wolf Safety Lamp Co. 

Lining for Ball-Mills 

Chalmers & Williams 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Jasper Stone Co. . 

Los Angeles Foundry Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Overstrom Mfg. Co. 
Parafline Companies, Inc. 

Lock Nuts 

Drake Lock Nut Co. 

Locomotives, Electric 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

General Electric Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co., A. H. 

Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Compressed Air 
Porter Co., H. K. 

Locomotives, Gasoline 

Fate-Root-Heath Mfg. Co. 

Locomotives, Steam 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Porter Co., H. K. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 


Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 
Harron. Rickard & McCone 
Standard Oil Co. 

Lubricators - 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Justrite Mfg. Co. 
Lunkenheimer Co., The 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Machinery, Used 

Buttress & McClellan 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Jardine Machinery Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Nevada Engineering & Supply Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Rebuilt Machinery Co. 
Roseuberg & Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Western Machinery Co. 
Zelntcker Supply Co. 

Magnets, Lifting 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Magnetic Separators and Pulleyi 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Metal Buyers and Dealers 

American Smelters Securities Co. 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Atkins, Kroll &. Co. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

Grubnau. Bryant & Grubnau 

International Smelting U. 

U. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min. Co. 

Wildberg Bros. 

Mills — Bull, Pebble and Tube 

Allis-CbaJmers Mfg. Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp., Ltd. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & William* 

Collins & Webl'. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Denver Engineering Works Co. 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 

Herman, John 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Mine Equipment & Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Chilean 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Quartz Mill & Crusher Co. 
Lane Mill & Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Mills, Grinding 
Gibson, W. W. 

Marathon Mill & Machine Works 

Mills, Stamp 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg, Co. 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. Ltd. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Chalmers & Williams 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Colorado Iron Works Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy, &, Sup. Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Motor Trucks 

Gar lord Motor Truck Co. 
Mutual Truck Co. 
White Co.. The 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Buttress & M.-Clcllan 
ColIins-& Webb. Inc. 
Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Co. 

Xodulizcrs, Ore 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Office Supplies 

Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph 
Marehant Calculating Machine ©o. 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co. 

Oil and Grease Cups (see 'Lubri- 

Oil, Flotation 

Barrett Co.. The 
General Naval Stores 
Pensaeola Tar & Turpentine Co. 
Standard Oil Co. 
United Naval Stores 

Ore-Buyers (see 'Metal Buyers and 

Oxy-Acetylene Welding and Cutting 


Bullard. E. D. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Oxweld Acetylene Co. 

(Continued on page 62) 

.lanuHj-v ;t. 1920 











Structural Steel for Mine,Mill and Smelter Buildings 1 


Complete Warehouse Stocks I 





Hydraulic Mining, Yukon Gold Co. 
Water Supplied Through 

Taylor Spiral Riveted Pipe 

..- ., _ . , "New York, Jan. 16, 1911. 

Gentlemen: We beg to acknowledge yours of Jan. Bth 
making Inquiry as to our experience with your Spiral Riveted 

"Our first use of Spiral Riveted Pipe was In connection 
with our hydraulic mining operations as distributing lines 
from our main ditch system. The pipe was given severe 
service and proved entirely satisfactory. We are now using 
It in diameters up to 42 Inches and heads up to 530 feet 
We have found the pipe easy to lay and handle, strong for 
its weight and generally satisfactory. 
"Very truly yours, 

(Signed) YUKON GOLD CO., 

"O. B. Perry, Gen. Mgr." 
Catalogue and special prices on request. 




mi mitmiinmmiimmiiiMi 

Chicago, 111. 





January 3, 1920 


i immiimiiimiiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 

lllllllltMllllltnMIIUIIIIIIIIIi[IIM1l1MIIIMIIIIIIIll[IIMtlllHIIMIMIIItlllHIIII1MIIIUnilllllillltlltlllll|]lltlltlllllllllllllllllllll[i[|]IIIIIIII1IUIIIIIIII)ltlll1lllllllltllll<l1I llllllllllllllllllIilllllllllllltllMIIIIIUIUIIIIIItilHIIIIIIIIIlllllllttni 

Oxygen Apparatus 

Billiard. E. D. 

Siebe, Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Diamond Rubber Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
Pioneer Rubber Mills 
Smooth-On Mfg. Co. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Paint, Preservative 

Detroit Graphite Co. 
Dixon Crucible Co. 
Parafline Companies. Inc. 
Standard Oil Co. 

Paper, Building, Insulating and 

Parafline Companies, Inc. 

Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Jasper Stone Co. 

Perforated Metals 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Pipe Covering 

Paraffine Companies, Inc. 
Pipe Fittings 

Diamond Rubber Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Garratt & Co., W. T. 
Goodrich Rubber Co., B. P. 
Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Merrill Company 
Norwalk Iron Works 
Pacific Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Powell Co., Wm. 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pipe, Cast Iron 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pipe, Riveted 

American Spiral Pipe Works 
Sacramento Pipe Works 

Pipe, Standard Wrought 

National Tube Co. 
Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pipe, Wood 

National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Placer Mining Machinery 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

American Spiral Pipe Works 

Collins & Webb, Inc. 

Harrington & King Perforating Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

National Milling & Refining Co. 

New York Engineering Co. 

Overstrom Mfg. Co. 

Senn Concentrator Co. 

Union Construction Co. 

Tuba Mfg. Co. 

Pneumatic Tools 

Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Sullivan. Machinery Co. 

Prospecting Supplies 

Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Dobbins Core Drill Co. 
Longyear Co.. E. J. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
New York Engineering Co. 
Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 
Union Construction Co. 

Pnlleys, Magnetic 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Pulleys, Shafting and Hangers (see 
'Transmission Machinery') 

Pumps, Air Lift 

Aldrich Pump Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Chicago Pneumatic Tool Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Pumps, Centrifugal 

Aldrich Pump Co. 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

American Well Works 

Buttress & McClellan 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks.. A. S. 

Collins & Webb. Inc. 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co. 

Frenier & Sons 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Garratt & Co., W. T. 

General Electric Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Jackson Iron Works. Byron 

Krogh Pump & Machinery Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Meese & Gottfried Co. 

Morris Machine Works 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 

Pacific Pipe Co. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Western Machinery Co. 

Wortnington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Pumps, Reciprocating 

Aldrich Pump Co, 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 

Cameron Steam Pump Wks., A. S. 

Galigher Machinery Co. 

Hendrie & Bolthofi* Mfg. & Sup. Co. 

Ingersoll-Rand Co. 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co. 

Rosenberg & Co. 

Wortnington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Bullard. E. D. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 

Railway Supplies and Equipment 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co., Inc. 
Hickok & Hickok 

Roller Bearings 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co. 

Rolls, Crushing 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Bacon, Inc., Earle C. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wortnington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 
Parafline Companies. Inc. 
Standard Oil Co. 

Rope, Manila 
Waterbury Co. 

Rope, Wire 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Buttress & McClellan 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Simpson Co.. A. H. 
Waterbury Co. 

Robber Boots and Shoes 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F. 
United States Rubber Co. 

Safety Appliances 

Bullard. E. D. 

Siebe, Gorman Co., Ltd. 


Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup, Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Saw Mill Machinery 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 


Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Braun Corporation, The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 
Chalmers & Williams 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Harrington & King Perforating Co. 
James Ore Concentrator Co. 
Ludlow-Saylor Wire Co. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Stimpson Equipment Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Wortnington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Dings Magnetic Separator Co. 

Separators, Dry 

National Milling & Refining Co. 

Shafting (see 'Transmission 


American Sheet & Tin Plate Co. 
Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 

Shoes and Dies 

Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp.. Ltd. 
Denver Engineering Works Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 
Wortnington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Shovels, Electric and Steam 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A. 


Atkins. Kroll & Co. 
Denver Fire Clay Co. 
Hardinge Conical Mill Co. 
Jasper Stone Co. 

Sintering and Agglomerating 

Wortnington Pump & Mach. Corp. 

Smelters and Refiners 

American Zinc, Lead & Smelt. Co. 

Empire Zinc Co. 

International Smelting Co. 

U. S. Smelting, Ref. & Min. Co. 

Wildberg Bros. 

Smelting Machinery 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. * 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Sup. Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 
Worthington Pump & Mach. Corp. 


Finn Metal Works, John 


American Spiral Pipe Works 
American Steel & Wire Co. 
Cary Spring Works 

Steel, Drill 

Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb. Inc. 
Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
International High Speed Steel Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
Sullivan Machinery Co. 

Steel, Structural 

Kansas City Structural Steel Co. 

Steel, Tool 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
International Highspeed Steel Co. 

Tanks, Steel 

Buttress & McClellan 
Denver Eng. Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Ingersoll-Rand Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Tanks, Wood 

Buttress &, McClellan 
Denver Eng. Works Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Co 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 

Tapes, Measuring 

Galigher Machinery Co. 
Lufkin Rule Co. 

Thickeners, Pulp 

Buttress & McClellan 
Collins & Webb, Inc. 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Dorr Co., The 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Oliver Continuous Filter Co. 
Pacific Tank & Pipe Co. 

Tires, Auto and Truck 

Goodrich Rubber Co., B. T. 

Yuba Mfg. Co. 

Tramways, Aerial 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. C*. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 

Ains worth & Sons. Wm. 
Braun Corporation. The 
Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Transmission Machinery 

A llis-Ch aimers Mfg. Co. 
American Pulley Co. 
Camden Forge Co. 
Dodge Sales & Eng. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Johnson Gear Works 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Pratt-Gilbert Co. 
Rosenberg & Co. 
Wellman-Seaver-M organ Co. 

Trucks, Motor (see 'Motor Trucks') 

Tube-Mills (see •Mills') 

Turbines, Hydraulic 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
Pelton Water Wheel Co. 
Smith Co., S. Morgan 

Turbines, Steam 

Allis-Chalmers Mfg. Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Westinghouse Elec. & Mfg. Oo. 

Crane Co. 

Lunkenheimer Co.. The 
Merrill Co., The 
Norwalk Iron Works 
Powell Co.. Wm. 

Water Wheels, Impulse 

Harron. Rickard & McCone 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Sup. Cs. 

Pelton Water Wheel Co. 

Simpson Co.. A. H. 

Smith Co., S. Morgan 

Wei Iman- Sea ver-M organ Co. 

Well Drilling Machy. and SnppUss 

American Well Works 
Union Construction Co. 

Wheels, Car 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co. 
Galigher Machinery Co. 
Hickok & Hickok 


Lunkenheimer Co., The 

American Steel & Wire Co. 
Broderick & Bascom Rope Co. 
Diamond Rubber Co. 
General Electric Co. 
Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. W. 
Meese & Gottfried Co. 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A. 
Simpson Co., A. H. 
United States Rubber Oo. 

Buttress & McClellan 
Colorado Iron Works Co. 
Mine & Smelter Supply Co. 
National Tank & Pipe Co. 
Pacific Tank 8c Pipe Co. 
Redwood Mfrs. Co. 
Traylor Eng. & Mfg. Co. 

Zinc Dust and Shavings 

American Zinc. Lead A Smelt. Os. 

Atkins, Kroll & Co. 

Braun Corporation. The 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co. 

Buttress & McClellan 

Denver Fire Clay Co. 

Finn Metal Works. John 

Merrill Co.. The 

Mine & Smelter Supply Oo. 

Pacific Tank & Pine Co. 

U. S. Smelting. Ref. * Min. C*. 

January 3, l;»'Jv> 


Keep Them All 
on Your Supply Shelf 

With a SMOOTH-ON Instruction Book and 
a can of No. 1 and No. 3 SMOOTH-ON 
Iron Cements on your supply shelf you are 
ready for any emergency. 

There are 4 different kinds of SMOOTH-ON 
for engineers' use, each exactly right for its 
special purpose. For instance, SMOOTH-ON 
Iron Cement No. 1 is a quick-hardening iron 
cement in powder form for stopping leaks 
of water, steam, gas or oil; SMOOTH-ON 
Iron Cement No. 2 is similar to No. 1 
but is slow-hardening and semi-hydraulic. 
SMOOTH-ON Elastic Cement No. 3 is espe- 
cially good for making tight screwthread 
joints and for coating gaskets. No. 7 is for 
water-, oil-, dust-, and wear-proofing concrete. 

Order SMOOTH-ON from your supply 
house. Write direct to the SMOOTH-ON 
MFG. CO., for the Instruction Book — it's free. 




■pi --i 1 '■ y < 





Arc positive in operation, de- 
livering the quantity of oil for 
whic'i tlie feed is set— uniformly 

and without fail. 

Their installation on the 
units of a power plant is as- 
surance of economy both in 

operation and oil consumption. 

The variety of types made in- 
cludes Mechanical, Hydrostatic 
and Gravity feed, and the Hand 
Oil 1'iiiiip is highly satisfactory 
as an auxilary when starting or 
for e nergency. 

Specify Lunkenheimer and 
insist on their installation. 
Leading dealers sell them. 

Booklets So. 526-C5D and 
572-CD are ready references on 
Lubricator Equipment. Copies 
of both at your request. 


— "DUALITY"— - 

Largest Miiniifurturern of 

Mich Crude Engineering Sn«liilil»*« 

In the World 

New Yorlc CINCINNATI London 
Cbicafo Boiton 

Chicago Office: 
221 N. Jefferson St. 

San Francis -o office: 
56 Sacramento St. 



January 3, 1920 


| Deister-Overstrom Diagonal Deck Concentrating Table 


A higher extraction of value*. A higher grade concentrate. ' f 

Minimum percentage of middlings. Greater capacity, | 


The Deister CONCENTRATOR Company 

Office, Factory and Test Plant: FORT WAYNE, IND. | 

[iiiiiiiiii.iiiiiiilifiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiriiiii iii iiiiiii:ii;ii iii iiiii iiilllllflllllllllllllllllllllllllililtlllllllilllllilJiilii linn M ill IIIJIiiUMiiiiiiiitiiC 




the efficient wire rope for 
mine hoists and haulage 
and all other purposes for 
which wire rope is used. 

Complete line of 
Wire Rope Fittings. 

John A. Roebling's 
Sons Company 

of California 
S n Francisco Lot Angeles 
Seattle Portland, Ore. 

aunBuuuiMiiuiiiiiititin iiunuiuiiii iii mimtii m n iimiii immniiii mnm iiimiiiiiii iiuiuoniniiin utiiiiiiiinni in urn tiuitmin 

^iiiiiiinuiitiitiniiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiitiuuiiMiiitiiiiiiiiirii niiiiimiiiiiiiiiiimiiiimi.miiiiimiiiJiimtmiiiitiiiiiiiimiiiiiiimiiimmiH: 



604 Mission St., San Francisco, Cal. 

I Neill Jigs 

Union Churn Drills i 


1 Yuba Ball Tread Tractors Yuba Centrifugal Pumps 


| WORKS: Marymlle, Cal. SALES OFFICE: 433 California St., San Frinciaco, CaL 


-'liiiiiuiiinmii in iitii niiiimmiimimi him iiMiiimmiiiiuimui 



Gel Onr Prt«» 



Samplei Gratis | 











I 317 Sharon Bids., San Francisco, C.lif. | 


Copper Steel 


Highest in quality and rust 
resistance. Unequaledfor 
Culverts, Flumes, Tanks, 

Roofing, Siding, Spouting, and 

all exposed sheet metal work. 

= We manofactnre Sheet and Tin Mill Products of every description— Black and 
= Galvanized Sheets, Corrugated and Formed Products, Booflng Tin Plates. Eto . 


Lm AngalM, Portland, in t . 5 

m iiiimn 

I ATKINS, KROLL & CO, San Francisco j 











ammilltlim i(iifiitliilililllllillliillllluiililitiniilitiiiiiiiiiirMiiilliliiiiiiiiiiiiitMtiliiiilifiHUH(niiiiintiiliutwiliiluiliiililiiiilr 


1 The Empire Zinc Company j 
Buys Zinc Ores 

Address oar Offices: 

160 Front St., New York, N. Y. 
703 Sjmct Bldg. , Dearer, Colo. 

i_'ini in n im ii thin ii m mil i ii m ii in tn in in in in in 

Or write to 





Smelters, ReBnera and Purchasers of 

Gold and Silver Ores, Gold Dust, Bullion and 
Native Platinum 

Producers of Proof Gold and Silver for Assarer* 

-HNiiiiimni iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii timiiiiiitijinHiiiiiimiii 


January .(. 1920 



Purchasers of 


Address: 1012 Pierce Building, St. Louis, Mo. 



55 Congress St., Boston, Mass. 

iiimiiiimiinimii minium, inn ion iimiimiiiiii' 

The Roessler & Hasslacher | 
Chemical Company 

1 00 William Street, New York I 

Works: Perth Amboy, N. J. 

Cyanide of Sodium 96-98% f 

Cyanogen 51-52% j 


Sodium Cyanide 96-98% in egg form, 1 
each egg weighing 1 ounce. i 

Cyanogen 51-52% | 



J American Smelters Securities Co. | 

(Selby Smelting Works) 

i | 

Buyers ot 


Consign all shipments to § 



Address correspondence to 

riiiiiitiiiiiitmtiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiiimii llllllllllllllinillHIItl iiiiiiiiiiiliiiiiiimiiiiiii milmililiiliiimiiiiiii limiirr 

^•iiiiiMMiiiimiiimiiiiiiiti i i in in iiiiiin mi iiiHiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiiiiiniiiRj 


Consulting Engineers 
1 25 Broad Street, New York j 

Specialists in the Briquettdng of Ores, 
Flotation Concentrates, Coals, Etc. 

SiilimimMmimiiiiiiiiimimiiiimiiiiiHiiiimiiiiiiiiiiiii Iltmm iiiiimiiiiii iiiiiiiiiini muniimmillllllllllinilllllllln 

auiiiiiiiiiniiuliiiiiiiiiiiimiiimiiiiiiuiitmiiiiiiiiiiiii i iitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiitiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiini minimus 

Jigs, Screens, Sand and Slime ] 
Tables, Classifiers, Automatic ( 
Ore Feeders, Etc. 

Manniftctrued by 

36 Runyon Street Newark. N. J. | 

mimfiMimii, ..4ti«miiiniiiniiiimiiiHuiiMUiuiiMiiuHuimiimiituiniiii«uiiiiimti~ 

United States Smelting, 
Refining & Mining Company 



Qold, Silver. Lead. Copper and Zinc Ores, Matte and 
Furnace Products. 


Blister Copper and Lead Bullion. 


Gold, Silver, Lead. Copper. Spelter, Zinc Dust, Arsenic, 
Insecticides, Fungicides, Cadmium, and Selenium. 


912 Xewhouse Building, Salt Lake City, Utah; Ken- 

nett, Cal.; Goldroad, Ariz.; Baxter Springs, Kansas; 

120 Broadway, New York; Pachuca (Real del Monte 

Co.), Mexico. 



Copper Smelter and Refinery, Chrome, N. J, 

Importers of Copper Ores, Mattes and Bullion, 

120 Broadway, New York 

| United States Smelting R. & M. Exploration Co. 

§ For examination and purchase of Metal Mines, 56 Conjcrees tit 
| Boston, Mass. District Offices, 120 Broadway, N. T.; 1004 llobart 
= BIdg., San Francisco. Cal.; Xewhouse Bldg., Salt I-alte CUT, Utah. 

^illliilliiiiliilliiililllllllllilllllllllllllliilllllllllllilllllililillillllillllllllllliMlllllliilllllliliilliluiiWiiiuniiiniiiiiii iniiniiNii.' 



New York Office: 42 Broadway 

= Purchasers of 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and 
Lead Ores 



International Lead Refining- Company. East Chicago. India** 
Rariton Copper Works. Perth Amboy, N. J. 


618 Eearns Building-. Salt Lake City, Utah 






I Zinc Carbonate Ores | 


Waldo, New Mexico 




January 3, 1920 

• Dash -Indicates -Every Other-WceK-or-Monthly -Advertisement- 


Ainpwortta & Sons, Wm„ Denver 64 

Aldrich Pump Co., AUentown. Pa 55 

A Ilia-Chalmers Mfg. Co.. Milwaukee. Wis 8 

American Cast Iron Pipe Co., Birmingham, Ala . 39 

American Pulley Co., Philadelphia. Pa — 

American Sheet & Tin Plate Co., Pittsburgh. . .04 
American Smelters Securities Co., San Francisco. 65 

American Spiral Pipe Works, Chicago 61 

American Steel & Wire Co., Chicago 41 

American Well Works, Aurora, 111 — 

American Zinc. Lead & Smelting Co.. St. Louis. 65 

Assayers, Chemists and Ore Testing Works 56 

Atkins. Kroll & Co.. San Francisco 64 

Atlas Car & Mfg. Co., Cleveland, Ohio 48 

Bacon, Inc.. Earle C, New York 48 

Barrett Co.. The. New York 40 

Bartley Crucible Co., Jonathan. Trenton. N. J. . . 7 
Bethlehem Shipbuilding Corp. San Francisco... — 

Blake. Moffitt & Towne, San Francisco 36 

Bonnot Co.. Canton, Ohio — 

Books. Technical 34-42-45-46 

Braun Corporation, The, Los Angeles, Cal 57 

Braun-Knecht-Heimann Co., Sau Francisco 57 

Broderick & Bascom Rope Co., St. Louis 69 

Bullard. E. D., San Francisco 55 

Business Men's Clearing House, Denver 38 

Butchart, W. A., Denver, Colo 36 

Butters & Co., Ltd.. Chas.. New York — 

Buttress St McClellan. Los Angeles. Cal — 

Buyers' Guide 58-60-6:2 

California Cap Co., Oakland. Cal — 

Camden Forge Co.. Camden, N. J ■ — 

Cameron Steam Pump Works. A. S., New York. 26 

Car-Dumper & Equipment Co., Chicago 45 

Cary Spring Works, New York — 

Cement-Gun Co., AUentown, Pa 49 

Chalmers & Williams. Chicago Heights. 1U — 

Chicago ±-neumatic Tool Co., Cnicago 23 

Cleveland Hock Drill Co., Cleveland. Ohio 40 

Cochise Machine Co.. Los Angeles, Cal — 

Collins & Weuu, Die, Los Angeies, Cal 19 

Colorado Iron Works, Denver 67 

Crane Co.. Chicago, III — 

Deister Machine Co., Fort Wayne, Ind 68 

Deister Concentrator Co.. Fort Wayne, Ind 64 

Denver Engineering Works Co.. Denver — 

Denver Fire Clay Co.. Denver 61 

Denver Rock Drill Mfg. Co., Denver 17 

Denver l.Hiiirt.2 Mill & Crusher Co., Denver — 

Detroit Graphite Co.. Detroit, Mich — 

Dewey. Strong & Townsend, San Francisco 48 

Diamond Ruooer Co.. Akron, Ohio 

Dings Magnetic Separator Co., Milwaukee, Wis. 
Dixon Crucible Co.. Joseph, Jersey City, N. J. . , 

Doobins Core Drill Co.. New York , 

Dodge Sales & Eng. Co., Mishawaka. Ind 20 

Dorr Company. The, Denver 40 

Drake Lock -Nut Co., San Francisco 39 

Elmer. H. N., Chicago 

Empire Zinc Co.. Denver. Colo 64 

English Tool & Supply Co.. Kansas City — 

Fairbanks. Morse & Co.. Chicago — 

Fate-Root-Heath Mfg. Co.. Plymouth. Ohio.... — 

Filler Fabrics Co.. Salt Lake City, Utah — 

Finn Metal Works. John, San Francisco 39 

Flexible Steel Lacing Co.. Chicago. Ill 43 

Florida Wood Products Co., Jacksonville, Fla. . .4.0 
Frenier & Son, Rutland, "Vermont 48 


Galigher Maehy. Co.. Salt Lake City, Utah 47 

Gandy Belting Co.. Baltimore. Md 57 

Gardner Governor Co., Quincy, 111 — 

Garford Motor Truck Co,, Lima. Ohio . — 

Garratt & Co., W. T„ San Francisco 44 

General Briquetting Co., New York. 65 

General Electric Co.. Schenectady. N. Y 30 

General Engineering Co.. Salt Lake City. Utah. ,32 

General Naval Stores, New York 48 

Giant Powder Co., Wilmington, Del 43 

Gibson, W. W., San Francisco — 

Goodrich Rubber Co.. B. F.. Akron. Ohio — 

Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio 31 

Grubnau. Bryant & Grubnau. Waldo, N. M 65 

Hardinge Conical Mill Co., New York — 

Harrington & King Perforating Co., Chicago... 59 
Hendrie & Bolthoff Mfg. & Supply Co., Denver. . 4 

Hendy Iron Works, Joshua, San Francisco — 

Hercules Powder Co.. Wilmington. Del — 

Herman. John. Los Angeles. Cal 40 

Hickok & Hickok, San Francisco — 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co., New York — 

Imperial Munitions Board, Toronto, Canada. . . . 38 

DigersoH-Rand Co.. New York 12-13 

International Smelting Co.. New York 65 

Jackson Compressor Co., Denver 43 

Jackson Iron Works, Byron, San Francisco 47 

James Ore Concentrator Co., Newark. N. J 65 

Jardine Machinery Co.. San Francisco 37 

Jasper Stone Co.. Sioux City. Iowa 59 

Johnson Gear Works, San Francisco. — 

Jordan Co.. O. F., Easst Chicago, Ind 18 

Justrite Mfg. Co.. Chicago 43 

Kansas City Structural Steel Co.. Kansas City. 

Mo 61 

Kaufman Co., H. C, Los Angeles, Cal 41 

Krogh Pump & Mach, Co.. San Francisco — 

Lane Mill & Machy. Co., Los Angeles. Cal 48 

Leschen & Sons Rope Co., A.. St. Louis 48 

Lidgerwood Mfg. Co., New York — 

Llewellyn Iron Works. Los Angeles — 

Longyear Co . E. J., Minneapolis, Minn 55 

Los Angeles Foundry Co.. Los Angeles, Cal. . . .59 

Ludlow -Saylor Wire Co., St. Louis, Mo 5 

Lulkm Rule Co., Saginaw, Mich. 48 

Lunkcnheimcr Co., The. Cincinnati. Ohio 63 

Main Btiting Co.. Philadelphia, Pa 27 

Marathon Mill & Machine Works. Chicago 48 

Marehant Calculating Machine Co., Emeryville, 


Meese & Gottfried Co.. San Francisco 68 

Merchants & Mfrs. Exchange, New York , 

Merrill Co.. San Francisco 

Mine Equipment & Supply Co., Denver. Colo. . . . — 

Mine & Smelter Supply Co.. New York 

Front Cover 
Monroe Calculating Machine Co., New York. . . . — 
Morris Machine Works, Baldwinsville. N. Y. . . .16 

Morse Bros. Machy. & Supply Co., Denver 

Mutual Truck Co., Sullivan, Ind 

National Milling & Refining Co.. Canton, Ohio. . 

National Tank & Pipe Co., Portland. Ore 48 

National Tube Co.. Pittsburgh. Pa 14 

Nevada Eng. & Supply Co.. Reno, Nev 


New York Engineering Co.. New York S 

Nordberg Mfg. Co.. Mijwaukee, Wis 22 

Norwalk Iron Works Co.. So. Norwalk, Conn. . . — 
Novo Engine Co., Lansing. Mich — 

Oliver Continuous Filter Co.. San Francisco. . . .24 

Opportunity Poges 36-40 

Ottumwa Iron Works, Ottumwa. Iowa — 

Overstrom Manufacturing Co.. Sau Francisco. . . — 
Oxweld Acetylene Co.. New York — 

Pacific Pipe Co.. San Francisco 39 

Pacific Tank & Pipe Co.. San Francisco 28 

Paraffine Companies, Inc.. San Francisco — 

Pelton Water Wheel Co., San Francisco 45 

Pensacola Tar & Turpentine Co.. Gull Point. Fla. 48 

Pioneer Rubber Mills, San Francisco — 

Porter Co., H. K., Pittsburgh. Pa -.64 

Positions Available 38 

Positions Wanted 37 

Powell Co., Wm.. Cincinnati. Ohio 41 

Prescott Co.. The, Menominee. Mich — 

Professional Directory .50-54 

Reardon, P. H.. San Francisco 66 

Rebuilt Machinery Co.. Colorado Springs, Colo. .39 

Redwood Mfrs. Co.. San Francisco — 

Rix Compressed Air & Drill Co.. San Francisco. — 
Roebling's Sons Co., John A„ Trenton, N. J. . . .64 
Roessler & Hasslacher Chemical Co.. New York. 05 
Rosenburg & Co.. Los Angeles. Cal — 

Sacramento Pipe Works, Sacramento. Cal 48 

San Francisco Mating Works, San Francisco ... 30 

Senn Concentrator Co., San Francisco . .15 

Siebe. Gorman & Co., Ltd.. Chicago. III. . — 

Simpson Co.. A. H.. San Francisco 35 

Smith Co.. S. Morgan, York, Pa 41 

Smooth-On Mfg. Co.. Jersey City. N. J 63 

Southwestern Engineering Co.. Los Angeles. . . . — 

Standard Oil Co.. San Francisco — 

Ste a rns- Rogers Mfg. Co.. Denver. Colo 36 

Stimpson i^quipmeut Co., Sail Lake City 2 

Sullivan Machinery Co.. Chicago 3-39 

Thompson Balance Co., Denver 39 

Trayior Eng. & Mig. Co.. AUentown, Pa It 

Trent. Goouwin M.. San Francisco 64 

Union Construction Co.. San Francisco 33-04 

United Filters Corp., Salt Lake City. Utah 37 

United Naval Stores. New York 64 

Ui S. Iron Works. Seattle. Wash — 

U. S. Rubber Co.. New York — 

U. S. Smelling. Refining & Mining Co.. Boston. .65 

Waterbury Co., New York .67 

Wellman-Lewis Co., Los Angeles. Cal 46 

Wellmaii-Scavcr-iUorgan Co.. Cleveland. Ohio... — 

Western Machinery Co.. Los Angeles. Cal 44 

Western Wood Pupe Publicity Bureau. Seattle. 

Wash 10-11 

Westinghouse Elcc. & Mfg. Co.. East Pittsburgh. 

White Co.. The. Cleveland. Ohio — 

Wildberg Bros.. San Francisco '^4 

Wolf Saletv Lamp Co.. Brooklyn. N. Y — 

Worthington Pump & Machy. Corp.. New York. — 

Young & Tyler. Los Angeles. Cal 46 

Yuba Manufacturing Co.. San Francisco 64 

Zelnicker Supply Co.. Walter A.. St. Louis. . .... — 

| iimiimim mi --•tiiiiiiii i in iimmtiiiiiiiiimiiii hum iimiiitiiimimiiiiitiiimmiiiiiiiin mm mmiimmiii iimmm iimmmiimmm iiiiin mi i i i hhiiih minimum 





Compressed Air and General Machinery. 
Mine, Mill and Contractors Supplies 

^^ _ - _^ ^_ ^^ ^^ -^ _ _ Mine, Mill and Contractors Supplies 


T^fiiiiriKUtJiiiriiiitiituniiri'rTmttiiiiii'tiritiiiiiitii'iiiiiTiVEiTimiiiircrDiM tu ikii ruiu in 11 eiclij iimi in iitiint iiiimi ntn uiiimt tiiuii imiiii r »imiri} in iihijiiiii nt n run» mi miiii itimni j utii tuiiuii mi lii n i iu mil lh luF 

Januan 3, 1920 

MINING ilNlllh I'KI ss 


|IIIIINIIIIiiiiiiii ii iii iiiinii minimi mimiiiiiiiiiiiii uillllll i iiimimi iiiiiiimmiii inn imiiiimiiiiii mm minium unit 

| This Convertible Discharge Ball Mill 1 

is a distinctly advantageous buy. 

Discharge through a grating, or discharge directly through the trunnion may 
eventually prove best for your particular conditions. Which it will be can rarely be 
positively foretold. Why. therefore, tie your hands with a mill, inflexible in this 
respect, when the 

Convertible Discharge 

Ball Mill ( 

if installed, may readily be changed from one 
system of discharge to the other. 

In addition to this advantage, our ball mills 
are of massive, thorough construction, and em- 
body the results of an extensive experience in 
ball mill building. E 

Send for Pamphlet 31 

6-ft. x 6-ft. Colorado Convertible Discharge Ball Mill. 

Colorado Iron Works Company 

New York Office, 30 Church St. 

Denver, Colorado 

Waterbury Wire Rope 

Splicing a wire rope, rigging a thimble, sheave and 
drum tallies, comparative strengths, factors of 
safety, construction and lays — anything else you 
might want to look up about wire rope, is there in 
quick, findable form in the Waterbury Rope Hand- 
book — a 220 page cloth bound manual with more 
rope "dope" in it than can he found between two 
covers anywhere else — and a copy will he sent free 
at your request. 

The Waterbury Company has only one standard 
for the rope it makes — quality. Grade for grade. 
Waterbury Wire Rope like every other Water- 
bury rope, has no superior. 



CHICAGO— 1315-1321 WntConireuSt. DALLAS. TEX.-A. T. Powell & Co. 

SAN FRANCISCO— 151-161 Main St. NEW ORLEANS— 1018 Mabon Blanche Wg. 

[till ■ - fill) Tl II l\l. Willi 

T' n 








January 3, 1920 



Deck Bearings are self-oiling 

Headmotion is entirely 
enclosed and self- 

The main channel 
frame is no longer 

Write for Full Particulars of the 




East Wayne Street manufacturers of the well known Fort Wayne, lnd., U. S. A. 


E. DEISTER. Pies, end Gm. Mar. W. F. DEISTER, Vice Pre.. E. G. HOFFMAN. Secy, and Trea.. 


M&(& Traveling or ( Portable) Ratchet Apron 
Feeder. Suitable for feeding ore and 
similar material to pan or belt conveyor. 

Simple hand-operated feeding gates of 
a dozen different designs. 

Automatic air-controlled reciprocating 
rock and ore feeders of any capacity. 

Heavy apron feeders, continuous or 
intermittent, stationary or traveling. 

Let us Figure on Your Requirements 
in This Line 

jfet* & (Sotting (flmnpanlj 



660 Mission St. 

400 E. 3rd St., Cor. San Pedro 

558 First Ave. So. 

67 Front Street 

Mfinogj ami 


T. A. RtCKA RO. E p. tor 

B Parsons, associate idiioh 

M«nb*T Audit RurMU ft. Osculations 
Msssbef Aisocishd BuuDns Psprit. Inc. 


/VofbArr! a/ Ifti Jfart* NT.. On f'mn«riA-.i. 
bv thr /Vwv PwWisAintf Cnrnjnim 






Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 10, 1920 t* per Year— is cents per co Py 






Abstract of text as published on December 2S. It 
recognizes the human element in the Industrial 
problem. Economic interdependence. The con- 
cept of leadership must replace that of master- 
ship. Establishment of tribunals to adjust dis- 
putes. Details of the scheme. A plan that is na- 
tional, but decentralized. 


An old controversy revived. The Department of 
Agriculture in the University of California. Pro- 
posal to establish an engineering experiment sta- 
tion, to give gratuitous advice and compete with 
the University graduates in engineering. What 
work is now done for the public. The U. S. Bu- 
reau of Mines and its investigations. The U. S. 
Geological Survey, and the reports made by its 
members abroad. 



By E. P. Crawford 3 7 

Believes price of silver will remain high. 


By Roy M. Harrop 3 7 

A proposal for a bi-metallic monetary system. 


By James S. Colbath 38 

Mr. Crowe entitled to full credit for applying 
'vacuum' process. 

By Henry Hanson 39 

Two graphs showing sizing of ball-mill feed and 

By A. T. Parsons ' 9 

The use of 300-ft. and 500-ft. tapes in surveying. 


By W. Shellshear 39 

T. E. Mitchell served as resident manager. 

Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press: name chanred October 
20 ot the same year to Mininr and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter, -able 
address: Pertusola. 


By T. T, Read 40 

Mineral specimens desired for collection at 'C'olegio 
de La Salle', Panama City. 


By \V. H. Shockley 40 

Mr. Shockley is still unshaken in his advocacy of 
simplified spelling. 



By T. A. Rickard 41 

Idaho. A wonderful region. Early history. E. 
D Pierce, pioneer miner. First successful pros- 
pecting in Coeur d'Alene district. Events preced- 
ing discovery of the silver-lead lodes in 1885. 


By H. Livingstone Sulman 4 7 

Further discussion of the physics of flotation. 
Molecular constitution of solids and liquids. Grav- 
itation and molecular forces. Intrinsic pressure. 
Surface-energy and surface-tension. 


By George Huston 53 

Remarkable experience resulting from accident in 
Geld Hunter mine. Entombed for two weeks. 


By F. Borzynski 55 

Stamp-mill and cyanide plant treating 100 tons of 
gold-silver ore at Como, Lyon county, Nevada. 
Flow-sheet and description. 











Branch Offices— Chicaro. 600 Fisher Bdg\: New York. 3514 Woolworth 

Ed fcce° n i5 n cei;^ nlr °«£. ^Antuial^subscription. payable In advance: 
nnTtedSt.iics1ndMerico.S4: Canada. S5: other countries m postal union 
25s. or SO. 



The Copper Mountain in 1899 

January 10, 1920 

Two CVilfley Tables helped start the 
Vtah Copper Co. to success - 


NCE more we say, 

'the story of the Wilfley is the history of 

In 1899, D. C. Jackling made the first definite step toward the 
present mighty success of the Utah Copper Co. when he equipped 
an experimental mill at Bingham with five stamps and TWO 

Many changes have since heen wrought in the mine and in the 
table, but the same reasons which caused Mr. Jackling to pick the 
WILFLEY and continue to use it hold good today. 

The WILFLEY is known the world over for greatest capacity, 
highest efficiency, lowest operating cost. 

A description of all model* of Wilfley 
Tables and their meit modern improve. 
menu will be seat upon request. 

The Mine and 

Smelier Supply 


New York Office: 42'Bway. 

Wilfley Representatives: 

Pacific Coast — Harron, Rickard & McCone, San Francisco 

Alabama and North Carolina — McClary, Jemison M'ch'y Co., Birmingham 

West Coast South America — Gaston. Williams & Wigmore 

Australia — F. H. Jackson, Sydney 

France. Spain, Italy — L. & E. FrenkeJ, Paris 

■lutiuary 10, 1920 


PRODUCTION of gold and silver in this country de- 
•*• creased in 1919, aooording to the preliminary figures 
issued by the U. s. Geological Survey ami the Mint. The 
output of gold was $10,157,900 less than in 1918. bul 
California retains the lead, with 840,758 ounces; Colo- 
rado is second, and Alaska is third. The output of silver 
was 12,524,943 ounces less. Montana is first with 14,940,- 
">27 ounces; Utah is second, and Nevada is third. These 
statistics confirm our anticipations. 

OKVERAL letters have come to us, apropos of an edi- 
*-* torial paragraph in our issue of December 27. asking 
whether the premium on gold in London is being paid 
by the British government or by manufacturers. The 
fact is, of course, that the lifting by the Government of 
its embargo on the free sale of gold has given play to the 
force of an increasing demand from those needing the 
metal in art and industry. A recent letter states that 
the premium has risen 25%, much to the benefit of the 
South African, Australian, and Indian gold mines, all of 
which, naturally, sell their gold in London. 

\}f/"E are informed that Mr. Van. H. Manning, Director 
" of the U. S. Bureau of Mines, has made an arrange- 
ment with the Governor of Colorado whereby $10,000 
will be spent under the direction of the Bureau in making 
investigations into the oil-shale industry of Colorado. 
This investigation is to be placed in charge of Mr. Martin 
J. Gavin, refinery engineer of the Bureau, and will be 
conducted at Boulder, where a laboratory and office will 
be furnished by the University of Colorado. The main 
purpose of the investigation will be to provide the data 
necessary for the development of a commercial process 
of retorting oil from the shale and for refining the 

COPPER sales during 1919 were disappointing, but 
the outlook today is better than it was at the begin- 
ning of last year. Then the surplus was estimated at a 
billion pounds, but this included the metal in transit to 
the refineries, so that 650,000,000 pounds would be a 
fairly correct figure. During the first four months of 
1919 the absence of sales and the accumulation of output 
caused the surplus to rise to nearly a billion pounds, and 
prospects looked black. They remained cheerless until 
the last two months of the year, when about 250,000,000 
pounds was sold during five weeks, for delivery during 
the first quarter of this year. Thus deliveries of copper 

in 1919 did not equal the output and the real surplus to- 
day is larger than it was a year ago. However, the out- 
look is much improved, for the output from the mines 
has been decreased considerably, while heavy sales have' 
been made for forward delivery. The demand from 
abroad is more lively and if only the treaty of peace can 
be ratified there will be a large expansion of export 

A CCORDING to information from New York, the 
■**• American Metal Company has taken over the busi- 
ness of L. Vogelstein & Co., which includes the copper 
refinery at Chrome, New Jersey. At the recent sale of 
shares held by the Alien Property Custodian, a large 
block of stock was purchased by Mr. Ludwig Vogelstein. 
Other purchasers were the Cerro de Pasco Copper Com- 
pany, J. Horace Harding, Louis T. Huggin, Charles D. 
Barney & Company, and others connected with the Cerro 
de Pasco company. Mr. Vogelstein has been elected a 
vice-president of the American Metal Co., a fact that sug- 
gests how the German element is expelled through one 
door only to enter through another. 

WHETHER the United States will make a large loan 
to the European nations, or not, is a question to be 
decided by Congress, not by Mr. Hearst, who beclouds 
the issue with a lot of mis-statements and exaggerations 
intended chiefly to excite animosity against Great Britain, 
where he received a personal slight that has made him 
vindictive ever since. Apparently international trade is 
in a bad way, for lack of credits, and Great Britain is 
taking the lead, in behalf of Europe, in arranging for a 
large scheme of reconstructive finance, such as will pre- 
vent certain parts of the war-devastated countries from 
utter destitution and industrial collapse. The President 
and Congress of the United States will do what seems 
best to them, weighing our own interests first and then 
those of the less fortunate nations. It is a big subject, 
and it ought to be studied, not with narrow-minded 
meanness, but wisely and generously. 

A BUDGET is essential to the efficient conduct of any 
*"*■ enterprise. A schedule of expenditures, systemat- 
ically proportioned among the various departments, ac- 
cording to their respective requirements, and with due 
regard to the total funds available, is necessary. Many 
households, every efficient business, and nearly every 
government except that of the United States regulates its 



January 10, 1920 

financial affairs by means of some sort of budget. Our 
method of congressional appropriation is crude, hap- 
hazard, unscientific. Only the extraordinary capacity of 
this country to supply revenue has enabled our income to 
keep pace with our steadily increasing expenditures. 
Economists agree that a financial policy so devoid of 
system as that of our government would speedily bank- 
rupt the soundest railroad corporation. The theory of 
the budget is to provide the funds needed, but to detect 
proposed waste and prevent appropriations for non- 
essentials. Actual experience has proved that the plan 
operates in practice just as it works out in theory; in- 
telligent people perceive, and fair-minded congressmen 
concede, this fact. And still we have no real budget, 
simply because certain alleged 'statesmen' in Congress 
feel that such a departure would rob them of some of the 
authority attaching to their position. One solution is to 
send down to Washington more men of a type different 
from the average politician. The pompous congressman 
that nourishes his own personal conceit in constant fear 
that his individual power may be merged by co-operation 
with his colleagues is a stumbling-block to efficient gov- 
ernment. The acceptance by engineers of their obliga- 
tion as good citizens to interest themselves in elections 
will be one step toward the establishment of a national 

/~kN December 12 a jury in the District Court of South- 
" em New York found a verdict of guilty against 
Harry Lefkovits and R. V. Stuart for use of the mails to 
defraud, by selling stock in a wild-cat mining company, 
called the United Magma Mines. This company was 
hatched during the copper boom in the early part of 
1917, but no work was done until after the Government 
started an investigation preparatory to an action for 
fraudulent use of the mails. The trial, which began on 
November 19 last, occupied three weeks. Mr. Louis Lefko- 
vits, brother of the other Lefkovits. was acquitted, and 
so also was the company itself, the Judge dismissing the 
case against these two because no definite evidence was 
available to show that Mr. Louis Lefkovits knew that 
his brother in New York was selling stock. The locating 
of the claims in Arizona was done by one brother, while 
the other did the share-peddling. This brought in $100,- 
000. of which only $12,000 went into the company's 
treasury, the difference presumably being loot. Between 
April 1917 and January 1919 the only work done on the 
property was the location work required by law. Mr. 
Louis Lefkovits obtained permission from the State Cor- 
poration Commission of Arizona to sell 200,000 shares at 
25 cents, his commission being 5 sents per share. He 
sold this stock to his brother in New York for 50 cents 
per share, making the commission 30 cents. Louis 
claimed that lie sold the stock outright to Harry, so that 
the latter could do as he pleased, but this version of the 
deal was not accepted by the jury. The property con- 
sisted of a string of claims so located that one end of 
them adjoined the famous mine of the Magma Copper 
Company in Arizona. The circulars, issued for the pur- 

pose of selling stock, were full of the usual iridescent de- 
scriptive matter speaking of a "gigantic orebody" that-, 
was to lie opened up immediately, if not sooner; they 
asserted that the wild-cat had "all the earmarks" of a 
great copper mine, such as the Magma, of course; and 
talked vaguely but magniloquently about "a policy of 
vigorous development". It is interesting to note that the 
promotion stuff was written by Stuart, formerly in the 
office of George Graham Rice; also that a stricter Blue 
Sky law is being demanded in New York. 

The Industrial Conference 

Last week we gave the gist of an important pronounce- 
ment by Mr. Hoover on the subject of national economics ; 
since then we have read the report of the Industrial Con- 
ference appointed by the President for the purpose of 
devising suggestions looking toward a method for adjust- 
ing industrial disputes. To the 'Sacramento Union' we 
are indebted for the full text of the report, and we con- 
gratulate the editor, Mr. Ben S. Allen, on his enlightened 
enterprise in giving his readers an opportunity to study 
such an important document wi extenso. Of course, it 
is important; nothing today so deeply concerns the wel- 
fare of the United States as some means for checking the 
succession of strikes that continually interrupt the pro- 
duction of the necessaries of life, and undermine the very 
foundations of democratic institutions. The Conference 
was convened at Washington on December 1 ; it issued 
this preliminary report on December 28 in order to in- 
vite discussion before re-assembling on January 12, when 
it will give respectful consideration to any constructive 
criticisms that may be forthcoming. The report starts by 
saying that the purpose of the Conference at this time is 
to devise machinery for the adjustment of disputes, not 
to discuss the causes of them. It recognizes the human 
element in the problem. "Our modern industrial or- 
ganization, if it is not to become a failure, must yield to 
the individual a larger satisfaction with life." The com- 
plexity of modern industry has tended to kill the spirit 
of human fellowship ; the idea of mutual responsibility 
has been insufficiently developed. Our human relations 
must be adjusted to our economic interdependence. The 
right relationship must be. encouraged deliberately. "Not 
only must the theory that labor is a commodity be aban- 
doned, but the concept of leadership must be substituted 
for that, of mastership." Until the growth of a better 
relationship between employers and employees, it be- 
comes necessary to devise methods for retarding or pre- 
venting disturbance by providing machinery for the ad- 
justment of differences. For this purpose the Confer- 
ence suggests the establishment of tribunals so organized 
as to act promptly and impartially. On these tribunals 
the public must be represented in order to safeguard the 
larger interest of the community, as well as those of the 
employers and of the employees. ' ' The plain fact is that 
the public has long been uneasy about the power of great 
employers; it is becoming uneasy about the power of 
great labor organizations. The community must be as- 

January 10, 1980 


■and against domination by either." Tins aamranee 
can be obtained without diaeriminating againsl the or 
gan i aa tio na of either aide in the diapute, labor or capital. 
The right of aiaociation on either aide mual oot be denied. 
Therefore the Conference propoaea the creation of a Na- 
tional Industrial Tribunal, which is to consist of nine 
membera appointed by the President; three to represent 
the employers arc to )*■ nominated by the Secretary <>f 
< Commerce, three to represent the employees will be nomi- 
nated by the Secretary <>i' Labor, and three will repreai nt 
the public, This tribunal is to ad as a board of appeal; 
its decisions must be unanimous, but provision rs made 
for publishing majority and minority reports when no 
agreement is attained. The chief work of pacification 
will drvohc upon regional boards of inquiry and adjust- 

nt- For this purpose the country will be divided into 

twelve regions similar to those established under the 
Federal Reserve system. In each region the President 
appoints a chairman, representing the public interest, for 

a term of three years, with eligibility to re-appointment. 
In case of an industrial dispute within any region, the 
chairman will ask each side to select a representative. 
under rules and regulations laid down for the purpose, 

Th,' chairman then seleets two employers and two em- 
ployees from two panels previously prepared by the Sec- 
retary of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor, respec- 
tively, after conference with the employers and em- 
ployees in the region. The two representatives first 
selected by the chairman will he entitled to a specified 
number of peremptory challenges of the names selected 
by the chairman from the respective panels. Those thus 
selected, plus the two representatives, with the chairman, 
will constitute the regional board of adjustment. The 
appointment of representatives of both sides will con- 
stitute an agreement to continue the status of the indus- 
try as it existed before the dispute arose, pending an 
effort at adjustment. Then comes the hearing of evi- 
dence by the Board for the purpose of a decision. Such 
decision must be unanimous; if not, it must be referred 
to the National Tribunal, unless, by unanimous vote, an 
umpire is chosen by the Board. If either side refuses to 
make use of this machinery for settling the trouble, and 
fails to select a representative, then the chairman is 
authorized to organize a board of inquiry, by selecting 
two employers and two employees from the respective 
panels, together with the representative of either side 
that may have agreed to submit the dispute to the Board. 
If both sides fail to choose a representative, the Board 
will consist of the chairman and the four panel members 
only. Any decision given by the board of adjustment, 
by an umpire selected by it, or by the national tribunal 
will have the full force and effect of a trade agreement. 
Thus national co-ordination of effort to allay labor dis- 
putes is ensured and local bodies are organized for the 
purpose of adjustment. If adjustment is impeded, there 
is an assurance of such inquiry and publicity as will 
bring the force of an enlightened public opinion to bear 
upon the disputants. The meeting of the contending 
parties with other men versed in the questions at issue is 

hound to assist ,i settlement . a refusal to submit li, 

puts to adjustment will instigate an inquiry and create 
prejudice againsl the party that is obdurate. The fad 

that membership on the board of inquiry is available iii 
either party singly will tend further to weaken the poai 

tiou nt' the recalcitrant side. When both parties join, 

the Boa I'd at once pro, Is In an adjustment, and itlict 

ceases by agreement until a decision is reached. The 
plan is national in scope, but d ntralizcd. "It is based 

upon American experience and is designed t" meet 

American conditions," says the report, which is signed 
by .Mr. \V. B, Wilson, the Secretary of Labor, as chair- 
man, by Mr. Herbert Hoover, as vice-chairman, and by 
the 14 members of the Conference. It nee, Is no great 

analytical insight tO detect the intellectual leadership nf 

Mr. Hoover in the findings, and even in the phraseology 

of the report ; through it all runs the same deal- corn n 

sense, the recognition of the basic principle of A rican 

democracy tan equality of opportunity), and the human 

sympathy that has made the name of Hoover synonymous 
with highly organized benefaction. 

Public Office and Private Practice — I 

An old controversy lias been revived lately, namely, 
should university professors engage in private practice 
and should Government bureaus conduct experiments 
and make reports for- companies or- individuals? For 
example, the College of Agriculture in the University of 
California maintains a bureau for scientific research that 
includes an organization for giving all kinds of profes- 
sional advice and for- affording direct assistance to farm- 
ers, not simply in a general way hut as regards their 
specific problems on their own pieces of land. Further- 
more, the College maintains an Extension division that 
gives instruction to fanners on all sorts of definite prac- 
tical matters much of which is in the nature of personal 
professional advice. This condition of affairs has pre- 
vented the development of a body of agricultural experts 
in California and has killed the professional practice of 
the graduates from the College. Suggestions have been 
made for the organization of an engineering experiment 
station at the University, to be created primarily by aid 
of Federal funds, but to be housed by the University. 
Such a station would, like the agricultural, become an 
office for giving professional advice gratuitously, thereby 
competing with consultants now in practice, including the 
University's own graduates. In normal times many sam- 
ples of minerals and rocks are sent to the University for 
assay or analysis, hut the senders are informed, both by 
the Mining department and by the Geology department, 
that commercial work is not done at the University, and 
they are referred to established assayers of San Francisco 
and elsewhere. In the Geology department it has become 
the custom recently to make qualitative determinations 
on minerals and general 'field' determinations on speci- 
mens of rock, and to advise in a general way concerning 
the probable demand or market for the materials sub- 
mitted for examination. There is, however, no regular 



January 10", 1920 

office established for this purpose ; the time used on such 
work has been taken from the spare time of the professor 
making the determination, which is made largely as a 
matter of courtesy and good-will, without charge. It 
happens frequently that a prospector finds something 
new to him ; he wishes to get an idea of what it is and 
whether it may be of value; he cannot, send it to the 
assayer and say, "Test this for gold and platinum", or 
some other particular metal, because he has no idea of 
what it may contain or whether it has any commercial 
value. If such material requires assay or analysis, he is 
advised to that effect and referred to a reputable assayer 
in the City. The amount of such work varies consider- 
ably from time to time; occasionally it becomes some- 
what of a nuisance or burden to the individual to whom 
the specimens are sent or submitted in person, but it 
appears to be rather difficult for a member of the Uni- 
versity faculty to take a positive stand that he will ex- 
press no opinion to a visitor or to one who writes con- 
cerning a matter on which he is supposed to be more or 
less of an expert. Sometimes the amount of labor en- 
tailed is so great that nobody is willing to undertake it. 
Thus it is evident that the action to be taken by tlie pro- 
fessor or instructor resolves itself into a question of per- 
sonal attitude, as the University has no rules for his 
guidance, and it is nobody's definite duty to attend to 
such matters, although the administration, on receiving 
letters of inquiry, usually refers them to individual mem- 
bers of the faculty for reply. We give these facts in 
detail because the customs established at our State Uni- 
versity are probably similar to those obtaining in like in- 
stitutions in other States. The same problem has arisen 
in connection with the U. S. Bureau of Mines. In a're- 
cent case that has excited criticism, an experiment station 
in Oregon made a detailed investigation into the metal- 
lurgical treatment of a low-grade quicksilver ore and 
published a report. It was claimed that this investiga- 
tion should have been left to a private ore-testing firm 
and that it should not have been done by a Government 
bureau, more particularly as the results were useful only 
to the one mining company in Oregon that produced an 
ore of this particular character. In reply, it was stated 
that the investigation was useful to other mining com- 
panies, in California, for example, and that the results 
were published for public use, not for private assistance. 
It is the custom of the Bureau of Mines to publish its 
report on any such investigations promptly for the bene- 
fit of all those whom it may assist ; moreover, the Bureau 
aims to select such subjects for investigation as are of 
general interest to those engaged in mining, and such as 
are unlikely to be referred to private practitioners. It 
seems to us, from what we know, that the U. S. Bureau 
of Mines is careful not to compete with consulting metal- 
lurgists, although occasionally its zeal for useful service 
may cause it to run counter to the ideas of those inclined 
to be hypercritical. The U. S. Geological Survey requires 
its officers to take an oath not to engage in private prac- 
tice within the United States and not to divulge the in- 
formation that they obtain in the course of their study 

of geological conditions in particular mines, except in 
the printed reports duly published for the benefit of the 
industry as a whole. Occasionally a member of the Sur- 
vey resigns and later becomes retained 1 ' professionally l>y 
a mining company ; it is then his primary duty to respect 
the spirit of his obligations as a former officer Of the 
Survey and be keenly on his guard not to misuse the in- ' 
formation that lie obtained while under the restrictions 
of secrecy. Some years ago there arose a scandal at 
Butte owing to the laxity of an 1 ex-Government geologist, 
but. in the main, the honor of the Survey has been re- 
spected, so that it is very rarely indeed that it has lien 
possible to make any just complaint on this score. How- 
ever, although the geologists of the Survey are not per- 
mitted to engage in private practice in their own country', ' 
they are free to do so abroad. They have availed them- 
selves of the opportunity to make reports on mines just 
over the border, in Mexico and Canada, and farther afield 
in other regions. In doing so they have used their pres- 
tige as Government experts to compete with independent 
practitioners, and, what is worse, they have diminished 
the prestige of the U. S. Geological Survey, because their 
reports have not been worth the fees paid for them. The 
plain truth is that the scientific study of a geologist, un- 
less supplemented by previous practical experience in 
mining operations, is not worth much as a means of valu- 
ing a mine. The opinions of even such men as Clarence 
King and S. P. Emmons concerning the prospects of a 
mining enterprise had an academic interest only; they 
failed in making a reliable commercial appraisal. "We 
recall how one of our most distinguished of living geolo- 
gists was engaged to report upon a' group of alluvial 
mines in Australia and how he described the geologie 
history of the deposits with skill and insight., but he was 
unable to estimate the amount of gold or the quantity of 
water in the gravel, because 'he was without practical ex- 
perience either in the sampling or the working of such 
mines, so that his report was entirely too optimistic, fail- 
ing altogether to forecast the disaster that overtook the 
enterprise at an early date, owing to insufficient gold 
and excessive water. We venture to say that the true 
scientist usually lacks the commercial sense ; he is utterly 
unfitted to appraise mines, and when he engages to do 
so, he is doing something supra crepidam; in short, if ' 
would be right and proper, and for the good of all con- 
cerned, if the U. S. Geological Survey were to extend the 
scope of its regulations and place an embargo upon mine- 
reporting by its members not only at home but abroad. 
This should not interfere with the 'lending' of its best 
men for important work in behalf of other governments, 
for example, to perform such work as would enlarge the 
knowledge of our Federal geologists and contribute fo 
the growth of the science itself, but even then it should 
be stipulated that the results would be published in 
English in this country; and of the fee, which should be 
large, one-half might be set aside for a fund to assist 
super-annuated members of the Survey. 1 We shall dis- 
cuss other phases of this subject, with particular -refer- 
ence to professors, in our next issue. 10, lH'Ji' 




D I 3 

^ fc/ _ i | - 

ii^?' ■ i £ Is ' ' 

■■■ i " ° 

- <fj r 


'I'll.' Editor! 

Sir There lias bean a great deal written alxnit gold 
(hiring the pas) year, while silver has been compara- 
tively aegleotod. I believe thai if an authoritative article 
on the sintus ill' silver was published in the 'Mining and 
Scientific Pres*i u would be heartily welcomed. 

I li.'ivi- heard ma&y reasons advanced to support the 
belief thai the price for silver will l>.' maintained al a 
ihigli average for many years to come, but have heard 
yery few opinions that hold ta the contrary. Let me 
enumerate some b'f the former: 

India and China must take greatly increased quanti- 
ties, because the standard of living in those countries has 
been advanced greatly, perhaps doubled, and therefore 
approximately twice as much silver will be needr.l by 
them in the future as in the past. The former Russian 
Umpire and the new states in Europe, as well as some of 

the old ones, are quite ''fed up' with paper currency and 
will demand metallic money in the future. Mexico, as 
you know, has passed through such an experience, and. 
it is argued, the same thiiisr will happen in the countries 
mentioned. The United States and the principal Eu- 
ropean countries will require a greater amount of silver 
I'm- circulation purposes than formerly, in order to meet 
the demands of higher prices and a greater volume of 
business than before the War. The arts employing silver 
will require an increasing amount annually. 

The prospect for a decline in gold production supports 
the belief that eventually silver will have to be remone- 
tized throughout the world. 

It would be most interesting and instructive to see an 
article showing the annual demands of India and China 
and the amounts absorbed each year by these countries ; 
the world's silver production, showing the amount pro- 
duced from mines operated primarily for the production 
j of silver as distinguished from other mines in which sil- 
ver is a secondary consideration ; the annual require- 
, intents of the arts ; the annual requirements of the world's 
coinage; the possibilities of greatly increased production 
should the price remain at a high level. 

We all rememher, about ten years ago, when several 
new 'porphyry coppers' were about to commence pro- 
duction on a grand scale, how many of the authoritative 
voices, in the copper -world predicted an overproduction 
•and consequent drop in price; and how, even before the 
War, the increased production was easily absorbed and 
-the warnings of the prophets were proved to have been 
,. unnecessary; : ■ 

Is there much encouragement for hoping, in the case 

of silver, so long the "weak sister" among the metals, 
that a high level of prices is to b<> expected indefinitely, 
regardless of increases in production? 

,, .. ,, _ , , B. P, Crawford. 

( uliacan, Mexico, I lecember 1. 

[By this time Mr. Crawford will have read th litonal 

on the status of silver iii our issue of December 20, We 
have discussed the subjeel a number of times .luring the 
last six months, for, of course, it concerns a great many 

of our readers. — EDITOR.] 

Gold and Silver as Money 

The Editor: 

Sir — Responding solely to the rule of supply and de- 
mand, silver has acquired a position in the commercial 
world which brings it on a parity with gold; in other 
words, 'bi-metallisni' promises to be re-established re- 
gardless of the wishes of Wall. Street and the mono- 
metallism The rapid advance in silver quotations has 
startled the financial world and the fact that a silver 
dollar is worth more in bullion than it is in coin will re- 
sult in the final withdrawal of silver from circulation. It 
will be as scarce in the transactions of business as gold is 

Disturbance of exchange-rates on international money 
transactions is a natural result and direct outcome of 
the War; principally this is due to the enormous credits. 
The business world is unable to readjust its operations 
on the basis of the present gold standard. 

The Government must resort to some expedient of re- 
coinage, and to do this we must remove the old standards 
of value which were established by an act of the British 
parliament in the year 1802, and adopted by the United 
States government in the year 1820 ; otherwise, in order 
to maintain the old standard, we must increase taxation 
to practically double the present levy. 

The fundamental object of taxation is not to impose a 
burden or a penalty on the taxpayer; rather the op- 
posite: to secure funds by means of which the Govern- 
ment may he enabled to extend to the taxpayer those 
benefits which he could not so well, if at all, secure for 
himself. Consequently, any program of taxation should 
be administered with the utmost sympathy and consider- 
ation and with the least possible disturbance of the tax- 
payer's normal activities. Already taxes have been 
levied until these burdens cannot be carried by the com- 
mon people, and to tax industry further means to curtail 



January 10, 1920 

the output, lessen the production, and thereby increase 
-the cost of living. 

Nations as well as individuals must pay their debts. 
Today the United States of America is the only solvent 
concern in the world ; and it is carrying a bonded in- 
debtedness of practically thirty billion dollars or a prin- 
cipal sum of $275 for each person in the United States. 
The interest levied pro rata would be $13.75 a year. 

The first duty the Government owes its people is to 
begin paying its debts and get back to doing business as 
soon as possible on a hard-cash basis, which is a sure cure 
for the economic ills of the nation. But how can this be 
brought about ? First, Congress should adopt a measure 
for protecting the Treasury reserves and reducing taxa- 
tion. This can be done by adopting a bi-metallic mone- 
tary system. Call in all metallic specie, and re-issue gold 
and silver coins in one-half the present size. With the 
surplus from re-coinage, retire a portion of the present 
bond issues. Then adopt a standard for gold at $41.34 
per ounce and a value for silver of $2.50 per ounce. Such 
an act of the Government will relieve the burdens of tax- 
ation and will greatly stimulate the mining industry ; it 
will pour more wealth into the coffers of the Treasury; 
labor will be employed at a wage that will do away with 
strikes, and the opportunity will be offered to every per- 
son in the United States to receive employment. The re- 
ducing of the size of the American dollar will give a dol- 
lar a purchasing power equal to its value and will enable 
the United States as a nation to expand its industry and 
commerce and in this manner we will have solved the 
question of the High Cost of Living and reduce taxation. 

Omaha, December 15. Roy M. Hareop. 

[Our correspondent suggests a variety of measures 
with which we disagree entirely, but it is our policy to 
give space to expressions of opinions opposite to our 
own. — Editor.] 

The Crowe Process 

The Editor : 

Sir — Referring to the various discussions on this sub- 
ject, the contention that the application of the process 
by Mr. Crowe was not original does not appear to be well 
founded nor well supported. That the principle was 
understood and frequently mentioned in literature on the 
subject cannot be questioned, but that anyone fully ap- 
preciated its importance or made any deliberate attempt 
to apply the principle remains to be proved. All claims 
that have come under my observation rest on accidental 
or incidental application in connection with vacuum 
filtration. That any appreciable benefits were derived by 
incidental application of the vacuum in filtration is 
questionable. I think the only claims worthy of consid- 
eration are those by Philip Argall, and these are sup- 
ported more by his reputation than by his statements, 
which it is the purpose of this communication to prove. 

It is my understanding that the material question is 
whether or not anyone anticipated the Crowe process by 
deliberately subjecting a pregnant solution to a vacuum 
for the purpose of improving precipitation by the re- 

moval of oxygen. I do not question that Mr. Argall is 
sincere in his belief that he either accidentally or inten- 
tionally anticipated the Crowe process. However, he 
does not make any definite statements that it was inten- 
tional, but he has presented his data in such a way that 
the natural inference is that the application was inten- 
tional. This presents a rather delicate situation, and I 
am forced to say that if the application was intentional 
the methods were decidedly crude for one of Mr. Argali 's 
attainments. The purpose of this letter is to prevent the 
uniniated from 'kidding' himself into the belief that the 
benefits of the Crowe process are obtainable by the ar- 
rangement described by Mr. Argall. 

Permit me to digress for a moment to criticize Mr. 
Argall 's terminology. I will show later that the point 
I make has some bearing on the question. I object to the 
use of 'gas' as a substitute for 'air'. Strictly speaking, 
it. is correct, but it is not generally used, and general 
usage is, I take it, the measure of accuracy. The use of 
'gas' to distinguish air in solution might be permissible, 
but Mr. Argall does not make this distinction. To quote, 
page 393, second column, line 14 : " The evolution of gas, 
however, proved so vigorous that foam occasionally passed 
over into the air-pump." This statement is decidedly 
misleading. The natural inference is that the evolution 
of gas was a measure of the efficiency of the vacuum in 
separating dissolved air from solution. On the contrary, 
it. was a measure of the inefficiency of the filter. Water 
absorbs about 1\% by volume of air at 0° and sea-level. 
This varies inversely as to temperature, altitude, and 
amount of salts in solution. The decrease is compensated 
by expansion at higher altitudes, and if volume is con- 
sidered, which is quite proper, the proportion might be 
slightly greater than the amount stated. In any event, 
it is insignificant. THe amount of air passing through a 
vacuum system of a leaf-filter is roughly speaking from 
10 to 100 times the amount necessary to saturate the solu- 
tion handled. Hence my ohjection to the general terms, 
'gas', 'de-gasser', and the paragraph previously quoted, 
t would like to ask Mr. Argall why he did not "de-gas" 
the solution from the leaching-vats if, as is intimated, he 
at that time realized the advantage of doing so. 

I cannot see what bearing the amount of zinc used per 
ton of ore has on the question. This could be of only 
comparative value under any circumstances. The real 
measure of efficiency in precipitation is the ratio between 
the zinc and the metal precipitated. The evidence offered 
by Mr. Argall could be duplicated indefinitely, as the 
arrangement described was the usual one and dates from 
about, the time of the introduction of the vacuum-filter. 
I cannot, however, see that it has any relation to the 
Crowe process. In slime-filtration the filtrate is usually 
turbid, especially with a leaf-filter, and clarification is a 

Mr. Argall states that the solution was pumped from 
the separator to clarifiers. presumably sand-filters that 
served also as storage. The latter is not material. 

E. M. Hamilton called our attention many years ago to 
the fact that cyanide solution containing a considerable 
excess of sodium sulphide was completely oxidized by 

January 10, 1920 


simply decanting from one tank t» another. I quote this 
tu illustrate the avidity with which cyanide suliitinii 
abeorbe air; and this is the point 1 wish to empl 
The transfer of sohition to mi open tank after 'de gas 
sing" will r. suit in neutralizing the effeol almosl in- 
stantly, and 1 Imlil that the essentia] feature of the < Irowe 
process is contact with the precipitant after de-gi 
without exposure to air. It' anyone can establish the fact 
of having done this previous to Mr. Crowe he can fairly 
claim t.i have anticipated the invention. 
Bl Paso, l> mi., r n;. Jam 3 s I bath. 

Fine Grinding in Hall-Mills 
The Editor: 

Sir In looking over my article in your issue of -lanu- 
ary ::. 1 notice that graphs, Fig. 1 and Pig. 2. showing 
the si. d to the mill and discharge from the mill 

Above 200-mesh 

Screen Sale § Ratio 1.414 % 

Fig. 1 

Minus 2CD-mash 

Ffus 200 - mesh „ 

Fig. 2. 

in plotted curves after five and ten minute grinding- 
periods were omitted inadvertently. I take this oppor- 
tunity therefore to make the correction. The graphs are 
referred to on bottom of page 17 and top of page 18 of 
your last issue. Henry Hanson. 

San Francisco, December 31. 

Mine Surveying 
The Editor: 

Sir There are certain statements in the third in 
stalment of Mr. Waterman's Beries on 'Mine Surveying*, 
particularly regarding the us,- of the 500-ft tape for 

asiirements, that I sin, nl, I he inclined to question. 

I bave ii. \er done any mine surveying but have used both 

a Kill ft. ami a 500-ft. tape extensively (or surf: work, 

and also in running railroad tunnels, the latter tor set- 
ting points in the heading before the bench below bad 
been taken out. 

My experience indicates that to gel a really accurate 
reading by simply measuring to a point on a plumb-line 
is impossible, even with a 300-ft. tape, much more so with 
a 500-ft. tape. In fact, even with a l00-ft. tape, it takes 
a careful and experienced head chain-man to give the 
tape the required tension to take up the sag. prevent the 
tape from disturbing the plumb-line, and read the tape, 
all at the same time. With a 300 or a 500-ft. tape errors 
of 0.1 ft. or more cannot be prevented. 

The method that I have found to give the maximum 
accuracy, for reasonable expense in time and money, is 
to set a stake on line, taking special precautions to make 
i solid, centre it with a tack, and take the measurement 
to the tack. Where a stake cannot be driven because of 
rock, use a 'gad' or something similar, and scratch a 
temporary point on the top. Four men are needed for a 
really accurate measurement, provided the distance is 
much greater than 100 ft., one at each end to pull on the 
tape, and one at each end to read it. If extreme accuracy 
is desired, a spring-balance and a thermometer should 
be used, and the observed length corrected for tension 
and temperature. Except for special cases. I do not be- 
lieve that the slight saving in time for the 500-ft. as com- 
pared with the 300-ft. tape compensates for the greater 
convenience of the shorter tape. There is. however, no 
question that the use of slope-measurements corrected for 
the vertical angle gives greater accuracy and speed for 
both surface and underground work than where the 
method of 'breaking chain' is used. 

San Francisco, December 19. A. T. Parsons. 

The Burma Mine 

The Editor: 

Sir — In your issue of November 29. under the heading 
of 'The Burma Mine', the following statement appears. 
"Mr. R. G. Hall formerly in Missouri is resident man- 
ager. He succeeded Mr. C. II. MacNutt, who resigned 
in 1916 and served with the engineer corps of the Cana- 
dian army in France." 

Apparently you are not aware of the fact that Mr. 
Thomas E. Mitchell succeeded Mr. MacNutt as resident 
manager in 1916 and continued in that capacity till 
August 1918. Mr. Mitchell as mine manager, and after- 
ward as resident manager, not only developed the mine 
to such an extent as to expose several million tons of ore, 
but also conducted this work so efficiently that in the 
future the Burma Mines Ltd. will be noted for its low 



January 10, 1920 

cost of mining operations. A resident manager, too, 
owing to his energetic control of operations, he was re- 
sponsible for the great progress in metallurgical and 
engineering operations which marks this period in the 
history of the company. w Shellshear . 

San Francisco, December 2. 

[Yes, we were aware of Mr. Mitchell's management, 
but overlooked it inadvertently. We are glad to publish 
this correction, and with it the tribute to his good work 
by one who is well qualified to pass judgment. — Editor.] 

Panama Museum 

The Editor: 

Sir — I have just received a letter from the Director of 
the Colegio de La Salle, Plaza De San Francisco, Panama 
City, requesting the co-operation of the Bureau in secur- 
ing additional material for the mineral collection of the 
museum, on the ground that a great many people from 
almost every nation in the world pass through Panama 
and visit the museum, and that an adequate exhibit of 
American material there should be of benefit in con- 
tributing to a greater knowledge of American materials 
and the extension of trade. 

On this ground the Director asked me to request the 
principal mining firms of the United States to send the 
museum samples of their minerals and products. As the 
columns of your journal are the most effective way of 
transmitting this request. I am passing it on to you for 
such action as you may deem desirable. 

T. T. Read, 
Engineer in Charge, 
Div. Education & Information. 
Washington, December 22. 

Simplified Spelling 

The Editor: 

Sir — I thank you for the opportunity to reply to your 
editorial note of December 27, though I wish you had 
allowed more space. In the 1917 election 765 ballots, a 
majority of 336, were cast in favor of the adoption of the 
12 words recommended by National Education Associa- 
tion. This majority was nullified by the unusual method 
of counting blank ballots as negative votes. It, there- 
fore, seems very probable that if the overwhelming vote 
you demand is forthcoming that other reformed spellings 
will be adopted, tlw and thru, for example. I welcome 
the publicity now being given to the spelling-vote, for if 
the arguments are carefully studied, I feel sure, gain will 
result to spelling reform. The Institute now uses so 
many reformed spellings (catalog, gram, program, sulfur, 
sulfid. and others) that this anguished plea for protection 
against the admission of a few more short spellings seems 
childish. The title of page xx of the December bulletin, 
"Simplified Spelling Foisted Upon Us", seems an im- 
proper designation to apply to the attempt to ascertain 
the wishes of members by a procedure explicitly set forth 
in the constitution of the Institute. The paragraphs you 

mention, as an example of the horror of simplified spell- 
ing, were not written by me and I first saw them in the 
Bulletin. I am* using reformed spellings in my notices, 
but these spellings have been authorized by a vote of the 
executive committee of the San Francisco section. While 
I deeply regret that any of my actions should have irri- 
tated you, yet I cannot help feeling that the underlying 
source of your irritation is a subconscious feeling that 
there is more justice on the side of the spelling reformers 
than you consciously realize. On page 912 you quote that 
25% of the drafted men could not read or write. Edu- 
cators attribute much of this illiteracy to our difficult 
spelling. The Chinese government, in November 1918, 
authorized a system of phonetic spelling that enables the 
illiterate Chinese to learn to read in a month ; so im- 
portant is this considered by the governor of Shansi that 
he has ordered every person in his province to learn to 
read instanter under severe penalties. Can we not fol- 
low, even if far behind, the progressive Chinaman ? The 
argument that it is not the business of the Institute to 
benefit the coming generations seems especially weak, for 
we shall benefit most by adopting an additional measure 
of simplified spelling and the benefit to the children will 

lie incidental. __ _ „ 

W. H. Shocklet. 

Written amide the melting snows. Truckee, December 

[Whether "amide" is simplified spelling, we do not 
know. Mr. Shoekley was told that he could have as much 
space to reply as the Editor took for his paragraph. Of 
course, we feared an inundation of propaganda for 'simp' 
spelling. Mr. Shoekley is not quite correct when he says 
that his use of his way of spelling was authorized by the 
executive committee of the local section; the fact is, he 
used it before such authorization was given. We hope 
earnestly that members of the Institute will not fail to 
vote on the question, taking care not to be confused by 
the obscure way in which the issue is stated in the official 
circular. In the 1917 vote, only 1194 members, of 6000, 
voted ; unless members pay attention to the matter, we 
may be victimized by Mr. Shoekley 's persistent propa- 
ganda, — Editor.] 


Quicksilver, although not a precious metal nor like 
iron, copper, and zinc one of the great basic materials of 
industry, nevertheless has the unique position of being the 
only metal that is liquid at ordinary temperatures and its 
varied and special applications in science and the arts 
give it peculiar interest. A report of the U. S. Geological 
Survey, prepared by F. L. Ransome, not only gives the 
domestic production of quicksilver as a whole and by 
States for the year, but presents also the latest obtain- 
able figures for the world's production and contains in- 
formation on the quantity and character of ore treated, 
methods of reduction, prices, imports and exports, and 
uses of quicksilver. The report also contains notes on the 
operations at individual mines and a table wherein are 
listed most of the quicksilver mines of the United States 
with notes on the character of the ore deposits, reduc- 
tion equipment, and total output of each mine. 

January 1". 1920 



The Bunker Hill Enterprise— II 

Histor) of Idaho and Beginning of Mining Operation 


The historian Bancroft says of Idaho: "Taken alto- 
gether, it is the most grand, wonderful, romantic, and 
mysterious part of the domain enclosed within the fed- 
eral union." I shall not quarrel with his eulogy, for it 
is my desire to interest the reader in thai part of the 
United Stales in which is the subject of these articles, 
the Hunker Hill mine. Besides the locality of this cele- 
brated mine. I have some acquaintance with other parts 
of Idaho, and. if more sparing in adjectives than the his- 
torian of the Pacific Coast, I can testify that Idaho is a 
beautiful and interesting region. The word 'Idaho' is 
generally supposed to mean 'Gem of the Mountain', and 
it may well he agreed that the State is a jewel in the 
crown of Uncle Sam; but there is another and more 
probable derivation. I am told that 'Idaho' is an Indian 
word used by the Nez Perces to describe the phenomenon 
observed in the early morning when the nearly horizontal 
rays of the rising sun touch the mountain-tops while 
tlir> valleys are still shrouded in darkness. It is what we 
would call a 'sun-burst'. 

We have traced the early history of this north-western 
region up to the point when it became a part of the 
United States and was organized as the Territory of 
Oregon. When the whole of Oregon became a State, in 
1853, it retained the southern portion of the present State 
of Idaho, but lost the northern portion, which became in- 
cluded in the Territory of Washington. This remained , 
within Washington until 1863, when the Territory of 
Idaho was organized, with William H. Wallace as Gov- 
ernor; this included the present State of Montana until 
1864 and a part of Wyoming until 1868, when the area 
of the Territory of Idaho was reduced to that of the 
present State. In 1890 Idaho was admitted into the 
Union, and the first Governor was George L. Shoup. 

That part of the United States now comprised within 
the State of Idaho was first, explored by white men when 
the Lewis and Clark expedition crossed it in 1805. They 
traced the Snake river to its junction with the Columbia, 
as we have seen, and they made Fort Lemhi a rendezvous 
for the two divisions of their party. They camped among 
the Nez Perces on the south fork of the Clearwater river, 
where, it is said, they found traces of other white men. 
Indeed, it is noteworthy that the explorers famous in the 
history of the West have usually found other white men 
ahead of them — French trappers, British fur-hunters, or 
American prospectors — who had made friends with the 
Indians and married among them, becoming 'squaw men', 
and thereby being admitted to the aboriginal knowledge 
of the country. Such was Chaboneau, the French-Cana- 

dian trapper who married the famous Kncagawca. ;i Sho- 
shone woman, with whom he accompanied the Lewis and 
Clark expedition, to which both husband and wife proved 
of great service as guides. Another was Drewyer, the 
son of a Canadian and a squaw, who was particularly 
helpful in killing game for food in January 1H05 when 
the same expedition was extremely short of provisions. 

The rivalries of the fur companies caused Idaho to he 
explored again at a later day. In 1810 Fort Henry, on 
the Snake river, was established by the Missouri Fur 
Company, which had done so much to impede Astor's 
representative, Hunt, in his journey to the coast. In 
1811 a. party of the Pacific Fur Company, controlled by 
Astor, descended the Snake to its junction with the Co- 
lumbia. Then came missionaries, both Catholic and 
Protestant, among the Indians. These traveled along the 
trails that the trappers and packers had established across 
the Bitter Root range, which separates Idaho from Mon- 
tana and the Missouri valley. In October 1841 Father 
DeSmet. a Jesuit priest, visited the western slope of the 
Bitter Root mountains, on his way to the coast. He de- 
scended into the valley of the Coeur d'Alene river and 
ministered to the Indians of that name, a name they owed 
to a tricky trader, whom, when he tried to get the best of 
them, they called coeur d'alene, or heart of an awl. The 
traders, for lack of a better name, thenceforth spoke of 
these Indians as the Coeur d'Alenes. They were a docile 
tribe and begged DeSmet to establish a mission among 
them. In the following year, 1842, he appeared again 
and in the autumn he founded the mission, for which a 
church was erected in the basin of the St. Joseph, a 
stream tributary to the Coeur d'Alene river. Owing to a 
flood, the church was removed in 1846 to its present site, 
12 miles below Kellogg. There Father Ravalli labored 
for seven years, and there the signs of his artistic handi- 
work are still to be seen. The old church was built with- 
out a nail ; instead a hole was bored and a wooden pin 
was driven through. The Mission became a landmark on 
the trail across the Bitter Root mountains from the Mis- 
souri to the Columbia valley. Father Ravalli exercised a 
wide influence, promoting peace among the red men and 
protecting the lives of the white men. The light in the 
window of the Mission was a beacon to many of the pack- 
ers and prospectors that came down the trail weary from 
battling with the snow in the mountains. From the 
Jesuit fathers they always received a cheery greeting and 
found protection from the storm. It was the trade with 
these Indians that led to the discovery of the mineral 
wealth of the region. 



January 10, 1920 

In the spring of 1849 the gold excitement in California 
attracted many of the pioneer settlers from the North- 
West. Ten years later gold was discovered on the Simil- 
kameen, in British territory, just over the northern 
boundary of Washington, and in 1860 the placers of the 
Cariboo, at the head of the Fraser river, stimulated pros- 
pecting in this part of the world. Through participation 
in the working of these discoveries, north and south of 
them, the people of the North-West obtained some knowl- 
edge of the technique of mining and were prepared to 
find and to exploit the mineral riches within their own 

To E. D. Pierce belongs the honor of being the pioneer 
of mining in Idaho. He was a trader among the Indians 
and through them he had long known that the country 
east of the great bend of the Snake river was gold-bear- 
ing, but he did not dare to undertake prospecting opera- 
tions for fear of arousing their enmity. He had been in 
California and knew something about placer mining. In 
1858 Pierce re-visited the Nez Perce country, but found 
no opportunity to search for gold until after the ratifi- 
cation of the Nez Perce treaty and the general cessation 
of hostilities between the Indians and the white settlers 
in 1860. Early in that year he was enabled to verify his 
belief that there was gold in the gravel of the Clearwater, 
a branch of the Snake, and he so reported in April at 
Walla Walla, which was then the nearest distributing 
point. Pierce did not return at once to the Clearwater, 
on account of opposition from both the Indian and the 
military departments of the Government. These dreaded 
a renewal of trouble with the Nez Perces and Spokanes 
in the event of a mob of prospectors over-running their 
reservations. 1 In August, however, Pierce was enabled 
to set out from Walla Walla for the purpose of making 
a conclusive examination. He appears to have been a 
careful and sagacious man, unwilling to commit himself 
to an opinion until sufficient evidence was available. He 
ascertained that the diggings were dry and yielded 8 to 
15 cents to the pan. Having satisfied himself that profit- 
able mining was feasible, he tried to organize a large com- 
pany to return with him and remain on the ground dur- 
ing the winter, but the fear of attack by the Indians was 
a deterrent to adventure, so that only 33 men were willing 
to accompany him. Pierce himself, although convinced 
that the gravel on the Clearwater was fairly rich, was 
quite free in exposing the disadvantages of the under- 
taking and did not hesitate to declare his belief that these 
placers were but the fringe of still richer ground. By 
the time 300 men had set to work in the district, which 
was named Oro Fino, a treaty was negotiated with the 
Indians. A month later the number of diggers had in- 
creased to a thousand. This was in the spring of 1861. 

When the rush began from Portland and Walla Walla 
to the mines, a steamer went up the Snake river to the 
mouth of the Clearwater and up that stream to within 
40 miles of Pierce City. In the early summer of 1861, 
the navigation company joined with the miners in select- 
ing a site for a, town at the junction of the Clearwater 

i'The Works of Hubert Howe Bancroft', Vol. XXXI. 

and the Snake. A suitable site was found between the 
two rivers and it was called Lewistown, in compliment to 
Meriwether Lewis, of the Lewis and Clark expedition, 
who had discovered these rivers and had been entertained 
by the father of the chief of the Nez Perces almost at the 
very spot where Americans were now digging for gold. 

By July 5000 men had scattered over the surrounding 
region and prospecting had been extended to the south 
fork of the Clearwater, where a town called Elk City 
was established with a population of 2000. This was 120 
miles south of Oro Fino. 2 In July a party went still 
father south to the Salmon river and in September made 
a discovery of gold that created such excitement as almost 
to empty the older mining camps. Bancroft states 3 that 
"John Munsac purchased a claim [on the Salmon] for 
$1800 and from two pans of the dirt took four ounces of 
gold. In two weeks he had taken out 45 pounds of dust. " 

Nathan Smith, a Califomian pioneer, discovered gold 
at Florence in the following winter, 1861-62, and in 1869 
the same prospector was responsible for starting mining 
at Oro Grande. In 1862 there was a large immigration 
from the Eastern States, owing to the Civil War and the 
fame of the Salmon River diggings. B} 7 1863 there were 
four county organizations and ten mining towns, con- 
taining in all 20,000 inhabitants, most of whom were 
pioneers from the Pacific Coast and the Western States — 
a population of energetic and resourceful men. This in- 
dustrial development caused the organization of the Ter- 
ritory of Idaho in 1863 ; it included all that portion of 
Washington lying east of Oregon and the 117th meridian 
of west longitude. 

Shoshone county, in a remnant of which is the Bunker 
Hill mine, was the first portion of Idaho to be mined and 
settled; it was in the southern part of the county that 
Captain Pierce made* the first discoveries. Bancroft 
states: "The county of Shoshone was set off from Walla 
Walla county by the legislature of Washington as early 
as January 29, 1858, comprising all the country north of 
the Snake river lying east of the Rocky Mountains, with 
the county seat 'on the land claim of Angus McDonald'." 
He had been the Hudson's Bay company's agent at Col- 
ville. The county was divided by legislative enactment 
in 1860-61 and in 1861-62 as the requirements of the 
shifting population demanded. Bancroft reverts to the 
nomadic character of the early miners and describes this 
characteristic in felicitous phrase : ' ' The miners of Idaho 
were like quicksilver. A mass of them dropped in any 
locality, broke up into individual globules, and ran off 
after any atom of gold in their vicinity. They stayed 
nowhere longer than the gold attracted them." 4 

In 1863 the gold-quartz veins of the Boise basin and in 
1865 the Poorman vein on War Eagle mountain, in 
Owyhee county, were discovered, each of these events in- 
citing a mining stampede. 

Although the discoveries of gold-bearing gravel on the 

:?Pierce City was the first camp. 
Canal gulch, on Oro Fino creek. 
^Op. cit., p. 247. 
iOp. cit., p. 427. 

It is at the mouth of 

January Id, 1980 


I : 

■trams tributary to the Clearwater marked the begin- These diggings proved disappointing, but su Tears later 
oing i -;'ul mining in central Idaho, these « 1 i^r- Crash discoveries gave Dew life to the distriol end led to 
gings did doI last l>m: and their population soon drifted the founding of Moose City, which continued Fairly pros- 
southward to the Salmon River and Boise - districta perous until the early 'seventies. The mention of tins 


"When the placers of Pierce City, Oro Fino, and Elk locality is essential to my story because it indicates the 

City became exhausted, they passed largely into the northward extension of mining exploration, bringing 

patient hands of the Chinese. In 1862 there was a rush prospectors nearer the Coeur d'Alene, the northernmost 

to Moose creek, at the headwaters of the north fork of portion of Shoshone county, which by this time had be- 

the Clearwater and 40 miles north-east of Pierce City, come depopulated and impecunious. In 1881 the assessed 



January 10, 1920 

valuation in the county was only $38,981. The 'Lewis- 
town Teller' of July 21, 1881, said: "Our Pierce City 
[which was then the county seat, it must be remembered] 
correspondent announces the partial disorganization of 
Shoshone, leaving the people of that county without any 
executive officers. For some time past offices in that 
county have been compelled to go begging for men to fill 
them, and when once filled several substitutions have 
been made after periods of interregnum. The whole 
number of white residents in the county seldom exceeds 
75 persons, and is more often less than that. . . . The 
increase, when there has been any, has been principally 
among the Chinese, who have gone there for mining pur- 
poses and bought the greater portion of the ground that 
had been worked by the whites." 

Fortunately the county organization was maintained, 
even though it was precarious. Better days, however, 
were in store for Shoshone. For many years the exist- 
ence of gold in the Coeur d'Alene had been rumored. It 
is stated that as early as 1853 gold was discovered in the 
Coeur d'Alene by Donelson, of the Stevens expedition, 
but the hostility of the Indians kept prospectors out of 
the country. In 1858, when Lieutenant John Mullan 
surveyed the military road across the Bitter Root moun- 
tains, the members of his expedition, most of whom had 
mined in California, noticed outcrops of likely-looking 
quartz and some of them actually found gold, as is re- 
corded in a letter that Mullan wrote, from "Washington 
in 1884, to the editor of the 'Eagle', a paper published 
at Eagle City, of which mention will be made later. Mul- 
lan, in that letter, told how one of his hunters, named 
Moise, a French-Canadian, had come into camp one day 
with "a handful of coarse gold which he said he had 
found on the headwaters of the north fork of the Coeur 
d'Alene". His statement was discredited, it being as- 
sumed that "he had traded for this gold with some par- 
ties passing up and down the Fraser River mines", as 
Mullan says. This was in 1858-59. Other finds were 
made by Mullan 's men at intervals along the trail that 
he surveyed across this region, but he did nothing to en- 
courage interest in them because he feared to lose his men 
and thereby endanger the completion of the task he had 
in hand, which was, as he says "to open a base line from 
the plains of the Spokane on the west to the plains of the 
Missouri on the east, from which other lines could be 
subsequently opened, and by means of which the correct 
geography of the country could be delineated". He 
aimed to ascertain the most practicable route for a wagon- 
road that could eventually become the line of a railroad ; 
and he succeeded, for the Mullan trail was followed later 
by the Northern Pacific railway. 

The white men that first penetrated into this region 
found a trail leading past the Old Mission. Over this 
trail the Indians used to cross the Bitter Root range and 
when the time came to build a wagon-road, the surveyor. 
Lieutenant Mullan, found no better route; when the 
Northern Pacific sought an entrance into the Coeur 
d'Alene, it, in turn, could find nothing more suitable than 
the Mullan road, and so the old trail became the line of a 

railroad.* From Wallace to the Mission the railroad fol- 
lowed the mocca%ined feet, and from there across the lake 
the steamers followed in the vanished wake of the Indian 
canoe. The old narrow-gauge line was built in 1887 by 
the late D. C. Corbin, the famous railroad-builder of the 
North-West ; it extended from Burke to the Mission land- 
ing, and in 1896 was replaced by the broad-gauge line of 
the Union Pacific which entered the Coeur d'Alene from 
Tekoa, Washington. 

In 1873 Frank Peck and John Vollmer found gold in 
the course of a prospecting trip between the St. Joe and 
Clearwater rivers, but nothing came of it. The first suc- 
cessful prospector in the Coeur d'Alene was Tom Irwin, 
who worked a quartz vein on the Mullan road, near a 
place called the Miner's Cabin, in the spring of 1879. He 
formed an opinion that gold-bearing gravel would be 
found in the vicinity, but he failed to find any. In 1881 
he met A. J. Prichard, who was engaged in the lumber 
business, and told him what he thought of the prospects 
of placer mining in the upper reaches of the Coeur 
d'Alene river. This was in 1881. Soon afterward Irwin 
went to Colorado, but Prichard had become interested. 
To him belongs the credit for disclosing the riches of the 
region. In 1882 he found gold on several of the creeks 
tributary to the north fork of the Coeur d'Alene river. 
One of his first finds was on Eagle creek, but his most im- 
portant discovery was on the creek that is now known 
by his name, at a spot near the site of the present town 
of Murray. In March 1883 he located four claims, one 
of which was in the name of his son, and the other three 
in the names of personal friends, he himself retaining a 
half -interest in each claim. Besides this discovery group, 
he located a number of other claims for various friends 
by power of attorney. ''Prichard belonged to an organiza- 
tion called the Liberal League and he was anxious that 
his friends in the League should have the first chance to 
share the benefits of his discovery, so he wrote a letter, 
reproduced by the 'Spokane Review' in 1888, in which he 
invited them to come to Idaho and "secure the lion's 
share ' ' of the mineral wealth he had uncovered. His let- 
ter is dated January 7, 1883, and is written from ' Evo- 
lution', which was the name of his camp on the Mullan 
road. It is so interesting that I shall quote the principal 
portion of it: 

"I have made a discovery of a gold-bearing country 
that will give employment to at least 15,000 to 20.000 
men. There are two streams that I have prospected well ; 
one is 16 to 25 miles long, as near as I can judge ; the 
other 12 to 16 miles and an average width of 60 to 70 
rods; have found gold on three other streams of near 
the same size, but have not tested them enough to know 
how they will pay. The two streams I speak of will pay 
their whole length and probably the most of their tribu- 
taries, with an abundance of good timber and water. 
Bedrock from 5 to 12 ft. Gold coarse and of good 
quality. There are two good and natural town-sites 
where there will be built cities representing thousands in 

"'Following Old Trails', by Arthur L. Stone, p. 162. 

January 10, 1920 


lea than two yean, and the country ia traversed with 
hundred* of mineral bearing lodea of quarts. Am. I now 

for g I reasons which I have not time to explain I would 

lik.- to tee as much of tins go into the hands of the Lib- 
erala us possible, and also Bee them build a city where 
they can have their own laws and enough of this vast 
mining region t<« support it, which they can .1" if they 


will go at it cool and work together. I have spent four 
years by myself looking and working it up. I first dis- 
covered and located a lode in the Mullan road, and not 
having much means to open it up, I spent all of my spare 
lime looking for placers, not anticipating finding exten-. 
sive mines, only something to help me open my lode, but 
I have found a richer and bigger section than I supposed 
lay undiscovered in the Rocky range, and now if you will 
convey the purport of what I have given you to as many 
Leaguers as you can on this coast, and request them to 
get together and keep this information to themselves, 
they can secure the 'lion's share'. I am in the moun- 
tains, fift}' miles from a post-office, and can do but little 
in winter, for the snow gets from three to four feet deep 
here. I will give directions how to get there and what is 
needed. My location I call Evolution, as that is the name 
of my lode. It is on the old Mullan road to Montana. I 
am 50 miles east of Fort Coeur d'Alene and 23 miles east 
of the Old Mission. The Northern Pacific railroad runs 
within 12 miles of the post, where there is a town called 
Rathdrum. Parties coming will want pack-animals, as the 
new mines are back from my place on the road 40 miles 
in the mountains, with but poor pack-trails yet, as I have 
not had time to cut them out more than enough to get 
through, and they will want supplies for a month or two, 
as there will be no chance of getting anything after leav- 
ing the post at present. Probably the best place for those 

that have to buy hones would be t" stop at Spokane 

Falls. Washington Territory, which is 80 miles i'r the 

post, and perhaps they might do better in provisions and 
groceries, tools, etc. Now, if there an- many con- 
clude to oo they might leave the impression along the 

road Hint they were going to Montana ami give as many 
Liberals as possible a chance u> gel in before they gel up 
an excitement." 

Prichard's letters caused a stampede from Montana 
and Colorado to the gold belt of ti„- Coeur d'Alene in 
the spring and summer of L883. Ilis Liberal trim. Is 
w. iv nut discreet, but allowed the news to leak out, s.. 
that it reached the Black Hills district, in South Da- 
kota, and induced a crowd of miners t.i migrate t" Idaho. 
When these, an.i others from other parts of the country, 
arrived, they found that Prichard had located all the 


best ground by power of attorney for his friends. They 
began at once to jump his claims. This led eventually 
to a long and costly series of litigations. Another cause 
of trouble arose from the fact that many farmers from 
the Palouse country and others whose principal occupa- 
tion was not mining took advantage of the law to locate 
a claim — 20 acres of placer ground — and hold it by doing 
the small amount of assessment work legally required, 
without engaging in active development, meanwhile giv- 
ing their attention to their business elsewhere. The real 
prospectors found much of the best ground plastered 
with locations belonging to men who left them unworked ; 
whereupon, of course, they jumped them. This led to 
litigation and sometimes violence. 

Among those attracted to the district in 1883 was H. C. 



January 10, 1920 

Davis, of the Northern Pacific railroad, who saw an op- 
portunity to secure patronage for his road and to en- 
courage a settlement of the country contiguous to it. So 
he issued a circular, which has become famous in local 
history, because it induced a further rush to the district 
in the winter of 1883-84. It is amusing on account of its 
flamboyant phrasing, worthy of the prospectuses of a 
later day. I quote herewith : 

"The claims are very rich, and are located in the 
gulches of the north fork of the Coeur d'Alene river, 
Eagle, Prichard and Beaver creeks, streams running into 
the Coeur d'Alene. Rich placer deposits have already 
been discovered for a considerable distance on Prichard 
creek and the same distance on Eagle creek, the creeks 
being known by the latter name from the point where 
they come together. Nuggets have been found which 
weigh $50, $100, $166, and $200. An intense excitement 
has sprung up in regard to the quartz deposits of this 
district, the immediate occasion of this being a find of a 
valuable quartz lode at the head of Prichard creek. The 
vein has been traced on the surface for a distance of five 
hundred feet and the outcroppings are very prominent. 
The ore taken from the vein shows a great amount of 
free gold; in fact, it fairly glistens. The most exten- 
sive galena belt known at the present day is being de- 
veloped on Beaver creek. The vein can be readily traced 
on the surface for five or six miles, the ore carrying from 
80 to 90 ounces of silver and 35 to 40% lead. Such is a 
brief sketch of the Coeur d'Alene mines, which surpass 
in richness and volume the most fabulous quartz and 
placers ever discovered, even the famous deposits of 
Potosi being inferior to those which underlie the moun- 
tains of the Coeur d'Alenes. As the mines of the old 
world, some of which have been worked since the eleventh 
century, are still employing thousands of men, the con- 
clusion to be drawn in regard to the Coeur d'Alenes. a 
region far superior in every way, is that they are in- 
exhaustible, and although thousands may work them, 
there will still be room for thousands more." 

The first town to be laid out was Eagle City. In 
March 1884 lots sold at prices ranging from $200 to 
$2000. In the 'Nugget', the local paper, of March 22, 
1884, it is stated that twenty new business houses were 
opened in the mining district during the preceding 
week. In the same issue appears a warning against any 
Chinaman entering the camp on pain of expulsion or 
death, and the expulsion of the person importing any 
such Chinaman. Mail on letters cost 50 cents and it took 
as much as two weeks to make delivery from Spokane 
Palls. The buildings were made of logs and 'shakes'. 
Shoveling of the snow in front of them left a mound 
between them and the street. Big tents, with gaudy 
signs, emitted sounds of rudimentary music, the click of 
chips, and the clink of coin passing over a bar. At the 
corners stood groups of men talking mines and mining, 
some of them examining specimens as they were passed 
from hand to hand. The stores exhibited specimens of 
gold-bearing quartz. A pistol shot would cause a tran- 
sient flutter and the saloons would momentarily disgorge 

a crowd. Pack-trains arrived, weather-worn and dilapi- 
dated from hard usage. The sounds of carpentering in- 
dicated the growth of the town. An air of expectation 
pervaded the community. It was full of life and hope — 
a transitory gleam. Eagle City soon lost its eminence; 
other 'cities' sprang up like mushrooms in the night; 
among them were Carbon City on Beaver creek; and 
Myrtle on Trail creek. Each of these had its little day ; 
they flared up. only to be extinguished as the chanei's of 
discovery diverted the migrating population from one 
scene of excitement to another. As Bancroft says, it was 
a "mercurial" community, that of the miners. 

In April 1884. encouraged by Prichard, a number of 
men went to Canyon creek and staked claims. Nine-Mile 
also was prospected. It is said that some of these pros- 
pectors filed claims on the very ground in which the 
famous silver-lead mines were developed at a later date, 
but they were looking only for placer gold, and, being 
without experience in any other kind of mining, they 
missed many chances. 

The 'History of Northern Idaho', from which I have 
obtained some of my information, has much to say con- 
cerning the homicides and other acts of violence that 
punctuated, and punctured, the life of the pioneer set- 
tlements. It is pathetic to see so much space given to 
details that today possess nothing except a morbid and 
mortuary interest. For example, here is the record of a 
crime perpetrated at Murray in 1884. 

"A homicide which - attracted wide attention and 
roused the community to a high pitch of excitement was 
the killing of John Enright by Henry Bernard, July 2, 
1884. The victim was a compositor in the office of the 
'Pioneer', of which paper Bernard was editor. It ap- 
peared from the testimony at the preliminary hearing 
that Enright had been discharged and paid the after- 
noon of the homicide ; that he came to the office for his 
blankets, but, instead of taking them and going quietly 
about his business, kept complaining to Bernard of the 
shabby treatment which he claimed had been given him. 
Bernard told him to go two or three times, but he still 
hung around the office. Finally Bernard drew a re- 
volver and pointed it at him. telling him he must leave 
or get hurt. Enright received the threats in a jocular 
manner, and soon the fatal shot was fired." 

At this time the county seat of Shoshone was Pierce 
City, as the reader will recall. When the northern min- 
ing districts began to assert their preponderant impor- 
tance, there arose the demand for a change. The State 
legislature of 1884-85 passed a bill providing for the re- 
moval of the county seat temporarily from Pierce City 
to Murray and for a special election to be held in the 
county in June 1885 for the purpose of selecting a county 
seat. Osburn had the honor for a time. This, however, 
was a trivial matter compared with the finding of the 
silver-lead lodes in the autumn of 1885, for to them the 
Coeur d'Alene owes its enduring fame as a mining region 
and with the discovery of them begins the story of the 
Bunker Hill enterprise. 

(To he continued) 

Janu&o 10, L920 



\ ContributioD to the Study of Flotation II 

Bj II. I.I\I\<;ST<>\K SI I.MW 

Mou 1 1 i m; Constiti tion "I- Solids im> Liquids 
According to the molecular theory, soli, is. liquids, and 
• an composed of finite, physically indivisible par- 
ticles "i- molecules, separated from each other by die 
which are comparatively very small in solids, somewhat 
greater in liquids, ami large in gases. All are in rapid 
motion, which increases with rise in temperature, an. I de- 
creases with its fall: molecular motion, and consequently 
all chemical action ceases at absolute zero *-27:: i '. . At 
0"C. ihi average velocity 1 of a molecule of hydrogen gas 
iputed to be 41'" 1 miles per hour, or rather more 
than on.- mil.' per second. The velocities of molecules of 
other substances at equal temperatures arc inversely pro- 
portional to the square roots of their molecular weights; 

thus a molecule of silica at 0°C. would travel at ^^ — 

i 56 
miles per hour, or about one-quarter mile per second. 
The average distance traveled between collisions will be 
small in a liquid and still smaller in a solid. 

In a gas, the molecules are continually colliding witli 
each other; being perfectly elastic, they rebound without 
loss of energy, and their impacts with the molecules of 
the walls of a containing vessel constitute the pressure 
exerted thereon by the gas. At atmospheric pressure the 
average travel between successive collisions (the gaseous 

'mean free path') is about 4 of an inch. 

In liquid water, the molecules travel at an average 
■speed of about one-third mile per second; being closely 
packed, their mean free path is small, probably less 
than the diameter of a molecule. Nevertheless, they 
move freely among themselves, giving rise to the mo- 
bility of the liquid as a whole, while their independent 
motions account for the facts of diffusion. 

In a solid the molecules are subject to a yet greater 
■constraint, though the general similarity between the 
volumes of the solid and liquid states for the same sub- 
stance does not indicate a much closer inter-molecular 
spacing. They are conceived to oscillate for the most 
part about more or less fixed positions, with constant 
collisions with their neighbors. The phenomena of 
crystallization and magnetism show them to be capable 
■of taking up definite axial directions or 'orientation'; 
but, being unable to move independently of each other, 
with any readiness, their assemblages possess rigidity 
and form. 

lOwing to their extremely frequent collisions and varying 
angular contacts, the velocities of the different molecules in 
the same substance, as also the velocity of any given mole- 
cule at different moments of time, must vary considerably; 
the mean velocity, as deduced by statistical methods, is that 

Nevertheless, molecules in a solid can slowly change 

their relative positions ami may cause exten 

tions in its structure, as in the gradual crystalli 

of masses of ste.l where there is a slow segregation and 
orientation of like molecules from an originally more 
complex molecular system. The molecules of one solid 
travel into the mass of another, as in the mutual 
diffusions of lead and gold under pressure, and the 
many instances of 'solid solution'. 

Transitional stages exist between the typically BOlid 
and liquid states, such as those occupied by pitch. 
waxes, ice, and many colloids; most solids other than 
crystals retain some degree of viscous character; while 
even some crystals show viscosity. 

If, for want of more definite knowledge, we assume 
that molecules are spherical in shape, the diameter of 
a water molecule is 4 X 10" 8 cm., or about two and a 
half million to the millimetre. The diameter of a 
hydrogen molecule is about half that of a water mole. 
eule; the diameters of complex molecules, such as those 
of tannic acid, soap, or albumen, are naturally much 
greater. A cubic centimetre of any permanent gas at 
0°C. and normal pressure contains 2.75 X 10'° mole- 

Gravitation and Molecular Forces 

The molecules of all substances are subject to both 
these forces. Gravitation is the force by which all the 
molecules in a body are attracted by those of another; 
■ it varies directly as the masses of the attracting bodies 
and inversely as the square of the distance between 
them. Gravitation, of course, is sensible at large dis- 
tances, matter on the earth being sensibly attracted by 
the sun 95,000,000 miles away. Gravity is independent 
of the chemical nature of the substance, a gramme of 
lead exerting the same attraction on another gramme 
of lead as it would upon a gramme of lime or water at 
the same distance. 

Molecular attractions are much more intense, but are 
manifested only over minute distances; consequently, 
they only come into play when the molecules are brought 
comparatively close together, and usually become insen- 
sible when the distance exceeds the ten-thousandth part 
of a millimetre, probably much less. Some physicists 
consider there are grounds for believing it to be of the 
order of 5 n/xr The major limit for the diameter of a 
water molecule is computed as 0.24 w, therefore for 
water the radius of molecular attraction must be con- 
siderably greater than this, otherwise no attraction could 

=The thousandth part of a millimetre, a 'micron', is writ- 
ten */»', and the millionth part, a 'micromillimetre' >/*'. 



January 10. 1920 

exist between the molecules except when in contact. 
Johannot has measured an intensely black soap-film just 
before its rupture, finding it not more than 6 pp in thick- 
ness, or a minimum of 24 molecular diameters. 

Much larger limits have been assigned to the radius 
of molecular attraction ; Plateau and Maxwell have sug- 
gested 118 pp and Plateau and Quincke 50-59 pp for the 
superior limits. Possibly it may be }'et greater in cer- 
tain cases; thus, in the selective adsorptions between 
saponin and the minute globules of an oil-emulsion at a 
water-surface, the latter fail to reach the surface of the 
liquid by a very small, yet visible, fraction of a milli- 
metre. Again, the 'skins' or films of saponin, albumen, 
precipitated metals and their sulphides, and of mineral 
particles adsorbed at a water-surface, may often be of a 
visible thickness, vastly exceeding those above mentioned. 
Strong adhesive forces between the foreign particles 
themselves doubtless aid in the formation of such skins, 
but in these instances concentration proceeds cumu- 
latively in a manner not easy to reconcile with a very 
small range of molecular attraction. All we can safely 
say is that the radius of molecular attraction may vary 
between 5 pp and a fraction of a wave-length of light. 

Unlike gravitation molecular attraction varies with 
the chemical nature of the molecules, and there is evi- 
dence (lately deduced by Edser) that the variation for 
different classes of substances is inversely as from the 
6th to the 9th power of the distance. Thus for the lower 
limit doubling the distance between two like molecules 
reduces the attraction originally exerted by one upon 
the other to 1/2" or 1/64. There is thus a steep gradient 
in the intensity of molecular attraction even within the 
minute limiting distances through which these are ex- 

It is, however, to these forces of minute range that the 
properties of cohesion, adhesion, surface-tension, adsorp- 
tion, etc., are due. While all molecular forces in ultimate 
origin are probably electrical, nothing is gained, in de- 
fault of more exact knowledge, by assuming them to 
originate in this or in any other way; no more, in fact, 
than the laws of gravitation between masses are affected 
by the presumed electrical origin of matter. 

In a gas, the molecules are so far apart that except at 
the moment of collision their mutual attractions may be 
neglected. In liquids and in solids, as we have seen, the 
molecules are much more closely packed, their attractions 
constituting cohesion, etc. ; but even in solids the vibra- 
tory structure remains granular and molecularly porous, 
their surfaces being therefore penetrable to definite ex- 
tents by the molecules of gases (gas-occlusion and per- 
meability), of liquids, and in so'me cases even by the 
molecules of other solids. 

Cohesion. The attractive forces exerted on a molecule 
in the interior of a liquid or a solid by its numerous 
neighbors are without permanent resultant. Let Fig. 1 
represent in vertical section a small mass of water, and 
the small circles the mean positions of molecules at any 
moment. If an imaginary plane A-B be traced, the mole- 
cules immediately on one side of this will attract those 

on the other with the same force as they attract their 
neighbors, no iKsultant force tending to move them in 
any direction. The attractions which they mutually 
exert across the imaginary plane constitute cohesion. 

Intrinsic Pressure. The mutual attractions of mole- 
cules on either side of an imaginary plane account for 
the observed cohesion of a substance ; but if no other 
force existed, and the molecules were at rest, all would 
mutually draw together until they touched ; if we assume 
the molecules themselves to be incompressible, total in- 
eompressibility would result. Experiment, however, 
shows all substances to be compressible and distensible ; 
the force, statically considered, responsible for the main- 
tenance of the mean molecular distance is termed 'in- 
trinsic pressure', and for solids and liquids balances the 
cohesive force. 

Worthington proved that to produce a given small in- 
crease in the volume of a liquid a tension must be applied 
equal to the compression required for a like diminution 
in volume ; the elasticity of a liquid is therefore the same 
in tension as in compression. The tensile strength of 
water is above 11,000 atmospheres, or approaching that 
of steel ; the cohesion of most homogeneous solids and of 
liquids is more or less of the same order. 

Cohesive force has no direct effect upon the mobility 

Fig. 1 

of the liquid, which permits its adjustment to any con- 
figuration provided that the mean distance between its 
molecules is not altered. That water, in spite of its great 
cohesion, can be so readily divided into drops is due to 
mobility ; the molecules under an external force such as 
gravity slide over each other without increase in their 
molecular distances, permitting, for example, water to be 
drawn out into a cylindrical column. When this exceeds 
a length equal to its circumference it becomes unstable, 
owing to the action of its own molecular surface forces 
(surface-tension) which molds it into alternate bulgings 
and constrictions. These develop until the constrictions 
become infinitely thin, when the column breaks into a 
series of drops. 

Intrinsic pressure being equal and opposite to the co- 
hesive force, determines the mean molecular distance for 
any solid or liquid ; the former resists compression, the 
latter dilatation. Their effect may be likened to a series of 
uniform springs connecting the molecules which require 
the same force to extend as to compress them ; the one is 

January 10. 1920 



tin- in'- Ihe other, and both are manifestations of 

the forces which ad between the molecules 

Viewed kinetically, intrinsic pressure results from the 
molecular collisions arising from the mm.ii.mi of the mole- 
cules; being perfectlj elastic these lose energy thereby. 
When they are al their mean distances apart their total 
energy is potential; as they draw together tins be 
kinetic until completely s.. at impact, tin rebound the 
energy becomes potential, and bo on, similar to the 
alternations in potential and kinetic energy <>f a pendu- 
lum. All molecules at their interior mean-spacing are 
thus under equal and counterbalanced stress. 

Beyond the free liquid surface there are no attracting 
or colliding molecules, and those in outward motion 
therefrom will travel on an average further than their 
mean-path in the interior. It follows thai the average 
molecular Bpacing in the surface layers is greater than in 
the interior, and a state of strain is gel up. As we cannot 
conceive of energy without strain, this is our manner of 
statin? the origin of surface-energy; this view of dimin- 
ished surface density has been maintained by van der 

Wherever molecular spacing exceeds the normal for 
the substance (liquid or solid) strain will result; an ex- 
ample of the energy manifested by Such areas is Mine. 
Curie's quartz balanee. where strains in a quartz plate 
are produced by weights and give rise to electric charges 
on the foil-covered surface ; or again, electric charges 
which result from molecular strains produced by ex- 
pansion on heating crystals asymmetrically terminated 
('piezo' electricity). This somewhat less dense and 
strained condition of the surface layers of solids and 
liquids has important results in adsorption, to be noted 

When, as in gases, the forces of attraction are very 
small, cohesion becomes negligible, and the pressure due 
to the velocity of the molecules is no longer counter- 
balanced. One cubic centimetre of water becomes 1700 
cc. of steam when evaporated at 100° C. hence the mole- 
cules in the steam must be f/1700 the distance apart, or 
about 12 times greater than they occupied in the liquid 
form. If the intermoleeular distance be reduced by 
strong compression, gases show deviations from Boyle's 
law, especially when approaching their liquefying point, 
due to their molecular attractions now becoming sensible. 

Since the mean distance between the molecules of a 
gas is large in comparison with their diameter, their 
mutual attractions being negligible, the actual volume of 
the molecules will be small in relation to that of the space 
through which they are distributed. 

If we suppose a cylinder fitted with a piston to contain 
one gramme of a gas of the above constitution, the con- 
tinued bombardment of the piston by the moving mole- 
cules will tend to force it outward, and the force exerted 
on the piston will be proportional. (1) to the number of 
molecules contained in unit-volume of the gas, (2) to the 
square of the velocity of the molecules, and (3) to the 
mass of each molecule. The number of molecules per 
unit-volume of the gas is proportional to the density of 

the fas. or inversely proportional t.. the volt », ..f 

1 gm. ..t' the gas; it is assumed that the square "i the 
velocity <>f the molecules is proportional t.. thi 
temperature T of the gas. Tims, it' /. denotes the pres 
sure, or force per unit area exerted by the gas on the 
piston, /.•/■ 

/)= ■ or /, r /,' /, 

where // is a constant independent of the density and 
temperature of the lms 

The law derived experimentally l.y Boyle states thai at 
a constant temperature the pressure of a given mass ..t' 

•j. is is inversely proportional to its voli or that /. v is 

constant ; the same result is obtained by making '/' con- 
stant in the above equation. Since T is proportional to 

the square of the velocity of the molecules, it would be 
equal to /.en. if the molecules were absolutely quiescent ; 
the temperature at which this happens is called the 
'absolute zero of temperature', and is 273 C. below the 
freezing-point of water. Thus T, measured from the 
absolute zero, is obtained by adding 273° to the Centi- 
grade temperature. 

In accordance with Avogadro's hypothesis, equal num- 
bers of molecules are contained in equal volumes of dif- 
ferent gases at one and the same temperature. Further 
it has been deduced theoretically by Maxwell, and con- 
firmed experimentally by Perrin. that at a given tem- 
perature a molecule of any gas will possess a definite 
amount of kinetic energy in virtue of its linear motion, 
this value being independent of the chemical nature of 
the gas. The force exerted by the impact and rebound 
of a molecule is proportional to the product of half the 
mass and the square of the velocity of the molecule 
is. to the kinetic energy due to its linear velocity: since 
the latter has a value independent of the chemical nature 
of the gas, it follows that at a given temperature the im- 
pact and rebound of a molecule, whatever may be its 
. nature, will exert the same force, whether it be a molecule 
of hydrogen or one of oxygen, nitrogen, water, or alcohol. 

If two cylinders contain equal volumes of different 
gases at equal temperatures, the number of molecules 
being the same in both, and the force derived from the 
impact and rebound of a molecule the same, the pressures 
are equal, and the product pv will be the same in both 

If, instead of equal volumes, equal masses of the two 
gases are considered, their volumes will be inversely pro- 
portional to their molecular weights; for if. respectively. 
.1/, and .V, denote the molecular weight and number of 
molecules in a gramme of the one gas, and .¥„ and N s in 
the other, the total mass of gas being 1 gm. in either case, 

Ma *, 8.4X10? 

- tjt , the equation pr=- 


.Y,.¥,= .V..1/,, and ^ 

T is found to represent the relation between the pressure, 
volume, and temperature of 1 gm. of any gas of mole- 
cular weight M. The quantity ' — , generally de- 
noted by R, is called the 'gas constant' of the substance ; 
it is numerically equal to the external work, in ergs, that 
would be done, as against a movable piston, if a gramme 


of the gas were heated through 1 c C. under the condition dynes per square centimetre, or 1000 atmospheres. There- 
of constant pressure. fore for pressures in the neighborhood of one atmos- 

In extending this reasoning to liquids it is necessary , 3 , . , , . . . , „ 

. , , „ ' ■ e AJ , . phere 3 p may be neglected in comparison with •-, , so that, 

to allow tor (a) the attractive iorce exerted between '• 

neighboring molecules, which are now very much closer to a elose approximation, 

together; and (6) the finite size of the molecules. As we - = ±L? 1 

have seen, the molecules within a eertaiu small distance ,. ... ' 

■j- . • ■ , j ■-. -, • ., ,. ■■. or the cohesion is equal to the intrinsic pressure 

on one side of an imaginary plane described in the liquid, ^ ^ 

attract those within an equal distance upon the other Molecular Cohesi 

side of it. the attractive forces exerted aerOSS 1 Sq. Cm. Substance weieht Temperature in dynes em= 

£ ., , , ■ ., , » ., ,. ., T » ,, Hydrogen (liquid) 2.016 -252°C. 3.09 x 10" 

ot the plane being the cohesion ot the liquid. If the Arg-on (liquid) 39.9 -i83°c. 1 21 x io» 

density of the liquid be doubled, the number of attracted w ^ n lll<,uidl ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; ; »*;J g ~ 1 ^- **J < J* 

molecules on one side of the plane and the number of Pentane 72.1 30-0. 9.00 x io» 

Attracting molecules on the other side, are simultan- Jtercury .......... '.~'.'.'. ... o-c 355 x io>« 

eously doubled, the cohesion being increased four times. ^l^rlde 'ausedi J.:.::: tit soS-c' ££■ 5 io°» 

Cohesion is therefore proportional to the square of the As the temperature is raised( the espansion of the 
density, or proportional to the square ot the volume of 

1 gm. of the liquid; it may therefore be represented by li( l ui(i causes v to increase; the cohesion ", will therefore 

\ where a is constant for a given substance. diminish. Above the critical temperature the cohesion 

'" can no longer hold the molecules together in the form of 

To take into account the finite size of the molecules it a i iqu j d) &nd the substance can only exist in the form of 

is clear from the equation of p = — that for auy finite ^ as ' 

value of T the pressure can only become infinite when the When the temperature is sufficiently high " ; may be 

volume v is reduced to zero. This of course would be neglected in comparison with p, and 6 may be neglected 

possible if the molecules were infinitely small, as they ; n comparison with v; so that the equation p v=B T 

could only come into contact when the volume was re- may then be applied without sensible error. 

duced indefinitely. If the molecules are of finite size, 

., .„ , ., ,. -j ■ ■, j l5t"RFACE-ExERGY AND bURFACE-TENSION 

they will come into contact when the liquid is reduced 

to some small volume which may be denoted by b : if the Molecules in the surface layer of a liquid differ from 

molecules are supposed to be incompressible individually, those in the interior by being subject to a resultant force 

the pressure must become infinitely great when they are attracting them toward the interior. Let E (Fig. 1) be 

in contact; this condition is complied with if the pressure a molecule in a layer near the surface, and let the dotted 

RT R t circle represent its radius of molecular attraction, 

is equal to ^ instead of — . The molecule E wfll attraet all other mo i ecu i es vvit hi Q 

We can now express the effects both of the cohesion this range, according to an inverse power of their dis- 

and the finite size of the molecules. Let p denote the tance fronl it; at the circumference of the circle its at- 

pressure exerted on the piston from without; this will traction becomes negligible. All other molecules sur- 

a rounding it will act upon it in like manner. But its 

tend to compress the liquid. The cohesion -, also tends radius of attrai , tion , uts the sur£ace at j K> beyond 

to reduce the volume of the liquid. Thus the resultant which there are no reciprocally attracting molecules. 

force per unit-area tending to produce compression is "Within the segment of the sphere J ELM the attractions 

, . / , <i\ „, , , ., between the contained molecules and E are balanced, but 

equal totp + T,). The internal pressure, due to the . . . , ., 

x " ' an overplus ot attractive force remains, namely, that 

bombardment of the piston by the moving molecules, is exerted by the molecules in the interior represented by 

r t . . . the shaded segment below L M and equal in amount to 

equal to— r, which tends to press the piston outward .^ .. . • » c ., __ , 

1 1-1, * r the attractive forces missing trom the segment above 

and therefore to make the liquid expand. The term 'in- J K. There is therefore a resultant pull toward the in- 

. . , . „ ,. , rt t-, terior upon the molecule E. 

trmsic pressure is generally applied to — : . For „ .. , , n ■ ^ 1 „ 

'-->' On the molecule i a greater internal resultant acts, 

equilibrium to exist, since there are no counterbalancing attractions above it. 

/ n\ RT I a\ The attraction toward the interior thus increases as a 

\P + ^/— v -b> or \P + ,, 2 / yv-0) Kl, molecule approaches the surface, and there reaches its 

which is van der Waals' equation, applicable not only to maximum. If a molecule be moved from the interior to 

<*ases but to liquids also. the surface, work must be done against the resultant at- 
tractions; hence on reaching the surface it will possess 

The following table gives the values of the cohesion " 2 potential energy in excess of that which it possessed in 

for some liquids; it will be observed that the cohesion, at 3 An atmosphere, 76 cm. mercury at 0°C. = about 1.033 

ordinary temperatures, is generally greater than 10 9 kg. or 1,013,250 dynes per sq. cm. 

«'»■■■""•>■ >"■ 1 "-'° MINING AND SCIENTIFIC PRI 33 .., 

the interior, hut u ■ weight raised against gravity ac- The compressibility of metala and aolida li lower than 

quires potential energy. for liquids. 

The foregoing can be regarded only as the simplest pc* The contractile forces due to Burface-tensioo may be 

Bible Btatemenl ol the leenlar theory accounting for visualized by dusting a water-surface with lyco 

surface energy; its further development necessarily be- (which rests upon „ without being wetted) and then 

'•"""' s """' mDlex - Thua «*■ unwieldy moleonles of touching the water with a trace of some liquid of lower 

albumen, tannic and. or Boap, containing hundreds of tension such as alcohol, oil, or even the gi rer tip- 
atoms arranged in eomphs molecular groups, will differ the lye lium will flash away in all directions fnm, the 

greatly in mass, configuration, and resultant attractive point of contact, as the higher-tensioned water surface 

force from a comparatively simple molecule like alcohol, pulls out the less resistant contaminated film of lower 

and the nature ol the resultanl attn such an tension. 

mblage of molecules can scarcely be conjectured. Surface-tension differs from the tension of a film of 
ther can the simpler types of molecule be supposed india rubber, Bince the latter increases by Btretching 
to possess invariable or like configurations, or to exert whereas thai of a pure liquid remains constant and can- 
uniform attractions m all directions. Probably each has not be increased by stretching. The molecules i 
its characteristic axes : differences in the polarity (or like their original spacing at the surface; increasing th, 

°™ntation) "' a mass of molecules i ount forthevaria, merely results in bringing more molecules Erom the in- 

toon in physical properties shown by unlike faces or terior to satisfy the enlargement of the surfaa • these 

cleavage-planes of th. same crystal. tnen take ap the spacing common to the oil,,,,- surface 

Even water may not eonsist simply of molecules molecules. 

of HO. l„,t of 'associated' molecules, 2(H 2 . 3 II o. Surface-tension (represented by a) is therefor, de- 

and possibly yet more complex 'hydrones' ; Tammann has finable : 

shown that water on freezing can be made to yield ice i. As the energy expressed in ergs required to create 

fractions of differing properties, regarded as the conge- a fresh surface of 1 sq. em. (unit-area) ; this for water is 

lations in differing proportions of such associated mole- 75.8 ergs. Alternatively: 

cular groupings. 2 . As the force equal to the total molecular attraction 

As all molecules in a surface layer possess more energy exerted across a line of 1 cm. in length on the free liquid 

than those in the interior, the total potential energy in a surface; for water at 0°C. 75.8 dvnes per cm. Gravity 

unit-area of surface is termed the 'surface-energy' of the being 981 dynes per gramme, at London, the dyne is 

substance; and because any system always tends to ar- r0 ughly equivalent to the weight of a milligramme. 

range itself so that its potential energy is at the minimum Surface-tension is not equal to the total energy of the 

for the circumstances, the free surface bounding a liquid un j t surface, since in the creation of a fresh surface heat 

«ill be such that its area is minimum. The chief exhibi- is a i so absorbed. If the new unit-surface is to maintain 

tion of this surface-energy of a liquid is the phenomenon the original temperature (the 'isothermal' condition), 

of surface-tension which acts as if the liquid were en- heat energy enters the surface and is stored there. A 

cased by a uniformly contractile film. This, in satisfy- newly-formed surface of water of 1 sq. cm. absorbs heat 

ing the condition of minimum energy, or surface, causes equivalent to 41.5 ergs; hence the total surface energy of 

falling drops of liquid to assume the spherical form. It water at 0°C. is equal to 117.3 ergs per sq. cm. If the 

is manifested by the resistance of a liquid surface to surface be enlarged 'adiabatically' (where no heat enters 

rupture; by the force such a surface when anchored or leaves the water) the liquid will be cooled, 

against enclosing walls exerts in supporting a thin col- Surface-energy cannot be regarded as completely con- 

umn of its own liquid, or 'capillarity' ; by the mechanism centrated at the immediate surface ; it reaches its highest 

whereby comparatively weighty particles are suspended va lue there, and becomes inappreciable at a depth prob- 

at a liquid surface; by adsorption, and other effects. a bly equal to the molecular range of attraction for the 

Since surface-tension strain results from the unbal- particular liquid; below this distance the molecular con- 
aneed forces existing at the surface, it must be in some stitution of the liquid will be that of its general interior 
fundamental relation to the magnitude of the internal mass. It is within the surface layer that certain mole- 
balanced forces or stresses ; that is, to the cohesion or in- cules or particles foreign to the pure liquid tend to be 
trinsic pressure of the substance. This relationship is concentrated; such will reach their greatest coneentra- 
proved to exist; substances which have low compressibil- tion at the actual surface. This process of surface-con- 
ity, that is, high intrinsic pressure, possess high surface- centration is known as 'adsorption', 
tension and the reverse. surface- coefficient of* Among liquids, mercury and the molten metals have 
Liouia in ZTs?em. C T™ ,y the greatest surface-tension, a fact of interest when con- 
Mercury 440 3.83 x io" sidering the probable magnitude of their solid surface- 
water 75 48 " . te r 

Glycerine 65 52 " tensions. 

^°^"^ ' ! 216 105 " The surface-tension of a liquid can be accurately meas- 

Acetic acid 23 ured by weighing the pull exerted by a film of the liquid. 1 

Ether 16 190 " J „ . 

The method of capillary height gives a true figure only 

^'Surface-Tension and Surface-Energy', Willows and Hat- 

schek. = See 'General Physics for Students', E. Edser. 



January 10, 1920 


Phenol (41°C> 37.0 

Cresol 34.8 

Olive-oil 32.0 

Petroleum 27.7 

Pinene (terebene) 25.9 

Turpentine 25.6 

Chloroform 26.6 

Acetone 23.0 

when the liquid completely wets the walls of the capillary 
tube (contact angle = 0°), a condition not always ob- 

Approximate surface-tensions of some other liquids 
against air : 


Molten copper 1178 

gold 1018 

silver 858 

zinc 707 

aluminum 520 

tin 480 

lead 424 

bismuth 346 

antimony 274 

Modification of Surface-Tension 

a. Surface-tension decreases with rise in temperature, 
and disappears at the critical point of the liquid, when 
the surface of the liquid becomes merged in its gas. 

For water at 0°C, a = 75.8 dynes/cm. ; for each degree 
centigrade rise in temperature the tension decreases by 
0.152 dyne/em. ; hence for any temperature the tension 
will be o- -0.152 X<°- 

6. Surface-tension is influenced by the curvature of 
the surface, its value becoming somewhat less for a con- 
cave surface (an air-bubble in water) or for a convex 
surface (a drop) than at a plane surface. It is however 
only when the radius of curvature is very small that the 
surface-tension is diminished perceptibly. 

Pressure in Bubbles 

Owing to surface-tension, a liquid surface tends to con- 
tract ; and if the surface is curved, a pressure acting 
toward the centre of curvature will be produced. Sur- 
face-tension in the water-film surrounding an air-bubble 
therefore increases the pressure on the air until this 
reaches equilibrium with the compressive force ; hence the 
air contained in a bubble is always at a pressure higher 
than that of the siirrounding atmosphere. The sharper 
the curvature the greater will be the compress ; v° "ffect. 
the excess pressure, P, being inversly proportioned to the 
radius of the bubble. For a submerged bubble (neglect- 

v o 

ing pressure due to hydraulic head) P= ; for a 


bubble in air, the walls of which has two surfaces, 

As the diminution in the value of o- also due to curva- 
ture is of a much smaller order than the increase in pres- 
sure due to curvature, very considerable compressions are 
reached in small gas bubbles. In one of 0.001 mm. 
radius, which will rise through water at about 1 mm. per 
■econd, the air is at an excess pressure of about one 

c. The surface-tension of a liquid is profoundly modi- 
fied by adsorption. 

Pure water will not form a persistent air-bubble, nor 
a froth. Indeed a stable film, and therefore a froth, can- 
not be produced from any pure or homogeneous liquid 
whether water, alcohol, ether, etc. ; this will require fur- 
ther mention under 'adsorption'. 

d. An electric field normal to the surface of a liquid 

diminishes surface-tension, since the tension of the lines 
of electrical force acting outward across the air/liquid 
surface diminishes the resultant of the unbalanced mole- 
cular forces which act toward the interior of the liquid ; 
such electrical effects however appear to be negligible in 
flotation practice. 

(To be continued) 

Graphite in Madagascar 

Producers of graphite in Madagascar have taken heed 
of the demand for a higher grade and have directed their 
energies toward improvement in quality rather than in- 
crease in quantity, according to R. B. Ladoo, of the U. S. 
Bureau of Mines. The decrease in demand since the close 
of the "War has made this step both necessary and ex- 
pedient. Recent analyses at Tananarive show 87 to 90% 
of carbon, and even 93 to 95% is reported by some com- 
panies, in contrast to an average of 80 to 82% in 1916-17. 
Most of the small mines have been compelled to close 
down on account of lack of demand and lack of shipping 
space, while the larger companies have continued, but on 
a greatly reduced scale. It seems probable that at the 
present rate the 1919 production will not exceed 6000 
tons. Labor conditions are reported difficult and trans- 
portation facilities inadequate, so that even with an in- 
creased demand maximum production could not be 
quickly attained. 

As there are no refining mills in Madagascar, graphite 
is shipped practically as mined. Thus a statement of ship- 
ments by grades is impossible. From statistics available 
it would seem that but one shipment was made in the 
first six months of 1919. This was 28 tons from the port 
of Tamatave. shipped to France in the second quarter. 

In July 1919 it was estimated that the following stocks 
were held by producers and exporters in Madagascar: 

Grade (per cent carbon) Tons 

78-80 5500 

80-83 8250 

83-87 8250 

87-90 3300 

Above 90 2200 

Total 27.500 

Prices quoted in July 1919 for 90% carbon, f.o.b. ship, 
Tamatave, averaged $0,048 per pound. The American 
graphite industry at present need expect no large im- 
ports of Madagascar graphite. The Morgan crucible 
interests, formerly the largest buyers of Madagascar 
flake, have cancelled all their contracts with the miners. 
The French demand has been greatly reduced and Mada- 
gascar shippers do not feel that at present prices they 
can compete with Mexican graphite in the United States 
markets. The imports of graphite for September 1919 
show a very large increase over those of the same month 
in 1918, and the indications are that the total imports 
for 1919 will be 50% higher than in 1918. The following 
figures are based upon reports from the Bureau of For- 
eign and Domestic Commerce: Value 

Tons Value per pound 

September 1918 1095 S19':.75.3 S0.086 

September 1919 8322 1.127.449 0.068 

January 10. 193)0 


Imprisoned Underground 


To be imprisoned tor over two weeks in the cross-cut 
l>y a cave underground and to be rescued unhurt wils 
the remarkable experience of two miners, Peter Grant 
ana Emu Sayko. The accidenl occurred at 10:45 am., 
November 15, in the Gold Hunter mine, rituated on the 
outskirts of Mullan, Idaho, in the Coeur d'Alene region. 
Roth men had families in the town. 

The cave happened in what is known as the north- 
west stope. an extension of the Ryan Btope. The old 
Byan workings had caved in 1913, being filled thereby to 
the 33rd floor, leaving an opening between the top of the 
debris and the roof. The roof had not been penetrated, 

Norris Nelson 


60 ft. of solid rock intervening between it and the old 
level above. The extension stope had not been worked 
for several months, and the two men were cleaning up 
preparatory to taking a contract for a raise through. 
They had finished, and were descending, when Sayko 
noticed a crack on one of the w r alls. Becoming alarmed, 
he climbed a few floors for his carbide and water. On 
descending again, he had a slight argument and pre- 
vailed on C4rant to go back for his lunch-bucket. The 
delays undoubtedly saved the men's lives, for on de- 
scending a few floors more, a cap snapped in front of 
them. They then made all haste to reach a 48th foot- 
wall prospect cross-cut, barely entering it in advance of 
the cave, which was thundering behind them. 

The Hunter lode is in a wide zone of Assuring, shear- 
ing, and sheeting, which crosses the strike of the thin- 
bedded Wallace formation. The dip of the Assuring is 

Dearly vertical or slightly south The practice was to 
timber close to the Btopes, to bold the slabby walls apart. 
then fill for safety, afterward. In this case, the ex- 
tension stope. consisting of 85 floors, had been filled from 
the 3rd to the 22nd, excepting tin 6-ft sets thai were 

QSed for a man-way. timber-slide, and chutes. 1-Y 

the 28th floor up, it was only a raise. The 48-ft. pros- 
pecl CrOSS-CUt in which the men took refuge wa.s on the 
26th floor. From the third floor down to the tunnel- 
level the Btope wa.s supported on stulls. and as no sloping 
had been done below the tunnel-level, the stalled ground 
was not damaged by the cave. 

\ A 

X '-*\ 



Waldron. Vaugrhn, Lockharl. Nelson. Farrar 

What caused the cave was the slipping down of a 
huge wedge-shaped slab running parallel to the length of 
the stope, adjacent to the timber, and extending down 
to the eighth floor ; the bottom lodged against the filling, 
while the top fell over and smashed the upper timbering 
of the stopes, the subsequent movement effectually seal- 
ing all the connecting openings. 

Every means was tried to reach the men through old 
workings, but these were found to be blocked. An incline- 
raise from a safe floor was started toward the west end. 
where the extension stope was known to be narrowest, 
but it became apparent soon that all the chutes were 
closed and that no openings existed. Efforts were then 
concentrated on getting up through the muck-pile to the 
top by the quickest route. The rescue-crew knew the 
men were alive from faint rappings and the smell of 
wood-smoke resulting from their efforts to keep warm. 



January 10. 1920 

At this juncture the Bureau of Mines at Washington 
was asked for the use of the new device, the geophone, 
for locating noises incidental to operations of this na- 
ture. The Bureau responded at once, directing two ex- 
perts at widely separated points to report at Mullan, 
and the apparatus and men arrived as fast as the rail- 
way could bring them. In the meantime the men had 
been reached by a drill-hole, but the mere fact of the 
ready acquiescence of the Bureau and the sending of 
some of their best talent gave a high degree of encour- 
agement to the hard-pushed crew and management. 

After working six days on the raise, reaching about the 
24th floor, through the muck-pile, the whole mass started 
to move, closing the mouth and other portions of the 
rescue-raise, imprisoning two men, Jack Delmarh and 
James Collins of the rescue-crew. 

It was hardly thought possible, in view of the move- 
ment of big slabs of rock and fine material, to find Del- 
marh and Collins alive, so a feverish search for the bodies 
began. After six hours of strenuous work the men were 
heard talking. They were removed unhurt, after 15 
hours imprisonment. 

But the settling left the search for Grant and Sayko 
where it had started, it being evident that raising 
through the muck was too dangerous and slow, and that 
the men would perish before being found. 

A raise was started immediately in solid rock at the 
west end of the stope, utilizing the latter to break against, 
and spiling against the muck. This method favored 
safety and speed, but the distance was nearly one hun- 
dred feet, and some coincident operation had to be car- 
ried on to sustain life in the men, who had now been im- 
prisoned for six days. 

There being a 1^-in. diamond-drill outfit on the ground, 
the Diamond Drill Contracting Co. of Spokane was 
called by telephone to furnish a crew, which arrived on 
the next train. A hastily improvised hoist lowered the 
outfit to the top of the 60 ft. of solid rock capping the 
Ryan stope, and on November 21 at 8 p.m. drilling was 
started, the 60 ft. of drilling being completed in 15 hours. 

The drill-crew and management were ignorant of the 
exact position of the imprisoned men. To avoid end- 
projections of the stope and filling, the hole was drilled 
vertically into the Ryan stope. instead of on an incline 
to reach the cross-cut. When near the bottom the hole 
lost its water, the seepage attracting the attention of the 
imprisoned miners. They scrambled in the direction of 
the seepage with a lunch-bucket, catching the first drink 
that they had had for four days. After breaking 
through, the drillers lowered a half-inch galvanized pipe, 
which struck Grant on the head.* The overjoyed man 
shook the pipe vigorously, conveying the information to 
those above that their efforts had not been in vain. A 
whistle had been attached to call the men, and after its 
removal communication was opened up. 

One of the first things for which they asked was light, 
so a wire was passed down outside the pipe, with a two 
candle-power bulb, taking current from a storage-bat- 
tery. The pipe, after being warmed by flushing with 

hot water, served to convey soup, stimulant, milk. etc. 
The company's physician prescribed the diet, aud the 
hungry men wfere made as comfortable as possible. 
Meanwhile another hole was drilled and reamed out to 
two inches. Through this, elongated loaves of bread 
wrapped in paraffined paper were passed and suitable 
receptacles filled with finely chopped fruit, vegetables, 
and meats were forced. 

On account of the danger from further caving, a two 
weeks stock of provisions, candles, and other things was 
lowered and conveyed to the cross-cut; also the -J-in. 
pipe was extended and the men were instructed to stay 
there until rescued. With plenty to eat and drink, and 
means of warmth, the question of sustenance was solved. 

Meanwhile the work of raising went on with strenuous 
energy, day and night, until on November 29 at 3 p.m. 
the men were removed, after being confined for 14 days 
and 4 hours in their underground prison. 

It is pleasing to record that the resources of the entire 
district were placed at the disposal of the Gold Hunter 
management. With characteristic brotherly feeling, the 
workers engaged in the rescue gave of themselves freely 
and without stint. The rescued men, after having their 
eyes bandaged, were conveyed to the hospital at Wal- 
lace. They were in good condition, and thanks to their 
pluck and powers of endurance, will soon be out in good 
health. Their faithful wives, who sustained the men's 
courage after communication was opened, are the hap- 
piest of women, never losing their faith in the ultimate 

What Is a Nuisance 1 ' ' That 's the greatest nuisance 
that ever came out of Mexico." said a Texas rancher sev- 
eral years ago, with a sweep of his arm. Many nuisances 
have come out of Mexico, including boll weevil and Villa, 
but what the rancher referred to as the greatest of them 
all was the candeUlla, a rank weed covering northern 
Mexico and millions of acres of southern Texas. The 
cattle-men would rather see good grass growing, on which 
steers might fatten, but this weed defies extermination. 
Cut it off at the roots, and the next year its growth is as 
luxuriant as ever. Perhaps Modern Industry heard the 
rancher's remark, for one day she summoned her hand- 
maiden. Chemistry, and commanded her to find the 
Creator's purpose in placing the weed there in such 
abundance. After patient research, Chemistry placed in 
the hands of her mistress a little cake of hard wax almost 
equal to the carnuba made from the wax palms of Brazil, 
and worth about $500 per ton. Its earliest use was for 
varnish, floor-wax, and candles; but now the making of 
phonograph records claims an increasing share of it. As 
the cost of manufacture from the candelilla is not large, 
Modern Industry asks, "What is a Nuisance?" 

Selenium production in 1918, according to the U. S. 
G. S., was 103,694 pounds, valued at $206,540, an in- 
crease of 162%. in quantity and 195% in value as com- 
pared with figures for the previous year. Of the quan- 
tity sold during 1918 about 60% was used as a coloring 
and deoxidizing agent by the glass industry. 

January 10, [920 


The Como Consolidated Mill 

Uv F. \\()\\/A \Skl 

l' 1 "- Como Consolidated Company's property is situ 
ated in the Silver City-Palmyra mining distriel of Lyon 
county. Nevada. The mine and mill are abonl 12 miles 
southeast of Dayton, the nearest railway point. The mill 
lias been recently remodeled and enlarged to treat the 
ores from the Como-Eureka, North Rapidan, and Lucky 
Sunday mines. 

The 01 onsists of hard quartz with small amounts of 

4j by 16 ft. 
Dorr Classifier 


ealcite and other minerals. The valuable metals are gold 
and silver in approximately equal proportions, and both 
are so minutely disseminated that fine grinding is essen- 
tial. The milling process consists of crushing in a gyra- 
tory machine followed by stamps and a ball-mill, both 
crushing in a 3^-lb. cyanide solution. The pulp from 
the stamps is classified and the coarse material re-ground 
to 85% minus 200-mesh in a tube-mill. The ball-mill will 
reduce the ore to the required fineness in one operation 
and is so arranged that it can be used as an intermediate 
grinder in place of the stamps. The capacity of the mill 

is approximately 100 tons per 24 I is. Onlj al I mi 

tuns per Way is being milled now, bul the management 
expects to run the mill to its lull capacity as s,,,,,, ;is the 
ball-mill is ready for operation. 

The ore from the mine is dumped into a 60-ton bin, It 
is then reduced to on.- inch in a No. :i McCulIy crusher 
and elevated bj a bucket-elevator to a 75-toii bin. The 
crushed material is fed by two Challenge feeders to i • - 1 1 
1050-lb. stamps. The stamps make ll 11 

drops per minute. Tin to fivi mesh 

discharge screens are used. The ca- 
pacity is about six tons of or, per 
stamp per 24 hours. 

The ore fed to the 5 by 5-ft. ball- 
mill will be delivered from tin' fine-ore 
bin onto a 20-in. conveyor. The belt 
has a variable speed, so that the rate 

oi' feeding can be regulated at will. To 

the ball-mill is connected a \\ by 16-ft. 
duplex Dorr classifier working with the 
ball-mill in closed circuit. The ore is 
to be reduced from one inch to 85% 
minus 200-mesh in one operation. The 
overflow from the classifier will join 
the overflow from a -ti by 22-ft. du- 
plex Dorr classifier working in closed 
circuit with a 5 by 18-t't. tube-mill, 
and the united overflow will be pumped 
by a. 2-in. centrifugal pump to the No. 
1 Dorr thickener. 

The pebbles used in the tulie-mill 
are made from local material. One O'f 
the mine stopes contains a large num- 
ber of very hard and tough quart/; 
boulders, which are separated at. the 
coarse crusher and broken with '.a 
sledge-hammer to the required sizes. 
About 10 lb. of pebbles per ton of ore 
is required, and although consumption 
of these pebbles is high, the grinding 
results are satisfactory. The cost of 
ihi' pebbles is 1\ cents per ton of ore milled, and is much 
lower than the cost of Danish pebbles. Besides the home- 
made product contains about $7 per ton that is recover- 

The No. 1 thickener is 30 by 10 ft. and the mechanism 
makes 12 r.p.m. Most of the overflow is sent by gravity 
to a clarifier and the remaining flows to the stock-solution 

The clarifier-tank is 20 by 10 ft. and contains eighteen 
8 by 5-ft. leaves. The leaves are connected to a 9i by 
8-in. vacuum-pump and the solution so clarified flows to 


No. 3 



January 10, 1920 

two 10 by 10-ft. gold-tanks and from there to nine 8-com- 
partment zinc-boxes. The zinc heads average $1.50 per 
ton in gold and silver, and about 3.5 lb. of cyanide. The 
zinc tails flow through measuring orifices into a 20 by 
8-ft. sump-tank. 

The overflow from the No. 1 thickener is raised with an 
air-lift into four 12 by 36-ft. Pachuca agitators. The air 
for agitation is supplied by two 10 by 12-in. compressors 
at 25 lb. per square inch. The thickness of the agitated 
pulp is 33%, solid. Cyanide is added to the No. 1 agi- 
tator, where the solution is raised to 4 lb. of cyanide per 
ton of solution. 

The discharge from the No. 4 agitator flows to the No. 
2 thickener. This is 30 by 10 ft. ; here the pulp is washed 
by the addition of the filtrate from the Oliver filters and 

o 5 IO 


the overflow from the No. 3 thickener. The overflow from 
the No. 2 thickener goes to a 20 by 10-ft. stock-solution 
tank, and the underflow to the No. 3 thickener for fur- 
ther washing and thickening. 

The No. 3 thickener is 24 by 10 ft. Here the pulp is 
washed with barren solution from the sump-tank; the 
thickened overflow of about 55% solid flows by gravity to 
12 by 12 ft. and 8 by 12 ft. Oliver filters where it re- 
ceives final washing and dewatering. About 19 tons of 
fresh water is used per 24 hours, this being sufficient to 
replace the solution lost in the tailing. Only one filter 
is used at a time, the other being kept in reserve. 

The consumption of cyanide is nearly 2 lb. per ton of 
ore. Eighty-nine hundredths of a pound is the mechan- 
ical loss, the remainder being chemical. The chemical 
loss is exceptionally high owing to the copper content of 
the ore. The amount of lime used, however, is very small, 
owing to the' low acidity of the ore and its fast-settling 
rate. About one pound of lime per ton of ore is all that 
is required. 

Charles La Kamp is the general superintendent and 
Mr. "Warner the mill superintendent. Their combined 
efforts are producing good results. The milling cost, at 
first high, steadily diminishes, and is near the $2 mark at 
the present time, which is very good for the locality and 
existing conditions. 

That the personnel of the U. S. Geological Survey is 
facing serious deterioration is indicated by the following 
statement of the Director of the Survey in his annual 
report : ' ' The fact that there have been 77 resignations 
from the scientific force of the U. S. Geological Survey 
during the last year — 17%, of the force — suggests in- 
adequacy of compensation, and the percentage of resigna- 
tions in the clerical and non-scientific force was even 
larger. This statement, of course, does not include sep- 
arations to enter military service. The largest inroad 
upon the Geological Survey personnel comes from the oil 
companies; the final result of the pioneer work of the 
Federal geologists in applying geologic methods to the 
search for oil and gas is that a large proportion of the 
leading oil geologists the world over are U. S. Geological 
Survey graduates. Indeed, the future decline in popu- 
larity of the Geological Survey as a recruiting station for 
oil-company employees will be due simply to the fact that 
the experienced oil geologists who remain in the Govern- 
ment service are from personal preference immune to 
outside offers. The relation between Government salaries 
and outside salaries of geologists has been definitely de- 
termined in a compilation of the records of 29 geologists 
who left Government service after receiving an average 
salary of $2271. The average initial salary of these men 
in private employ was $5121, and after about two years 
of average service this compensation averaged $7804, and 
eight of these geologists receive $10,000 or more. The 
disparity is even greater if consideration is given to the 
large financial returns from investments made by the 
private geologists in connection with their professional 
work, a privilege properly denied by statute to the 
official geologist. That the value of these men as special- 
ists and consulting geologists is far greater to the country 
at large than to private corporations is undeniable. Fur- 
thermore, it is important to note that most of these geolo- 
gists had persisted to the limit of endurance with a mag- 
nificent spirit based on their love of scientific research 
and their desire to contribute to the sum of geologic 
knowledge. Most of them have been forced out of the 
service by sheer financial necessity. Unless adequate 
measures are taken to ameliorate the situation, the geo- 
logic staff is destined to suffer far greater deterioration 
of morale and depletion in its ablest, most responsible, 
most experienced, and most valuable members. The Geo- 
logical Survey is passing into a stage when, with greater 
need than ever for systematic geologic work in the coun- 
try, it is ceasing to be attractive to the young men of 
greatest ability, training, and promise. This situation 
deserves prompt and effective remedy, for it threatens 
most seriously to cripple this branch of the public ser- 

January lii, 1980 







nmuMiiiuniiimiimimii : t i miimtNiiimmimmiiiiniminmiimtimimiiriimiiiiimimimi 




Douglas. — P. G. Beckett, who became general manager 
for the Phelps Dodge company on January 1, believes 
that the copper situation is somewhat more cheerful now 
than 60 days ago; 18 and 18* cents, however, is incom- 
mensurate with the present cost of production, based upon 
wages at 24 cents under the sliding scale and with over- 

worked off and there is sufficient demand to justify us in 
resuming production. Similarly, at the Burro Mountain 
branch, Tyrone, N. M., no production will be made by the 
recently remodeled concentrator until the demand for 
copper and financial conditions justify it. At the Moc- 
tezuma Copper Co., at Nacozari, Sonora, production will 
be continued on a 50% basis and a few necessary im- 
provements will be made in and about the mine. Plans 
are in hand for remodeling the concentrator to treat a 
larger tonnage with improved metallurgical results, but 


head charges high as a result of decreased production. 
It will be the policy of the Phelps Dodge Corporation to 
maintain uniform curtailed production. Mr. Beckett says 
it is up to each individual, whether working with hands 
or head, to produce individually as much as possible. 
"At the Copper Queen branch at Bisbee no material 
change is contemplated, either underground or on the 
surface," said Mr. Beckett. "The smelter will continue 
examinations and test work now under way, but no new 
construction is in sight while present conditions last. 
At Morenci the present campaign of development work 
to open new orebodies will continue during the present 
year, but though plans for a new concentrator will be 
made, nothing will be decided definitely and no money 
expended until the present big copper surplus has been 

most of this work is contemplated for the latter part of 
1920 rather than at the present time." Mr. Beckett 
comes here to succeed A. T. Thomson, assistant to the 
president, who has gone to New York. 

The Colford Copper Co., operating a group of claims 
adjoining the Swisshelm gold-silver property, 30 miles 
north of Douglas, is installing an experimental mill, in- 
cluding two Wilfley tables, a ball-mill, crusher, and a dis- 
tillate engine. The company has a quantity of lead- 
vanadinite ore blocked out as well as some gold, silver, 
and lead carbonates. The operating company is aa 
Alabama corporation, headed by Alexander Cole as presi- 
dent. E. A. Hemphill is manager. 

Tombstone. — In order to operate the Humboldt mine 
near Hill Top in the eastern part of Cochise county, sev- 



January 10, 1920 

eral Tombstone men formed a leasing company at a meet- 
ing liere. The mine is 1-4 miles from the Southern Pacific 
railroad, Dos Cabezos being the nearest station. The 
property has been thoroughly sampled with satisfactory 
results. Henry Bonardiman, superintendent, is prepar- 
ing to start work. There is some machinery already on 
the ground but it is said the equipment will be increased 

Flux Mine. — The management of the Flux mine re- 
ports approximately 100,000 tons of lead-silver ore, about 
60,000 of which is lead carbonate, blocked out. A winze 
sunk from the 160-ft. to the 260-ft. level is entirely in 
sulphide ore. All necessary material for a ready-fluxing 
smelter-charge is on the ground, including manganese, 
iron, lime, and silica. Nearly a mile of underground 
work has been completed. The ore averages from 1 to 7 
oz. silver and from 11 to 18% lead per ton. There is a 
100-ton flotation mill on the property, and the construc- 
tion of a smelter to treat ore and concentrate is being 
given consideration. 

Jerome. — Shea Copper Co. has almost completed the 
temporary ore-bins at the foot of the dump and a road 
has been built to give easy access to the bins. With com- 
pletion of the road and bins shipments of 25 tons of high- 
grade silver-copper-gold ore will be made daily to the 
United Verde Extension smelter. Very good ore is being 
found in the raise from the 320-ft. level at the intersec- 
tion of the east-west and north-south veins. The general 
average is said to be about $250 per ton, with silver pre- 
dominating. The raise at last report had been carried up 
almost 100 ft., practically all in ore and with no sign of 
a wall. Good progress is being made, according to those 
in charge. 

Tucson. — C. M. Taylor and associates have taken over 
the group of mines at Olive camp in the San Xavier dis- 
trict south of Tucson. These mines were originally 
opened in 1886 and yielded a large tonnage of silver ore. 
Lessees at various -times have opened high-grade pockets 
of chloride silver and lead ore. Mr. Taylor will work 
part of the property and part will be leased. 

Yuma. — J. M. Pryor has sold his group of five claims 
in the silver district 30 miles north of Yuma to Los 
Angeles and Salt Lake operators for $70,000. The vein 
was discovered a year ago and on sinking widened to 
28 in. of rich silver ore. 

Patagonia. — J. M. Layman, owner and operator of the 
Blue Nose silver property, has announced his intention 
to organize the Arizona Patagonia Silver Mining Co. to 
take over this property. Development during the past 
seven months has opened a lavgp tonnage of ore. The 
Blue Nose mine has been worked irregularly during the 
past 30 years and has produced some rich ore. 

Shipments of 300 tons of good-grade ore are being 
made monthly from the Mowry mine. A large body of 
milling ore is being developed and it is expected that 
in the near future sufficient ore will be assured to war- 
rant a mill. Since operations commenced in 1918 only 
virgin territory has been developed. There is known to 
be a large tonage of milling ore in the old workings. 



Cripple Creek. — Production from the Cripple Creek 
district for 1919, curtailed first by the labor trouble and 
more recently by the coal shortage, is the lowest since 
1895, when the camp was in its infancy. In that year 
the camp was credited with the production of gold ore 
worth $6,100,000. In the past year the mines have pro- 
duced and the mills have handled 756,000 tons of ore 
with an average value of $9.82 and gross bullion value of 
$7,439,719.59. In previous years the bullion value of the 
ore has at times exceeded $12,000,000. January was the 
best month, with a production of $735,000, while in No- 
vember but 33,182 tons, with a bullion value of $292,738, 
was treated. 

Considering the total production the dividends dis- 
tributed were satisfactory. Four companies contributed 
a grant total of $2,060,000 paid stockholders. In addi- 
tion to this amount, lease profits, conservatively esti- 
mated, totaled $400,000. The companies and their divi- 
dends follow: Cresson Consolidated G. M. & M. Co., 
$1,220,000 ; Golden Cycle M. & R. Co., $540,000 ; Port- 
land G. M. Co., $240,000 ; Vindicator Consolidated G. M. 
Co., $60,000. 

The output of the district by months was : 


Month Tons treated bullion value 

January 82,510 $735,150.70 

February '. 75,350 647,500.00 

March 74,643 737,784.72 

April 78,500 674,715.00 

May 65,376 691,861.45 

June 62,900 648,893.00 

July 66,162 636,828.40 

August » 55,930 614,937.66 

September 60,590 590,255.60 

October 53,071 612,804.48 

November 33,182 292,738.58 

December 48,000 566,250.00 

Total 756,214 $7,439,719.59 

Mayday. — E. B. Miller, superintendent of the Cum- 
berland, recently let a contract to Graff and Rudolph to 
drive a 100-ft. tunnel into Snowstorm mountain on the 
Cumberland vein, and they have opened up a rich 4-in. 
streak of gray copper. The Cumberland vein, which is 3 
to 5 ft. wide, has been explored in a number of places 
with long tunnels and open-cuts. One 1600-ft. tunnel 
has the vein exposed for a distance of 1200 ft. The Cum- 
berland is among the oldest producers of the district, but 
has been idle for a number of years. A mill on the prop- 
erty, which was not a success, will be remodeled accord- 
ing to present plans. 

Carl Bowman, who is interested in the Jumbo, has se- 
cured a sub-lease on the Little Nona from Eli Blunt and 
will begin operations there, it is said. The Nona claim is 
contiguous to the Jumbo where an orebody was recently 
opened. The Nona has been operated entirely by lessees 
and has produced approximately $18,000. 

Leadville. — The Arkansas Valley smelter is operating 

Januarv In. 1920 


:i' •'"'• capacity with three blaat-furnaeea in service 

The Leadville mines shipping ii> the ■ Iter and their ap 

proximate tonnage follows: Yak tunnel, BO ears; Down 
Town group, li'o ; [box, 30; Iron mine, 16; U E bee 
10; Matchless, 12; Denver City, 8; Adelaide, 8; Mikado 
ti ; and scattered li oa s, 60 to 70 

Ti i lurid] For the Brst time in IS years the Tomboy 

Gold Mines, Ltd., passed its dividend. More ore was 

,1 than during the previous 12 months, bul the re 

ali/iiiion was less, in commenting on income-tax Levies, 

il bairman of the board at the annual meeting in Lon 



don said: "We have become liable to pay income tax in 
the United States, and the authorities there, recognizing 
that our mine is a wasting asset, in a spirit of justice, 
meet us very fairly, and make us an allowance on all the 
ore we take out. I cannot pass from this subject without 
contrasting the treatment we receive from our own Gov- 
ernment in collecting income tax. It makes no allowance 
for anything taken out, with the result that we shall have 
to pay income tax not only on our profits but on the whole 
capital invested in the mine. The cash assets have been 
left almost entirely in the United States to pay for our 
flotation plant." 

Denver. — A call has been issued by George M. Taylor, 
president, and M. B. Tomblin, secretary, for the seventh 
annual meeting of the Colorado Metal Mining Associa- 
tion, to be held at the State Capitol building January 20, 
21, and 22. Burdensome taxes, tariff legislation, indus- 
trial insurance, and readjustment of freight rates are 
some of the problems that are to be discussed. The third 
annual meeting of the Colorado Chapter of the American 
Mining Congress is to be held in conjunction with the 
association meeting. 




Divide. — In a drift being driven south from the west 
cross-cut to the vein, on the 200-ft. level of the Divide 
Extension a 4-ft. face of ore assaying $930 has been 
opened, according to an official statement. Engineers 
now arc confident that the Divide Ex. shoot will be found 
in the Brougher at or below a depth of 300 ft. The new 
shaft of the Belcher Extension has reached the 100-ft. 

i it, « here a station is being cut preparatory to starting 

lateral work to determine the width of the rein and 

length of tl re-shoot <>n the 86 ft level of the main 

Belcher Extension shaft the Belcher is driving 
toward the boundary line between the two, The Belcher 
also is driving cross-cuts north and south from its main 
shaft The Victory is working at several points, the most 
important being north-west of the shaft on the 800 ft 
level, where a drift is being driven toward the intersec- 
tion of a cross vein with one striking north east from the 
Butte. The Victory, Belcher, and Belcher Extension sre 
exploring the main vein of the district as it continues 
north-west from the Brougher. This vein has been traced 
into the Thompson and l'ay, north-west n!' the Belcher 
Ex. The Dividend, north of the Brougher and north ami 
east of the Divide Extension, has drifted 125 ft. east from 
the No. 2 inclined shaft sunk in a vein striking cast, near 
the intersection of this vein and the Divide Extension 

Goldfield. — The Black Butte, in the Diamonfield part 
of the district, has been closed because of lack of funds 
until such time as the Orizaba, 35 miles north-west of 
Millers in Nye county, owned by the Black Butte, has 
hecn sold under an option or the option is relinquished. 
If the Orizaba is sold the sale will provide funds for 
further work and if not an assessment may be levied. 
Raising continues in the vein recently found on the 500- 
ft. level of the Red Hill, but only low-grade ore is being 
found. The Cracker Jack has levied assessment No. 8, 
at the rate of l|c. per share, delinquent January 31. 

Round Mountain. — The Nevada Silver Shield Mining 



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Co. has been organized to develop the Silver Shield mine 
in Horse canyon. According to officers of the company 
200,000 tons of silver ore assaying from $15 to $18 has 
been proved in a 400-ft. tunnel reaching a depth in the 
vein of 160 ft. After the company has been financed it is 
planned to drive a second tunnel to cut the vein at from 
350 to 400 ft. Springs on the eight claims owned by the 
company will furnish ample water for a mill. The Silver 
Shield Extension Co. has been organized to develop 
claims adjoining on the strike of the vein. 



January 10, 1920 

Arrowhead. — Raising from the east drift on the 175- 
ft. level of the Arrowhead has been stopped without 
entering the vein and drifting has been resumed. It is 
estimated that an additional 75 ft. will be necessary to 
reach the vein. Work is being done slowly, as the hoist- 
ing equipment is of limited capacity. It is reported that 
tin terms of the sale will not permit the shipment of ore 
pending the making of a payment due in the near future. 
General conditions in the mine are said by engineers to be 

"West Divide. — No work has been done in the West 
Divide for several weeks. L. L. Patrick, manager, is in 
San Francisco and it is reported that a deal for financing 
the company on a larger scale is pending. Mine condi- 
tions were good when work was stopped, but a tunnel 
was being driven in a full face of quartz, making driving 
extremely slow with hand-drills, and it is reported that 
one of the purposes of the manager's trip to San Fran- 
cisco is to secure money for buying an air-compressor. 



Sixes River District. — An important recent develop- 
ment in this district is the opening of placer mines by 
the Inman Mines Co. The company recently completed 
a dam on Sixes river, 35 ft. high and 135 ft. long, which 
will retain about 6,000,000 cu. ft. of water. A 34-in. 
wood-stave pipe-line has been built with a vertical fall of 
147 ft., and three hydraulic giants, with 6-in. nozzles are 
now at work. According to the estimate of the company 's 
engineer the project will develop 3000 hydro horse- 
power. The company proposes to erect an electric power 
plant for mining and lighting purposes. This district is 
situated in the northern part of Curry county and occu- 
pies the area drained by the Sixes river. The climate is 
mild, and the annual rainfall varies from 65 to 70 in. 
Snow rarely remains in the lower altitudes, while in the 
higher parts it may fall to a depth of 3 or 4 ft., and last 
for a few weeks. The rocks are predominantly shale, 
sandstone, and conglomerates of the Bothan and Myrtle 
formations, which are often intruded with basic igneous 
ro'eks. A considerable area of greenstone is found in the 
headwaters of the Sixes river near the Rusty and Salmon 
mountains, while a large area of basalt occurs in the 
north-central part of the district. Placer mining has 
been done for over thirty years, in later years lead- 
ing to considerable activity in quartz mining. These 
placer deposits contain besides gold, some platinum and 
iridium. The beach sands at the mouth of the river have 
been successfully worked for gold and platinum for a 
number of years past. 




Salt Lake City. — The close of 1919 finds unsold do- 
mestic copper in volume probably as great as at the be- 
ginning of the year, despite the heavy curtailment in 

output. It is expected that this surplus will be absorbed 
rapidly when foreign buying begins, as the need for the 
metal abroad is unquestioned. It is believed among local 
copper mine operators that unless unforeseen factors 
appear, the copper producers should be operating on sub- 
stantially a normal basis before the close of 1920. The 
lead market has shown marked improvement lately, and 
it is generally conceded that silver will remain at high 
prices and in active demand for an indefinite period. 
The splendid position of silver, which broke all previous 
records for decades in 1919, will without doubt cause 
active operations in all the silver camps of the State in 
1920. The metal-mining industry of the State as a whole 
had the least profitable year since 1915. This was due to 
the small demand for copper and lead and the continua- 
tion of high operating costs. The total dividends paid 
by the metal mines of Utah to the close of 1919 were 
almost $213,000,000, more than one-half of which has 
been distributed in the last eight years. Nearly one-half 
of the above total, or slightly over $101,000,000, has been 
distributed by the Utah Copper Co. alone. 

Alta. — Forty feet of ore, extending for a distance of 
130 ft., is now exposed in a drift to the south of No. 8 
raise in the Columbus Rexall mine, according to M. R. 
Evans, general manager. The ore was struck during the 
early part of December. An average assay shows 41.4 
oz. silver, 18.9% lead, and 0.25% copper. The trend of 
the orebody is such as to indicate that it will eventually 
lead to the place where mineral was found in the old 
work on the Kennebec claim, and if this proves to be the 
case, the company will have a large area of potentially 
productive ground. 

Park City. — Not for many years has there been so 
much development work under way as the new year finds 
at the Ontario, the oldest mine in the district and one of 
the heaviest shippers of silver ore. At present the shaft 
is being sunk to the 2000-ft. level, which is 500 ft. below 
the drain-tunnel. There are four places on the 1700-ft. 
level from which ore can be mined, and it is to get under 
these orebodies that the work is being done on the 1800- 
ft. and 2000-ft. levels. On account of the high price of 
silver, the Ontario is today shipping material which a few 
years ago it would have been unprofitable to move. 

Following the settlement of litigation with the Silver 
King Coalition, the Keystone company began operations 
on December 26, with Andrew Hurley in charge of the 
property. Ore is exposed in four places where it can be 
mined with but little work. The company has no hoisting 
or pumping operations to contend with, and the ore 
readily can be stoped down to the tunnel-level. It is said 
that the average assay of the ore exposed runs from $75 
to $90 per ton. The directorate of the Keystone company 
is composed of some of the prominent business men of 
Salt Lake City. H. G. McMillan is president. 

Eureka. — The Tintic Winchester Mining Co. has filed 
articles of incorporation for the purpose of engaging in 
a general mining business. The officers and directors 
are : George F. Tilson, president ; William Haws, vice- 
president ; L. N. Ellsworth, secretary and treasurer ; S. 

January 10, 1920 



Trotter and II. B. Dole, additional directors Host of 
the mines in camp closed for several daya' holiday be- 
ginning with December 2 shipments From ihis 
district for the live, lay period ending December 25 to- 
taled 131 cars of which the Tintio Standard shipped 85; 
Chief Consolidated, -J''; Dragon Consolidated, 14; Iron 
Blossom, 8; Eagle* Blm Bell, 8; Mammoth, 8; Colorado, 
t; : Centennial Eureka, 5; Grand Central, I; Swansea, I; 
Ridge and Valley, 3; Empire, 2; Gemini, lj Alaska. l ; 
and Primrose, l. The rejuvenation of the old Sunbeam 
property in the south end of the distrid has been brought 
about by the advance in the price of silver, and at pres- 
ent this mine is shipping approximately two carloads of 
ore per week with prospects of heavier shipments by 
spring. Several months ago E. R. Higgenson took over 

ill.' Baal Tintic Coalition installed a modern electric 
hoist, and is now awaiting the arrival of a compressor, 
which «ill enable the company to speed up its develop 
nifiit work. Fortunately the formation through which 

the shaft is mow being sunk is quite soft and fairlj 
progress can l"- made without the use of machine-drills. 
i a. In driving east on the 170-ft level of the 
pper property in thi Bi avi i Lata mining 'lis 
trict, si\ inches of ore was encountered, averaging i;', 
zinc, 11'. lead, and 19 oz. in silver. As this is a new 
part of the property that has never been explored al 
depth, the officials in charge of operations are highly 
pleased. In driving to the weal on the same level, it is 
expected thai the objective will be reached shortly. Tins 
drift will tap a vein which was opened up on the 200-ft. 


this property on a lease agreement. The shaft has been 
re-timbered and tunnels on the 100 and 200-ft. levels 
have been cleared out. It is from these two levels that 
ore is being produced now. At the Iron King property 
in the eastern part of the district, four different head- 
ings are being driven, two on the 1000-ft. level and two 
on the lowest level of the new shaft, which has a depth 
of 1565 ft. "While officials of the company say very little, 
the operators are encouraged with results obtained thus 
far. The winze in the Opohongo, which has already been 
sunk a distance of 75 ft. below the 1800-ft. level, in vein 
matter, will be continued, according to F. E. Birch, man- 
ager. In order to facilitate sinking, a small engine is 
now being installed near the winze. The 1800-ft. level in 
the Opohongo is equal to a depth of 2400 ft. in the Iron 
Blossom, so that the Opohongo winze is nearing a locality 
where an important orebody can reasonably be expected. 
John M. Bestelmeyer, manager of the Bast Tintic Coali- 
tion property, reports that at a depth of 90 ft. in the 
new working shaft there is now 44 ft. of vein matter, 
and as the fissures are in the lime, the officials feel highly 
encouraged over recent developments. A short time ago 

'level and which contains both sulphide and carbonate 
copper ore. 

Ophir. — The Ophir Metals Co. has taken over the 
property of the old Lion Hill company. At a meeting! 
of the board of directors of the Ophir Metals, it was 
voted that the privilege extended to the stockholders of 
the Lion Hill Consolidated Mines Co., under date of 
September 15, 1919, whereby such stockholders were to 
be allowed to exchange their stock for certificates con- 
vertible into stock of the Ophir Metals Co. be limited to 
December 31. 1919. Over 50% of the old Lion Hill 
stockholders have assented to the plan and privilege ex- 
tended to them and have made payment in full or in 
part of 20c. per share and have deposited their old stock 
with the Equitable Trust Co. of Boston. 

Gold Hill. — The Western Utah Copper Co., accord- 
ing to O. F. Brinton. manager, is shipping 125 tons of 
ore daily to the smelters, and in addition is handling 50 
tons per day at its new mill recently erected to treat the 
low-grade ores of the district. Development work on 
the 700-ft. level has disclosed a vein of good milling ore 
for a distance of 150 ft. from which much is expected. 



January 10, 1920 



Cariboo. — E. E. Armstrong, who located the proper- 
ties on Proserpine mountain which are being developed 
by Robert Bryce and associates, has formed a syndicate 
to develop other properties in the vicinity of Barkerville. 
The syndicate is capitalized at $1,000,000. Mr. Arm- 
strong, with others, owns property through which the 
belts of ore that the Bryce syndicate is developing are 
supposed to run. 

Prince Rupert. — A syndicate has been formed to build 
a sampling works in this city, for the purpose of buying 
ore from small companies that do not produce enough ore 
to make shipments to a smelter. The ore will be sampled 
and assayed, and the producers will be paid full value 
less brokerage, smelting, and shipping charges. 

Hazelton. — The American Smelting & Refining Co. 
has closed a deal with the Sunrise mine, and develop- 
ment operations will be started early in the year. Op- 
erations at the Skeena Mining & Milling property, on 
Hudson Bay mountain, have been suspended pending a 
meeting which lias been called to discuss future plans. 
S. A. Davis has taken an option on the Paddy Higgins 
property, on Driftwood ereek, and will start development 
operations at once. The Cassiar Crown Copper property, 
on Grouse; mountain, is developing well. A drift has 
been driven on the vein for 200 ft. The vein is 26 ft. 
wide and assays $35 per ton. A second tunnel is being 
driven to cut the vein at 280 ft. The sudden thaw has 
caused a mud-slide in the new tunnel at the Silver Stand- 
ard mine and the present tunnel has been abandoned. A 
new site for the tunnel has been selected, and, though it 
will necessitate 400 ft. additional driving, it will make a 
far better working tunnel. 

Pernie. — A large majority of the miners throughout 
district 18 have renounced the United Mine Workers of 
America in favor of the 'One Big Union'. The miners 
have accepted the 14% advance in wages, offered by the 
owners in conformity with the agreement between owners 
and employees in the United States, but they will fight 
any attempt to force a separation with the O. B. U. As 
the mine owners persistently have refused to acknowledge 
this union, a deadlock is likely to occur. The Crow's 
Nest Pass Coal Co. has increased the price of coal 34e. 
per ton to meet the increase in wage. 

Cowichan. — Having shipped 500 tons of manganese 
ore with satisfactory results, the British Columbia Man- 
ganese plant, situated on the E. & N. railway in the 
Cowichan district, Vancouver Islarifl, is making arrange- 
ments for the construction of an aerial tramway. With 
better transportation facilities it will be possible to in- 
crease the output of the mine. The tram is expected to 
be in shape within two months. Meanwhile no shipments 
are being made because the road is in poor condition. 
In a letter to the owners, Guy S. Rowe. second vice-presi- 
dent, of the Bilrowe Alloys Co., at Tacoma, expresses 
himself as pleased with the quality of the Vancouver 

Island manganese ore. He says that this ore analyzed 
not lower than % 48% manganese, with some cars going 
over 50% manganese, and that it contained no deleter- 
ious elements in sufficient quantity to interfere with the 
manufacture of standard 80% ferro-manganese. He 
hopes that the company will be in a position soon to enter 
into a contract to supply three cars of ore, or about 120 
tons per week. 

Kaslo. — Word has been received of the discovery of a 
5-ft. vein of high-grade silver-lead ore at the Silver Bell 
mine on the south fork of Kaslo creek. The vein is made 
up of three feet of galena and two feet of high-grade 
carbonate. The Silver Bell is being operated by R. F. 
Green and Clive Pringle, of Ottawa, under the manage- 
ment of W. E. Newton. The Index and Flint properties 
on the south fork of Kaslo creek are shipping a car of 
ore; the Utica at Paddy's Peak is shipping its sixth car; 
while the Whitewater and other properties of the district 
look promising. In fact, silver-mining prospects were 
never brighter in this part of British Columbia. 

Kamloops. — Diamond-drilling on the property of the 
Aspen Grove Amalgamated Mines, Ltd., is making good 
progress. About 60 ft. per day is being bored with one 
shift working. Three shifts will be employed soon. In 
the. spring, or as soon as weather conditions permit, two 
other drilling outfits will be started on an extensive ex- 
ploration and development program. 

Omineca. — Development with encouraging results has 
been done on the property of the Cassiar Crown Copper 
Co., Grouse mountain. Some time ago a tunnel was 
driven which tapped the vein known as the Ruby, at a 
depth of 80 ft. The vein was well defined and it was 
drifted on for 200 ft. The value of the ore went up to 
$35 per ton. More recently another tunnel has been 
driven to tap this same formation at a depth of 280 ft. 
When this second tunnel has been finished and the ore 
proved, it is proposed to build a new plant at a point 
farther down the hill, where the Ruby vein outcrops, and 
run a drift that will give a further depth of several hun- 
dred feet. 

Victoria. — There are data available now indicating 
some changes in the mine output of the Province for 
1919 as previously estimated. Contrary to earlier ex- 
pectations, the output of silver will be slightly in excess 
of that of 1918. This is accounted by the fact that the 
returns from the Sullivan mine, operated by the Con- 
solidated Mining & Smelting Co. for the latter part of 
the year were more than was looked for, and also by 
reason of the accumulated production of small shippers 
of the Slocan district, to which insufficient attention was 
paid in the compilation of estimates. Gold and lead pro- 
duction also will be somewhat above what was estimated, 
although not equaling the mark established in 1918. As 
to gold, the explanation lies in the speeding up of the 
output of the Rossland mines, also operated by the Con- 
solidated Mining & Smelting Co. of Canada. The dif- 
ference in regard to lead is due to the increased activity 
at the Sullivan mine and to the small shippers of the 
Slocan district. 

January in, 1920 


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i UROIOAL BB8SABGH.- -1919 I»l\ imsns kk.i.M coliU.T, 
P0BCUPIN1 . \M> DBKUND 1 \hl . 

Toronto Some important investigations in connec- 
tion with the metallurgical industries am being promoted 
by the Canadian Advisory Council tor Scientific and In- 
dustrial Research. A grant baa been made to C. V7. 
Drury, professor al Queens University, for an investiga- 
tion i" determine a suitable Blag tor smelting ores con- 
taining vanadium, the economic extraction of which is 
now difficult Assistance is also given to Prof. Stansfield 
of McGill University to enable him to continue researches 
on the redaction of iron ores with the use of gases and the 
electric furnace, which have been in progress for over a 

Cobalt, The annual report of the Coniagaa ahowi an 
output of 940,267 as, of silver, aa compared with 974,264 
os, tor the previous j ear, < lombined sales of on from the 
Cobalt mine and of products from the redaction plant at 
Thorold yielded $3,574,456 President Leonard rej 

that no new discoveries of ore had I a made, and that 

continuous operation waa apparently dependent upon the 
capacity of the mill to work love grade ores, and re-grind 
and re-treat sand tailings, which might keep the mill run- 
ning for three yean. A large tonnage of low-grade on 

had been developed uiti asional streaks of high-grade. 

The surplus was $2,103,745. The Northern Customs con- 
centrator is developing good milling ore on the Silver 
Cliff property and treating .about 50 ions daily at its 
mill. The same company has started stuping on the 



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year with encouraging results. Provision has been made 
by the Council for 40 bursaries, studentships, and fellow- 
ships to be awarded to qualified science graduates of 
Canadian universities who will train for carrying on re- 
searches in connection with the development of national 
resources. This is nearly twice the number provided for 
in 1919. 

Dividends by Mining Companies. — The Northern On- 
tario mines during 1919 paid dividends to the total 
amount of $6,600,383 in addition to $867,430 declared 
payahle after the first of the year. There are ten com- 
panies on the list of dividend payers. The dividends de- 
clared in 1919 by six Cobalt mines totaled $4,999,772— 
three at Porcupine disbursed $2,368,042, and the Lake 
Shore of Kirkland Lake paid out $100,000. The total 
dividend payments from the beginning of the industry 
to December 31 are as follows: Cobalt, $80,780,513; 
Porcupine, $15,129,126 ; and Kirkland Lake, $591,125 ; a 
grand total of $96,500,765. 

second and third levels of the property recently acquired 
from the Chambers-Ferland and will shortly commence 
taking out ore. The Temiskaming is devoting attention 
mainly to the development of a large tonnage of milling 
ore and has considerably increased its scale of operations, 
having 16 machines at work as compared with two in 
the spring. 

W. E. Simpson, representing the Cassel Cyanide Co. 
in Canada, in discussing the question of constructing 
light narrow-gauge railways to the outlying mining lo- 
calities of Northern Ontario, stated that in a case like 
that of the Gowganda silver district, where a railroad 
built would likely become a trunk line, a narrow-gauge 
line might be unsatisfactory. This belief is based upon 
actual experience in Western Australia, where much loss 
and inconvenience has been caused by difficulty of link- 
ing up lines of different gauges. This phase of the situa- 
tion is being drawn to the attention of the Ontario gov- 



January 10, 1920 

Mine operating officials in Ontario are contemplating 
the organization of the 'Ontario Chamber of Mines'. It 
is proposed to make the organization completely repre- 
sentative of all mining activity, with branches in each of 
the mining centres and with one executive at a central 
point. It is argued that when the executive of such an 
organization speaks he will carry with him the support 
of the majority of the mine operators. The aim is to in- 
fluence legislation. It is now estimated that the shoot 
recently opened at the Crown Reserve will yield $140,000 
in high-grade ore, besides a considerable tonnage of mill 
rock. The ore-shoot proved to be a faulted section of 
one of the veins worked in former years. A financial 
statement issued last month shows the Nipissing to have 
a surplus of $4,463,078. 

Porcupine. — Work on the Dome Extension at the 600- 
ft. level is said to have placed in sight a large tonnage of 
medium-grade ore. The Dome is preparing to start cross- 
cutting from its property into Dome Extension territory 
on the 1150-ft. level where diamond-drilling has indi- 
cated' large lenzes of ore. The Norwoods Mining Co. 
has discovered by diamond-drilling a 5-ft. quartz vein 
which the cores show to have been penetrated at a depth 
of 600 ft. The vein material is impregnated with sul- 
phides and warrants further work. 

Matachewan. — At the Mataehewan development work 
has been suspended and the management has undertaken 
exploration on an increased scale with two additional 

Gowganda. — The Castle shaft has reached the 100-ft. 
level, where a station will be cut and drifting undertaken. 
The vein retains its width and grade. The camp build- 
ings on the Walsh property on Miller Lake are being put 
in shape and a comprehensive plan of development has 
been adopted. The property is equipped with some min- 
ing machinery and has a shaft 200 ft. deep. 




Nacozari. — One of the more important discoveries in 
recent years in this district is the big orebody opened by 
the Canario Copper Co., a New Jersey corporation, on the 
300-ft. level of its shaft on the Lily Segundo group, five 
miles south-west from Nacozari and about the same dis- 
tance north-west of Pilares. James P. Harvey, president 
and managing director of the company, following in- 
spection of the mine stated that the drift had proved the 
ore for 120 ft. with the limit not yet reached and the 
value increasing with the progress of the work. Assays 
average about four per cent copper. The find encour- 
ages Mr. Harvey 's belief that the orebodies will show en- 
richment at depth. On the upper levels large bodies of 
copper ore carrying an average of 2 to 2|%, have been 
opened. The opening of so large a body of copper ore in 
this part of .the district, hitherto practically unex- 
plored at depth, is important as it indicates the value of 
the undeveloped ground intervening between the Lily 
Segundo and the great low-grade copper mines of the 

Moctezuma Copper Co., at Pilares. The Lily Segundo 
has passed the prospect' stage, but Mr. Harvey advises 
the stockholders to continue development for at least 
another year, before building a concentrator. The prop- 
erty is a close corporation, owned by George F. Sliurtleff 
and others. Approximately 200 men are employed at 
present. A good wagon road connects the Canario hold- 
ings with Nacozari, its rail shipping point. The com- 
pany owns motor-trucks which are used to haul supplies 
at the present time. 

San Julian. — Because of difficulty in securing freight- 
ers the installation of the San Julian mill has been de- 
layed considerably, but George F. Fast, manager, is here 
pushing work as rapidly as possible. It is his expecta- 
tion that the mill will be operating by March 1 producing 
molybdenum and tungsten concentrates. Mr. Fast first 
worked the San Julian several years ago at the time of 
the tungsten boom. When this metal became a drag on 
the market, the molybdenum became valuable on account 
of war time demand. A great many carloads of high- 
grade ore were sold to the United States during the war 
period. Following the War mining was stopped while a 
series of experiments was undertaken. This resulted in 
the discovery that a high-grade concentrate could be made 
which would find a ready market. Coarse grinding will 
be done in a ball-mill and the pulp sent through a K. & 
K. flotation machine used as a rougher, with a baby ma- 
chine as a cleaner. The tailing then will be sent over 
tables where, the heavy tungsten contained in the ore is 
recovered as a concentrate, which is in good demand in 
the United States. 

Mina Mexico. — Carl P. Halter, who will be superin- 
tendent of this property, has arrived from El Paso and 
assumed his duties. Sam Supplee, master mechanic, is in 
Moctezuma receiving and re-shipping the new machinery 
for the property 's flotation mill. A ball machine and flota- 
tion machines will be used to treat the mine dumps which 
contain about 60,000 tons of material. While this is in 
progress, pumps will be installed to unwater the mine so 
that operations on the lower levels can be started. Sev- 
eral American mechanics are on the property and with 
a force of 30 Mexicans are repairing and re-arranging 
the concentrator machinery for the new system of ore 
treatment to be used. 

Agua Prieta. — A slight increase was shown in ore ex- 
ported into the United States through the port of Agua 
Prieta during the month of December, the total being 212 
carloads with a valuation of $1,857,800, as against 197 
cars valued at $1,655,000 during November. Tonnage 
is smaller in December being 9099 as against 9648. The 
increase in value was effected through heavy shipment of 
concentrates. Ore shipment was somewhat hindered by 
the increased shipment of wood from Cos and vicinity to 
meet the demand occasioned by the coal shortage. The 
mines shipping were: Nacozari, 7820 tons; El Tigre, 540 
tons ; Estrella, 485 tons ; Las Chispas, 41 tons ; San Pablo, 
38 tons; San Nicholas, 41 tons; San Luis, 81 tons; La 
Roy, 16 tons; San Jose, 18 tons; Santa Rita. 19 tons; 
Progresso, 300 lb. gold-silver precipitates. 

January in. 1920 



Globe. — John P. Barry, secretary ot the Superior *:• Hus- 
ton Copper Co., states: Since striking the foot-wall vein 
last month on the lon-ft level, we have shipped, from de- 
velopment work alone, eight carloads of ore averaging $72 
per ton, and netting a total, after deducting smelting 
charges, of approximately $31,000. The north cross-cut on 
the 1200-ft. level, east of the Quo Vadls fault, has cut an 
apparently barren vein, presumably the Great Eastern. The 
exploration work for the Old Dominion vein is making good 

Jerome. — The holdings of S. S. Ballard, north-west of the 
old Haynes properties, embracing an area of SO acres, has 
been sold to the United Verde Consolidated Copper Co. for 
$60,000. This property has been under development at 
intervals for many years. 

Kinsman. — Financing of the White Star Mining Co. is 
under way and development of its silver property is to be 
commenced immediately. Machinery consisting of hoist, 
compressor, and other operating equipment is on the way to 

the property. The famous Laggon copper mine in the 

Wallapai Indian reservation which was opened to pros- 
pectors on November 1, has been located by C. H. Dunning 
of Prescott and is now in operation. This mine is said to be 

showing well. The McCracken Silver-Lead Co. recently 

shipped a car of 50 tons of lead-silver ore. The cross-cut 

on the 300-ft. level of the United American has not yet pene- 
trated the hanging wall of the lode although a large quartz 
vein has been passed through. It is the intention of the 
company to sink immediately to the 500-ft. level. 

Mayer. — The steel head-frame of the Arizona Binghamp- 
ton in the Mayer district is half completed and re-timbering 
of the shaft has commenced, the working force being in- 
creased to 80 men for this purpose. The Big Ledge Min- 
ing Co. is getting the Mayer smelter into shape to make a 
test run of at least 75 tons of gold-bearing ore from the 

Henrietta mine. The Yaba Copper Co. has taken over the 

old Carroll property which has been owned by Carroll for 
twenty years. A shaft 250 ft. deep has developed silver ore. 

Miami. — Churn-drill operations have been started by the 
Porphyry Consolidated Copper Co. and a diamond-drill is 

being installed on the 6 50-ft. level. Construction work 

on the new mill of the Iron Cap Copper Co. is progressing 
favorably. The foundations and flooring are practically 
completed. The frame work of the mill is partly up and the 
grading of the narrow-gauge railroad from the mine to the 
mill is two-thirds completed. Drifting is being done in the 
new orebody recently opened on the 1000-ft. level. 


Colfax. — Dewatering of the Rising Sun mine is proceeding 
rapidly and the management expects to be able to develop 
from the lower levels soon. The pump has a capacity of 400 
gal. per minute. All equipment is electrically operated. 

Murphys. — Drifting on the vein recently uncovered in the 
lower tunnel of the Tanner quartz property is progressing 
with a larger working crew. The tunnel is 13 00 ft. long 
and taps the vein 300 ft. below the old one. The vein is 

three feet wide with a good grade of ore. C. w. Canfleld li 

Korl»eslovfii. — San Franeiseu people have taken an option 
on the Midas gold-quartz mine on the Feather river, aei-onl 
Ing to a report reaching here. The Midas has been under- 
going development for several years and some excellent mill 
ore is exposed. Fred Bachman is owner. 

Needles. — The deposit of rich gold ore found recently in 
the Chinehuevis mountains by Simmons and Widrigan Is 
attracting interest and prospectors are locating many claims. 
The original discovery is being prospected and is said to be 
showing well. The selected ore is stated to assay $16,000 
per ton, with some shipping ore exposed. 


Coeur d'Alene. — The Polaris and Yankee Boy mining com- 
panies are planning a consolidation which is said to have 
already received the approval of controlling interests. Ex- 
tensive development plans are to be undertaken by the con- 
solidated company. They include a tunnel 2000 ft. long 
from the workings of the Yankee Boy into the Polaris 
ground to open the latter to a depth of 1500 ft. The Yankee 

Boy has a good power-plant. Extensive development 

work has been commenced by the Lombardy Mining Co. at 
Kellogg. A cross-cut will be run 390 ft. on the tunnel-level 
in a north-west direction to cut the orebodies shown above. 
This will be followed by another cross-cut 200 ft. lower, 
which is expected to block out some ore. 

E. C. Tousley, of Spokane, has taken a two-year bond on 
most of the stock of the Yankee Girl Mining Co., the price 
to be paid being $6 0,000. The property consists of 10 
claims lying south of the Polaris and Yankee Girl holdings 
and adjoining them. Mr. Tousley must commence work de- 
veloping the property before April 12. 

The East Caledonia Mining Co., the owner of property 
adjoining the Caledonia at Wardner, expects to resume op- 
erations soon after January 1. 


Anuconda. — Virtually all departments at the Anaconda 
company's Washoe smelter, made idle by the recent coal 
strike, had resumed operations by January 1. This means 
the smelter is now being worked at 60% of its maximum 
capacity. The mines at Butte had been in operation since 
December 22. 

Boulder. — The officers of the Liverpool Silver Mines Co., 
which is re-opening the Liverpool, one of the famous old 
producers in Jefferson county, report the development for a 
distance of 600 ft., of a 30-in. vein assaying from 40 to 90 
oz. in silver. The work was done on the 750-ft. level. The 
district is experiencing a mild 'boom'. 


Joplin. — The estimated output for the district during 1919 
follows: Blende. 827,651,690 lb., value $18,128,384; cala- 
mine, 20,353,040 lb., value $289,598; lead, 139,049,470 lb., 
value $4,417,329; total value for year, $22,835,311. 

The Underwriters No. 4 mill, a new 4 00-ton plant recently 
put in operation, has been working satisfactorily, coming 



January 10, 1920 

up to the expectations of its owners and builders. F. N. Ben- 
delari, general manager; Fred Carpenter, superintendent; 
I. L. Box, constructing engineer; and Ed. Gill, foreman of 
construction, are satisfied with the new plant. — ■ — The Tri- 
State Section, American Zinc Institute, substituted a turkey 
dinner for the transaction of business at the meeting held 
on December 23 at Picher. 


Austin. — The International Victory company announces 
important ore discoveries in the Yankee Blade, near Austin, 
and in the claims operated at Birch Creek. In the Yankee 
Blade an 8-ft. vein of milling ore is exposed containing 

some ruby silver. J. H. Schweble is manager. Shipping 

ore has been uncovered in the Diana shaft workings of the 
Austin Manhattan group, coming from the Morgan & Muncey 

vein, which is 18 in. wide. The Cahill Lode and Bradley 

Divide companies, operating at Birch Creek, have discon- 
tinued sinking until heavier equipment can be put in. 

Ely. — Minerals Separation North American Corporation 
has made another move in its litigation against Nevada Con- 
solidated Copper Co. by filing a bill of interrogatories in the 
Federal Court at Portland, Maine. Armed with replies to 
their questions the lawyers for the plaintiff in the suit will 
not be obliged to ask so many details when the case comes to 
trial. Nevada Consolidated has been asked to describe its 
process of flotation, giving details as to quality and quan- 
tities of oil used. It has also been requsted to show earn- 
ings of equipment and process and to supply flow-sheets. 
Minerals Separation asks if Nevada Consolidated uses air 
in its flotation process and if so how it is introduced. 

Virginia City. — Importation of two carloads of provisions 
by the mining companies and sale at cost has reduced ma- 
terially living expenses here. 


Further news has been received concerning the details of 
the drowning of Reuben Edward Smith, an American min- 
ing engineer, in Siberia. The accident was caused by the 
overturning of a boat in the rapids of the upper Ulya river, 
on the west coast of the Okhotsk Sea, on August 29, last 
year. Smith was a man in the prime of life, about 45 years 
of age, and had resided at Vladivostok and in East Siberia 
for a period of fifteen years. Born in the placer-fields of 
California, he was essentially a practical engineer of sound 
judgment and accomplishment. Receiving early training 
with his father in the construction of placer-mining plants 
in California and Colorado, he at the same time prepared 
himself in the theory of mechanical and electrical engineer- 
ing. He proceeded to Vladivostok, where for several years 
he was in charge of coal-mining operations in the Suchan 
district. He was engaged extensively in the examination of 
gold-placer deposits in Korea and Siberia, and for the three 
years from 1913-'16 was in charge of important work in 
improving gold-mining methods at the mines of the Lenskoie 
company in western Siberia. Upon the entry of the United 
States into the War he was engaged in the service of the 
Consular, Military Intelligence, and War Trade departments 
at various points in Siberia, and pejformed most valuable 
work for the Government. He had only taken up private 
work again in the summer of 1919 in charge of exploration 
work in the Okhotsk goldfield. He leaves a wife and two 
children. Smith had an invaluable knowledge of the Rus- 
sian language and character, and perhaps the most useful 
knowledge of any foreign engineer of the psychology of the 
East Siberian laborer. As a man he was most highly es- 
teemed by all who knew him, and his untimely death is 
lamented by a wide circle of friends at Vladivostok. 

C. W. P. 

«J3? e E f tOT invites members of the profession to send particulars of theti 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our reader? 

R. G. Hall has returned to Burma. 

3. Coggin Brown is in London on leave. 

Herbert Hoover has returned to Washington. 

H. Foster Bain writes from Rangoon, Burma. 

C. H. Munro is at Ipoh, Federated Malay States. 

L. J. Mayries has returned to India from London. 

R. L. Douglass, of Fallon, Nevada, is at the Bellevue hotel. 

Hunter Mann has arrived in San Francisco from Hankow, 

Frank L. Hess and Frederic 3. Siebert are on their way to 

C. B. Lakenan has been at Los Angeles and San Francisco 

H. R. Wagner, of the A. S. & R. Co., has returned from 
New York to Berkeley. 

E. F. Yates, formerly of the Miami Copper Co., is now city 
engineer of Globe, Arizona. 

Reiji Kanda sailed by the 'Korea' on January 7, returning 
to Japan from British Columbia. 

Vernon S. Rood, manager for the Utah Apex Mining Co., 
at Bingham, is in San Francisco. 

John Morgan has become a director of the Colombian 
Mining & Exploration Co., London. 

F. P. Menncll is engaged in geologic investigation at the 
Rhodesia Broken Hill mine, in Rhodesia. 

M. B. Cutter, of Minneapolis, and Clyde Heller, of Phila- 
delphia, were in San Francisco this week. 

Dudley Inskipp is returning to London from Burma, 
where he has been at the Mawchi tin mine. 

W. L. Brown has returned to London, and is in charge of 
the operations for relief in eastern Europe. 

Richard A. Parker is at Duluth. He is visiting the iron 
and copper regions of Minnesota and Michigan. 

A. J. Robin, formerly of the Mazapil Copper Co., is now 
with the A. S. & R. Co., at Aguascalientes, Mexico. 

David Wilkinson succeeds C. D. Leslie as consulting en- 
gineer to the Consolidated Gold Fields of South Africa. 

Stanly A. Easton, manager for the Bunker Hill & Sullivan 
Mining Co., is at the Claremont hotel, Berkeley, on a short 

M. Suzuki, manager of the Hikoshima zinc smelter, Japan, 
has been in Utah recently, visiting metallurgical plants and 

Frank H. Probert, dean of the Mining Department of the 
University of California, is in Arizona. He returns on Janu- 
ary 11. 

3. A. L. Gallard has resigned as mining editor of the 
'Financial Times', in London, a position that he has held 
since 1902. 

H. W. Darling, field engineer for the Crown Reserve Min- 
ing Co. of Montreal, passed through San Francisco last week 
on his way to Northern Ontario. 

Robert H. Richards has joined in business with Charles 
E. Locke; the office of the new firm of consulting engineers 
will be at Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

A. H. Heller has been appointed general superintendent 
for the Afterthought Copper Co., at Ingot, California, in suc- 
cession to D. C. Smith, who has resigned. 

William Huff Wagner has resigned his position as geolo- 
gist and chief engineer for the North Butte Mining Co. to 
join the technical staff of the Income Tax Bureau on Mines, 
at Washington. 

Janutn 10, 1920 






metal PEioaa 

Aluminum .lu-l >«:iis per poond 

Anliino'iy cents i*r pound.. 

electrolytic, .-viii- p«-r : 
i.' bd pli ..-nts per pound 

Platinum, pure, per ounci 

Platinum, m . Iridium 
Qutckalrrer, per m iak pi 76 it. 
Speller, eonta i*-r pound. 


i» ;.ci 

B 25—8.25 




lcl .Ml 

ita per pound ".!'..!'.'.!! 

(By wire from New York) 
January 6 — Copper i- quiet end Btronr. Lead i- active and 
Zinc is ti-vensh and soaring. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
90!l floe. From April 23. 1918. the United States government paid SI per 
ounce for all silver purchased by It. fixing a maximum of $1.01 V, on 
August 15. 1918. and will continue to pay $1 until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
May 5. 1919. all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being or. March 25. 1019. on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine) in British currency is 46.05 
pence per ounce (925 fine), calculated at the normal rate of exchange. 
New York London 




31 131.00 

1 Holiday 

a 131.00 

3 130.50 

4 Sunday 

5 130.50 

6 131.00 



Average week ending; 

Nov. 25 131.93 

Dee. 2 132.00 

9 131.29 

" 16 131.29 

" 23 133.56 

" 30 132.50 

Jan. 130.80 


. .75.14 

Feb 77.54 

Men 74.13 

Apr 72.51 

May 74.61 

June 76.44 


Monthly averages 



July 78.92 

Aug 85.40 

Sept 100.73 

Oct 87.38 

Nov 85.97 

Dec 85.97 





Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 




1 Holiday 



4 Sunday 

5 19.25 

6 19.25 




Average week ending 

Nov. 25 19.48 

Dec. 2 18.55 

9 18.21 

16 18.50 

23 18.75 




Feb 34.57 

Mch 36.00 

Apr 33.16 

May 31.69 

June . . 32.57 


Monthly averages 



July 29.67 

Aug 27.42 

Sept 25.11 

Oct 23.50 

Nov 23.50 

Dec 23.50 





Lead is quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery- 



1 Holiday 



4 Sunday 






Average week ending 





. 7.64 
. 9.10 

Mch 10.07 

Apr 9.38 

May 10.29 

June 11.74 


Monthly averages 



July 10.93 

Aug 10.75 




Prices in New York, in cents per pound: 

Monthly averages 

ltl ' 

Jan 44. lu 

Feb 51.47 

Mch 54.27 

Apr 55.63 

May 63.21 

June 61 93 


72 50 


July 62.60 

Aug 62.63 

Sept 61.54 

Oct 62.24 

Nov 74.18 

Dec 85.00 



73 67 




54 17 

m centa per pound : 
Da to 


Jan i Holiday 

.•i ! 


i MI.I-. Ni-w fork aalrray, 

i Sunday 

ill '.'.'.'.'.'. '. 

ii SB 

ii $5 

II Til 


Average week ending 




II. . . . 

is .11 

► llll 

■I I 


Jan 9.76 

Feb 10 45 

Mch 10.78 

Apr 10.20 

May 9.41 

June 9.03 

7 II? 


Monthly averages 








The primary market for 
the largest producer. The 
quantity. Prices, in dollars 

Dec. 9 


744 July 

6.71 Aug. 

il 511 Sept. 

8.49 Oct. 

II 4.1 Nov. 

6.91 Dee. 


quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
price Is fixed In the open market. aeeordini: to 
per flask of 75 pounds: 

I Dee. 23 95 00 

.1(10.00 " 30 Bf 

inn nil I Jan. (1 8a il" 

Monthly averages 

1917 1918 

Jan 81.00 128.00 

Feb 126.25 118.00 

Mch 113.75 112.00 

Apr 114.50 115.00 

May 104.00 110.00 

June 85.00 112 00 



July 102.00 

Aug 115.00 

Sept 112.00 

Oct 102.00 

Nov 102.50 

Dec 117.42 

120 00 









78 00 



In the letter which the Federal Reserve Board has sent to chairmen of 
Federal Reserve banks advising them of the peculiar situation arising from 
the practice of basing interest rates on interior bank balances allowed by 

members of New York Clearing House, in accordance with 90-day His.' il 

rate at Federal Reserve banks, and calling for a general meeting of repre- 
sentative bankers from all parts of the country in Washington for dis- 
cussing the matter, and possibly bringing about a modification of exulting 
regulation, the Reserve Board has rather misrepresented the plan in opera- 
tion among local clearing-house banks, according to some bankers. Dis- 
cussing the marking up of interest rates on deposits early last year, the 
Board, in its letter, said: "Finally the clearing-house banks of New York 
agreed to fix a rate of 2%% on bank balances payable on demand, with 
proviso that the interest rate would be automatically advanced or reduced 
Vi of 1% with each advance or decline of Vt of 1% in the 90-day rale at 
the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. This rate is now 4 ■', ' , and 
should it be advanced at any time to 5% the rate of interest paid by New 
York banks for out-of-town bank balances would advance automatically in 
■.' 'i ' ;■ and a 5i/.% rate at the New York bank would advance the interest 
011 bank balances automatically to 3%. and bo on." 

To certain financiers this conveys the impression that there is no limit 
to the amount of interest the local banks may pay for deposits and that the 
higher the Federal Reserve Bank raises its discount rates, the higher will 
be the interest paid on deposits in New York. But loeal banks are re- 
stricted to pay not more than 3% on demand deposits. As a matter of 
fact the clearing-house banks did not fix the rate at 2K-% on that occasion. 
The rate became a%96 by reason of amendment to the constitution 
effective Octoher 1. 1918. It was stipulated that no member of (he Clear- 
ing House Association or others clearing through members, should pay on 
any credit balance or deposit payable on demand or within 30 days, tor 
account of any banking institution in the United States nv Canada "in- 
terest at a rate in excess of 1% per annum when the then 90-day dis "t 

rate for commercial paper at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York is 
2% or less, and an additional ^ r.i 1': for every Uj of 1'; that such dis- 
count rate of the Federal Reserve Bank shall exceed "'. except that the 
maximum rate paid or at-reed to 1m- paid on any such credit balance or 
certificate of deposit shall not in any ease be higher than 3% per annum." 

It is believed that Federal Reserve banks will soon raise re-discount rates 
on commercial paper. Within the last few months re-discount rates on 
paper secured by Government war obligations have been raised twice, and 
these increases tended to reduce borrowings on this class of collateral. But 
while this was taking place a considerable expansion was going on in com- 
mercial borrowing at central institutions. For this reason, the next step 
to be taken by reserve authorities is expected to be an increase in re-dis- 
eount rates on so-ealled "business paper" or bills secured by collateral 
other than United States war obligations. 

This applies to commercial paper, bank acceptances, and trade accept- 
ances. It is this class of paper in which unquestionably a large part of the 
commodity speculation is tied up. It has been pointed out by the Federal 
Reserve Board on several occasions that the Wall Street stock market was 
not solely responsible for undue speculation that has been going on. but 
that similar activity prevailed in all commodities the country over. 

Foreign exchange quotations on January 6 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars : Cable : {- J* 'A 

Demand *- 7h 1 

Cable 9.27 

Demand 9.25 

Demand 7,'n-i 

Francs, cents: 

Lire. centB: 
Marks, cents 



January 10, 1920 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, December 31. 

All the markets show decided strength and most of them 
are active and higher as the old year draws to an end. 

Heavier demand for copper is reflected in advancing 

Quietness pervades the tin market but prices for spot are 

Supplies of lead are not equal to the heavy demand and 
higher values prevail. 

Zinc quotations are considerably higher on better do- 
mestic, and particularly foreign, demand. 

Antimony is unchanged and quiet. 


There is more activity in the iron and steel markets at the 
opening of the year than is commonly the case, most of the 
mills carrying over into 1920 such large tonnages in certain 
lines, as to preclude new business for many weeks. 

According to the annual review of 'The Iron Age' only 
nine open-hearth steel furnaces were completed in 1919 
capable of producing 625,000 tons of ingots per year. Only 
22 furnaces are under construction with an annual capacity 
of 875,000 tons. Not since 1911 have so few new furnaces 
been under construction. In the four years beginning Janu- 
ary 1, 1915, no less than 14,000,000 tons was added to the 
country's open-hearth steel capacity by new construction. 
Though for several years pig-iron capacity has not kept 
pace with the increase in steel plants only two blast-furnaces 
were completed in 1919 and only four, with a total annual 
capacity of 700,000 tons, are now under construction. Nego- 
tiations over rail purchases involve probably 1,000,000 tons. 
The shortage in semi-finished steel has been emphasized by 
the shipment of sheet bars from the Chicago district and 
from Duluth to the Pittsburgh district. 

The Lake Superior iron-ore trade looks for an advance in 
prices in 1920. 


Sellers report a much more active demand from both do- 
mestic and foreign consumers. Buying in December has 
been good and it is expected that in January it will be still 
better. The steadier foreign exchange market has also been 
a stabilizing factor as well as an incentive to better buying. 
Consumers are realizing that the 18c. price early in De- 
cember was a low level. Brass makers are more interested 
and British and Japanese buying, as well as some from 
Scandinavian countries, is prominent. Electrolytic copper 
is quoted at from 19.25 to 19.50c, New York, for early de- 
livery, with only one or two small sources from which it can 
be obtained at 19c. Lake copper is quiet and strong at 
19.50c, New York, for early delivery. 


The week has been very quiet and there has been little 
buying. The market has been dull and uninteresting. Prices 
for spot tin advanced almost daily in sympathy with a firmer 
trend in the value of the pound sterling and because also of 
a rapidly advancing market in London. The London market 
is largely a speculative one and apparently under close con- 
trol. It advanced on Monday, December 27, £7 15s., or to 
£337 10s. per ton. Yesterday spot Straits was quoted at 
59.25c, New York, an advance of almost 4c per lb. in the 
week. American buyers are holding off because of present 
conditions although a little business has been done. Future 
shipments from the East are quoted nominal at around 
59.50c, with some sellers asking 60c Tin arrivals thus far 
this month have been 49 5 3 tons, of which 119 tons came in 
at Pacific ports. The quantity afloat is 3 25 9 tons. 


The situation in the lead market can be completely de 
scribed by the statement that supplies are not equal to de- 
mand. As a result consumers are becoming frightened and 
are bidding up the market on themselves. The outside mar- 
ket has been constantly in advance of that of the 'leading 
interest' which on December 26 advanced its quotation for 
the fourteenth time this year, or from 7.15c. to 7.30c, New 
York, or 6.90c. to 7.25c, St. Louis — an advance of 35 points. 
The outside market continues to keep ahead and today is 
quoted at 7.75c, New York, or 7.50c, St. Louis, with the 
tendency upward. The outside interests determine the price 
levels at present. 


The market continues to grow stronger and prices are con- 
siderably higher than for some weeks. Demand and inquiry 
from domestic consumers has not only expanded in the last 
few days, but foreign buying has taken another spurt. Part 
of the latter is due to better exchange, but the British buy- 
ing is also accounted for by the fact that smelters over theie 
can buy in the United States cheaper than they can produce. 
One estimate here is to the effect that the British cost is at 
least lie per lb. The technical position of the market is 
also very strong, as producers are not anxious to sell because 
they are comfortably sold up for the immediate future. As 
a result of the foregoing conditions, prime Western has ad- 
vanced to 9c, St. Louis, or 9.3 5c, New York, for January 


The market is quiet and quotations for wholesale lots for 
early delivery are unchanged at 9.62Jc, New York, duty 


For wholesale lots of virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, quo- 
tations are nominal at 32 to 3 3c, New York, for early 
delivery. * 


Tungsten: The market is quiet with quotations nominal 
at $7 to $15 per unit, depending on the grade of the ore and 
whether Chinese, Bolivian, or American. Very little activity 
is expected for some weeks. Quotations for ferro-tungsten 
are nominal at $1 to $1.10 per lb. of contained tungsten, 
with no open business reported. 

Molybdenum: Quotations continue nominal in a quiet 
market at 75c per lb. of MoS, in regular concentrates. 

Manganese: Some Cuban and South American ore is re- 
ported sold at 55c per unit, but this has not been confirmed. 
It is stated that American producers of ferro-manganese, 
outside of the 'leading interest', are short of ore and are 
willing to pay 60c per unit. 

Manganese-Iron Alloys: Ferro-manganese is quite scarce 
and higher. Some regard the situation as serious. Prac- 
tically no American or British alloy is now available for the 
first half of 1920. Sales of 100 to 500 tons of domestic alloy 
have been made in the last week at $130, delivered, about 
2200 tons of British alloy has sold at $120 and $125, sea- 
board. -Spiegeleisen is active and strong at $40 to $45, 
furnace, and a sale of 2500 tons for export is reported. 

The price of Gulf Coast crude petroleum has recently 
been increased from $1.25 to $1.50, and it is said the price 
of Mexican crude at Gulf Coast ports will probably be ad- 
vanced to $1.25 per barrel. Fuel-oil consumers are specu- 
lating on the effect of these advances on the general market. 

Januan 10. 1920 


Book Reviews 

i.. i. in.., i Method! ,,f ((rt . AaaljnU, Eighth edition, iiy 

Albert 11. Low.- Pp ;i:s. Ill . index. John Wiley & Sons, 

In.- . X™ York For sal.. Iiy Mining and Scientific Press'. 

Price, $3.25. 

This standard work on practical laboratory methods has 
again been revised and enlarged. The notable additions re- 
late to molybdenum, potassium, tungsten, and uranium and 
Include revised methods, newly developed since the last edi- 
tion appeared. These are found In the appendix. When the 
next edition appears we should like to see a more thorough 
revision, with the new material embodied In the text Instead 
or in the appendix, and some of the less preferred schemes 
of analysis deleted. For the student, too many alternative 
plans are confusing, and especially where slight modifications 
have been found desirable would condensation and elimina- 
tion prove advantageous. As a reliable guide to the ana- 
lytical chemist the book is still valuable. 

Analysis of Minerals and Ores of the Rarer Elements. 

By W. R. Schoeller and A. R. Powell. Pp. 23 4, ill, index. 
Charles Griffin & Co., Ltd. J. B. Lippincott Co., Philadel- 
phia. For sale by 'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $5. 
This book is avowedly for analytical chemists, metal- 
lurgists, and advanced students, and to such it should be 
invaluable. Each of the rare elements is treated under some 
or all of the following heads: Minerals, Properties and Com- 
pounds. Quantitative Separation, Estimation, Detection in 
Ores, Determination in Ores, Impurities in Ores, Complete 
Analysis of Ores and Technical Methods. The book is in a 
way a pioneer, in that it has systematically treated the com- 
plete analysis of rare-element minerals. Some of the ma- 
terial is original; much is compiled from other literature. 
The authors welcome thorough investigation of their meth- 
ods by analytical chemists, and hope to bring about ade- 
quate discussion of comparatively new work. A feature of 
the book is the presentation in tabular form of appropriate 
schemes for making a complete analysis of the common com- 
pounds of these elements. This economizes space and like- 
wise makes the book more useful. Practically every ele- 
ment not given adequate treatment in the older textbooks is 
included in the present volume, which should be valuable to 
those concerned with analyses of this character. 

The Petroleum Handbook. By Stephen 0. Andros. Pp. 
206, ill. The Shaw Publishing Co., Chicago. For sale by 
'Mining and Scientific Press'. Price, $2. 

This purports to be 'a condensed book of reference on sub- 
jects pertaining to the petroleum industry', and the preface 
also states that little original matter is given. This latter, 
at least, appears to be true. While compilations are often 
valuable, this one apparently has been made by someone 
with relatively little first-hand knowledge. The result is 
that while the material is derived from authoritative sources 
and the facts given are correct, nevertheless, they are ar- 
ranged in such a manner that the layman might easily get a 
number of wrong impressions regarding the industry. On 
the other hand, the treatment of any particular subject is 
necessarily so brief that the hook will be of small value to 
the petroleum engineer or operator, since he can find but 
little that he does not already have at his fingers' ends with- 
out looking it up. The attempted scope of the book may be 
judged from the chapter-headings, which are: Origin, Ac- 
cumulation, and Occurrence; Exploration and Drilling; 
Methods of Petroleum Refining; Natural Gas and Its Prod- 
ucts; Shale-Oil Industry; Marketing of Petroleum Products; 
Gasoline Specifications; Inspection Laws, and Marketing 
Prices; Economic Utilization of Petroleum. 

Recent Publication 

PMI in IIMH. By C. C. Osbon. II: ir>, r s. Geological 
Survey. l:U9. Pp. 26, map. From Mineral Ursoui 
the United states. 1918 — Part II. 

Inenlo, EUamnth, Si-irnium, and TeQnrino in iimh. h>- 

James M. Hill. 1:9, U. S. Geological Survey, 1919. Pp 7 
From Mineral Resources of tho United States, 1916 — Part I. 

Manganese and Manganlfcrous Ore* In 11(17. By D. F. 
Hewett. 1:23, U. S. Geological Survey, 1919. From Mineral 
Resources of the United States, 1917. Part I. Pp. 32. 

Gold, Silver, Copper, I.i-.-kI. and Zinc in New Mexico and 
Texas in 1017. Mines Report. By CharleB W. Henderson. 
1:24, U. S. Geological Survey, 1919. From Mineral Re- 
sources of the United States, 1917, Part I. Pp. 26. 

Gypsum in 1918. By Ralph W. Stone. 11:12, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, 1919. From Mineral Resources of the United 
States. 1918, Part II. Pp. 17. 

Abstracts of Current Decisions on Mines and Mining, Re- 
ported from January to May, 1019. By J. W. Thompson. 
Bull. 181, Law Serial 19, U. S. Bureau of Mines, 1919. Pp. 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and Lead In Alaska in 1918. Mines 
Report. By G. C. Martin. 1:6, U. S. Geological Survey. 
1919. From Mineral Resources of the United States, 1918, 
Part I. Pp. 16. 

Coal in 1917. Part I!. Distribution and Consumption, 
by C. E. Lesher. 11:35, U. S. Geological Survey, 1919. Pp. 
57, table. From Mineral Resources of the United States. 
1917 — Part II. 

California Mineral Production for 1918, With County 
Maps. By Walter W. Bradley. Bull. 86, California State 
Mining Bureau, Ferry building, San Francisco, 1919. Pp. 
212, index, ill., maps. 

Quicksilver in 1918. By F. L. Ransome. With a Supple- 
mentary Bibliography by Isabel P. Evans. 1:7, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, 1919. From Mineral Resources of the United 
States, 1918, Part I. Pp. 40. 

Annual Report of the Director of the Mint for the Fiscal 
Year Ended June 30, 1910, including Report on the Pro- 
duction of the Precious Metals During the Calendar Year 
1018. 1919. Pp. 300, index. Cloth. 

Silver, Copper, Lead, and Zinc in the Central States in 
1018. Mines Report. By J. P. Dunlop and B. S. Butler. 
1:5, U. S. Geological Survey, 1919. From Mineral Resources 
of the United States, 1919, Part I. Pp. 67. 

Gold, Silver, Copper, and Lead in South Dakota and Wy- 
oming in 1018. Mines Report. By Charles W. Henderson. 
1:8, U. S. Geological Survey, 1919. From Mineral Resources 
of the United States, 1918, Part I. Pp. 10. 

Bibliography of North American Geology for 1018 with 
Subject Index. By John M. Nickles. Bull. 698, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey, 1919. Pp. 148. For sale by Superintendent 
of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, D. 
C. Price, 10 cents. 

Geologic Atlas of the United States. Herman-Morris Folio 
No. 210. Herman, Barrett, Chokio, and Morris Quadrangles. 
Minnesota. By Frederick W. Sardeson. Surveyed in co- 
operation with the State of Minnesota. U. S. Geological 
Survey, 1919. Pp. 10, maps. 

Geology and Water Resources of the Gila and San Carlos 
Valleys in the San Carlos Indian Reservation, Arizona. By 
A. T. Schwennesen. Water-Supply Paper 4 50-A, U. S. Geo- 
logical Survey. 1919. Pp. 27, maps. From Contributions 
to the Hydrology of the United States, 1919. 

Surface Water Supply of the United States, 1016. Part 
VI. Missouri River Basin. Nathan C. Grover, Chief Hy- 
draulic Engineer. Prepared in co-operation with the States 
of Colorado. Montana, and Wyoming. Water-Supply Paper 
436, U. S. Geological Survey, 1919. Pp. 256, ill., index. 



January 10, 1920 



^iitniiTiaM^iiriieiiiJEiJiiriiriiijrijr riiiitid*ai«4ii4 ri]Fiinr eij LiaiikiiTiiiiiiiM^iitiiPiiiitiiLiibiiiiiiJiiiijiiiidFi^fiiiiLiiriiiJPiiiqhiititeiriirirtitiiPiiiiJiiJtMtiihiiFiic iru( jMiiiMiiiiiaiiiiiiiiriiEiiiiEij ruiiriiit tiin^ tiitiiMiiitBitMrMMiiiiiitii*iitn 


Magnetically operated main-line switches on alternating 
current light and power circuits are at times slow and un- 
reliable in closing when a solenoid and plunger must be de- 
pended upon for their operation. It the plunger is slightly 
out of adjustment, its movement becomes jerky and noisy, 

Fig. 1. New C-H Oil-Immersed Magnetic Contactor Operated by a Clapper 
Type Magnet and Armature, Which Increases Reliability of Operation 
Over the Solenoid and Plunger Type. 

its sealing pull is diminished, and it does not seat properly. 
The Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co., of Milwaukee, has developed 
a new oil-immersed magnetic contactor, operated by a clap- 
per-type magnet, which makes possible a more rigid me- 
chanical structure and greater reliability in operation than 

Fig. 2. Some as Fig. 1, but with Oil-Tank Removed, Showing Contacts 
and Arcing Shields 

is obtained in contactors of the solenoid and plunger type. 
This contactor has a capacity of 100 amperes at 2200 volts, 
and is particularly desirable as a main-line switch for an 
automatic 2200-volt motor starter, or for the remote control 
of any 2200-volt light or power circuit. It is built with three 

poles, unless used with an auto-transformer starter when 
five poles are provided. 

The frame of the contactor, which is of heavy sheet iron, 
is arranged for wall or switchboard mounting, and carries 
two cast-iron supports with two insulated shafts carrying 
the contacts. Copper-leaf brush contacts are saved from all 
wear due to breaking the circuit because auxiliary arcing 
contacts are provided for this purpose. Leads from the con- 
tacts connect with suitable terminals extending through high- 
tension insulators mounted on the top of the frame. The 
armature is firmly pivoted to the frame, and is connected by 
■ a rod to an arm of the shaft carrying the moving contacts. 
The attraction of the armature against the face of the mag- 
net rotates the shaft and closes the switch, which is normally 
held open by the weight of the moving parts. 

A flood head of oil is maintained over the contacts by pro- 
viding a sheet-metal tank of ample capacity, and as the con- 
tacts are situated above the operating shaft, they are away 
from any sediment which might accumulate in the bottom of 
the tank. The arc is broken at the contacts in a horizontal 
direction and therefore rises to the point of rupture without 
burning other parts. Transite shields prevent arcing across 
adjacent poles. 


G. B. Livingood, who for the past two years has been 
sales engineer, has been appointed assistant manager of the 
mining and crushing department of the Traylor Engineering 
& Manufacturing Company. 

C. P. Braun & Co. announce that they have secured for 
their executive and engineering offices the entire tenth floor 
of the Atlas building, 604 Mission street. This will bring 
them into closer touch with their factory. The private ex- 
change Douglas 1404 connecting all departments remains 

J. George Leyner announces that he has resigned as presi- 
dent of the J. G o. Leyner Engineering Works Co., of Little- 
ton, Colorado, in order to be able to devote all of his time 
to the Leyner Tractor <Jfc Manufacturing Co., organized for 
the manufacture and sale of the Linapede tractor, recently 
developed by him. The company's office will be at 212 
Tramway Bdg., Denver, Colorado. 

Revised and enlarged Bulletin No. 112-B entitled 'Con- 
densers. Pumps, Cooling Towers, Etc' has just been pub- 
lished by the Wheeler Condenser & Engineering Co., 
Carteret, New Jersey. This bulletin illustrates the latest 
developments in condenser practice, and shows, among 
others, a surface condenser containing 50,000 sq. ft. of 
surface. It illustrates and describes surface condensers, jet 
condensers, barometric condensers, the Wheeler-Edwards 
air pump, the Wheeler rotative dry vacuum pump, the 
Wheeler turbo-air pump, the patented Wheeler steam jet air 
pump, Wheeler centrifugal pumps for all services, jet con- 
densers, barometric condensers, natural and forced draft 
cooling towers, feed-water heaters, and Wheeler evaporators 
and dryers. A free copy of this bulletin will be sent to 
responsible persons upon mentioning this publication. 

Mnmnmii ami 


T. A. RICKARO. Editor 

A. B. Parsons, associatk to. ton 

Mcrabrf Audit Rurrau ol CtiruUtioM 
Mrt&orr AiMxulril Huuorw Piprn, Iftc. 


/■ubiOAnt at IfO Marin St., /Cmi Fn 
hv thf l*rwy PuNlMjtinc f'nnipmsy 




F A. WEIGIC, 3314 WOOi. WORTH * o« , N.V 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 17, 1920 

$4 per Year — 15 Cents per Copy 


autk i.i;s 






. 73 


The Engineering professors in State Universities 
and their outside practice. Custom in such mat- 
ters. How such practice helps them as teachers. 
Editors, and their custom as regards outside pro- 
fessional work. Dangers that arise. Professors 
acting as experts in lawsuits. Apex cases. A prin- 
ciple to guide all concerned, namely, the aim of 
public service. 


Mr. Hoover's statement concerning loans to the 
countries of Europe. His sane advice. The need 
for stimulating resumption of labor and the dan- 
ger of pauperizing the unfortunate peoples. Co- 
operation in stabilizing international exchange. A 
straw-vote for the Presidency. 



By F. J. Bourne . . 


Liquor business a desirable source of revenue. 
Let the prohibitionist face the facts. Prohibition 
would be suicidal to Canada. 

By Observer 

Causes of industrial unrest must be found and 
removed. Both employer and employee have been 
offenders. Mutual trust essential. 


By F. H. Mason 

Mr. Mason requests enlightenment on smelting of 
magnetite in the blast-furnace. 


By Harai R. Layng 77 

Rapid heating necessary, especially where sodium 
chloride is used. Bag-houses suitable for collect- 
ing fume, as is also the Cottrell system. Degree of 
grinding required; methods of applying the chlor- 
idizing agent; these vary according to the nature 
of the ore under treatment. 


By R. G. Wayland 84 

Measures taken in fighting fire which started Sep- 
tember 25, 1919. As a last resort the mine was 


By R. B. Brinsmade 0,5 

A. S. & R. smelter. Purpose to make low-grade 
copper-matte which collects silver. Mines at La 
Paz. Operations at the Dolores. Mill and lead- 
smelter at Santa Maria. Mines at Catorce. The 
Concepcion mine. 


Occurrence of wolframite. Methods of concentra- 
tion. Marketing the product. 

By Charles G. Yale 


Gold. Cost of production doubled in two years. 
Output increased. Silver, copper, lead, and zinc 
production declined. 







Established May 24, 1860, as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices — Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.; New York, 3514 Woolworth 
Bdg. : London. 724 Salisbury House. E.C. 

Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable in advance: 
United States and Mexico. S4: Canada, $5: other countries in postal union 
25s. or S6. 



January 17, 1920 


VTOWADAYS most every 
-^ manufacturer of metal prod- 
ucts employs Oxwelding to 
some extent. 

The most efficient plants are 
successfully meeting the prob- 
lem of mounting production 
cost by greater and greater use 
of the Oxy- Acetylene Process. 

Oxwelding and cutting blow- 
pipes make possible many a 
profitable short cut — proven 
production methods that will 
give you larger output at less 

When may we tell you about it? 





World's Largest Maker of Equipment for 
Oxwelding and Cutting Metals. 


January 17, 1920 


'TU1K annual meeting of the Institute will be held in 
-*- New York on February 16 and the three following 
days. The papers prepared for discussion will deal 
chiefly with the oil industry. Mr. E. P. Mathewson is 
chairman of the committee on arrangements. 

VV7K have received copies of two speeches delivered by 
™ Mr. Miles Poindexter in the Senate. These have 
bees re-print I'd from the 'Congressional Record' and are 
mailed free as a matter of senatorial privilege. The 
senator from Washington is a candidate for the Presi- 
dency; he would show better taste if he desisted from 
advancing his candidacy at the public expense. 

"DEACE has been ratified, but it is a lame peace, be- 
■*■ cause the United States is not a signatory. On 
January 16 the League of Nations into being, but 
not for us ; we shall have National Prohibition instead 
the day after. The Armistice continues in force between 
the United States and Germany ; therefore business with 
that country, and her allies, remains under restrictions. 

/"\UR esteemed British contemporary, 'The Mining 
^-^ Magazine', in its enthusiastic appreciation of Mr. 
Sulman's treatise on flotation, says that "in America, 
particularly, the [flotation] processes were practically 
ignored. Many eminent authorities there looked askance 
at the English inventors, and regarded them as charla- 
tans on the level of gold-brick merchants and bunco- 
steerers". This is a weird exaggeration. The applica- 
tion of flotation to sundry sulphide ores of copper was 
developed in the United States after Mr. Sulman and his 
associates in London had stated that the process could 
not be applied successfully to them. More has been done 
in the United States during the last five years to de- 
velop and extend flotation than anywhere else, although 
we are aware that the earlier development of the process 
is to be credited to the technicians of Broken Hill. No ; 
we do not regard the English "inventors" as "gold- 
brick merchants and bunco-steerers", nor do we regard 
them as philanthropists and Sunday-school teachers; in- 
deed, our ideas concerning them have been expressed 
quite frankly several times in these columns; what St. 
Peter will do to them when they knock at the pearly 
gates, we would not venture to forecast. This much, 
however, we will say, after reading Mr. Sulman's trea- 
tise for the purpose of revision before printing it in our 
paper, namely, that Mr. Sulman writes with the care- 

Eulness and the consequenl clarity thai marks the true 
scientific man. and we would be happy if only more tech- 
nicians would use an instrument of precision, the Kng- 
lish language, with similar care, and skill. 

TTIGH COST is again to the fore in the proposal to in- 
•*-•*• crease the annual dues paid by members of the In- 
stitute. They have been asked to vote in favor of an in- 
crease to $15 per annum, but as this change cannot lie- 
come effective for a year, they are requested to pay $3 
extra for the volumes of Transactions issued during l!)'_'n. 
We have not referred to this matter until the voting was 
done, not caring to interfere, but we do desire to record 
our opinion that the Institute publishes too much stuff 
and that it needs more editing, partly to improve the 
text and partly to abbreviate it. Most of us in the West 
throw the papers on iron and steel into the waste-paper 
basket as soon as they reach us; of the mass of material 
published in the bulletins and the bound volumes, not 
more than an eighth interests any one member, llm-r is 
a lamentable waste, particularly in these days when print- 
ing, paper, and postage are increasing continually. Like 
most engineering societies, the Institute runs to quantity 
rather than quality, and tends to expand its energies in 
disregard of the inevitable cost; in short, the Institute 
publishes too much and may find it necessary before long 
to raise the dues again. It should meet its increased cost 
by diminishing the mass and improving the matter of its 

SOME of our readers have asked us to state the fads 
regarding the coinage of silver and the re-melting of 
coins into bullion. A newly minted dollar weighs 412.5 
grains; it contains 371.25 grains of silver and 41.25 
grains of copper. Subsidiary coins weigh less than their 
nominal fraction of a dollar, although the composition of 
all silver coins is the same. One troy ounce is equivalent 
to 480 grains, so that a silver dollar actually contains 
0.7755 ounces of silver; or, stated otherwise, the market 
price of silver must be $1.2926 per ounce if the silver in 
a dollar coin is to be worth $1. Obviously then, silver dol- 
lars have been worth more as bullion than as coins, for 
the quotation for silver has averaged $1.3356 for as much 
as a week. The Government will purchase silver bullion 
in any amount, paying for it the price quoted in New 
York on the day preceding that on which it is deposited 
at the Mint. If, however, the quotation is a fractional 
part of a cent, this fraction is dropped in making a set- 



January 17, 1920 

tlement ; and charges are also made for melting, parting, 
and assaying the bullion purchased. These charges are 
not fixed, but depend upon the amount and kind of base 
metal in the bullion ; for instance, the 'finer' the bar, the 
smaller will be the charges. The only requirement is 
that at least 200 parts in 1000 are precious metal and 
that the net value is not less than $50. While it is a 
crime to mutilate a coin and then put it into circulation, 
there is no law prohibiting the melting of coins into bul- 
lion. The fact is that millions of silver dollars have 
lately been converted into bullion and shipped through 
San Francisco to the Orient, and a great many more are 
being melted by small 'dealers' who realize a profit by 
selling directly to the various mints and Government 
assay-offices in the United States. The Government must 
hold in the Treasury department in "Washington enough 
dollars to redeem the outstanding silver certificates, but 
this number is rapidly diminishing as the certificates go 
out of circulation. The only thing that limits the num- 
ber of silver dollars melted by those in the business is 
their ability to obtain them. The min ts have not coined 
dollars for some time and the probable result will be 
gradually to eliminate the silver dollar from circulation. 
Not until silver reaches approximately $1.39 per ounce 
will it be profitable to melt half-dollar coins, but should 
this price be exceeded considerably we may look for some 
depletion in the stock of subsidiary coins. 

TVTOT long ago we gave some facts concerning the 
- 1 - " Premier mine, in British Columbia, 16 miles from 
the head of the Portland Canal. We can state authori- 
tatively that a fifth interest was bought by Mr. Minor C. 
Keith, of the United Fruit Company ; and a fifth by the 
Guggenheim Brothers, who also have an option on an- 
other fifth. The prices paid have not been divulged and 
the figures published are mere guesses. Mr. R. K. Neill 
opened up the orebody in 1918 under an option from 
Bush, the locator, for $100,000, which has been paid out 
of ore-sales. To illustrate the richness of the ore, we 
can say that 286 tons brought a return of $96,000, of 
which 40% in value was gold and 60% silver, at $1 
per ounce. At one time a face of ore 7 feet high and 
6 feet wide averaged $1000 per ton. The story of the 
discovery as previously recorded is approximately cor- 
rect. Mr. Neill found an adit-level 225 feet below the 
surface and 252 feet long that had been driven by the 
previous optionees, representing Mr. William B. Thomp- 
son, who dropped the venture on the advice of Mr. 
Henry Krunib, on whom, not Mr. H. R. Plate, devolved 
the duty of deciding whether to proceed with the ven- 
ture. This level started in $6 to $7 rock and ran in such 
low-grade material for about 60 feet, gradually sidling 
leftward into the softer country-rock, a quartz-porphyry, 
until it was entirely away from the lode, which is paral- 
leled for 192 feet. At the end it just touched the lode 
again, there being a little showing of ore in the right top 
corner of the face, which assayed only 54 cents per ton. 
Mr. Neill saw this edge of ore and took a grab-sample, 
which assayed $8 per ton. He ran a cross-cut and within 

four feet penetrated $300 ore. The cross-cut was con- 
tinued for 78 feet farther, and the whole 82 feet aver- 
aged $57 per ft»n. The silver is in the form of argentite, 
proustite, and stephanite, or, as a miner would say, silver 
glance, ruby, and brittle silver. The ore presents no 
metallurgical difficulty. At present the first-class is 
being sacked and shipped to the smelter at Tacoma, but 
later the output of the mine will be subjected to flotation 
and cyanidation on the spot. A new adit is being driven 
250 feet deeper than the prospect-tunnel and is expected 
to reach the orebody in April. 

HPHBRE was a time when the Tanganyika Concessions 
■*- was regarded as a menace to the copper market. 
That was ten years ago, when hope had not been dis- 
ciplined by experience. As we read the account of the 
recent annual meeting, it seemed as if the last five or six 
years had never been, for again the invincible optimism 
of Mr. Robert Williams and his backers shone brightly 
from the printed pages. Mr. Tyndale White presided 
and Mr. Charles Rowsell seconded the motion. The same 
actors ; the same play. Nor do we say this in a spirit of 
satire, for the story of the Tanganyika Concessions is a 
fine example of Anglo-Celtic initiative and persistence ; it 
exemplifies the adventurous spirit that is the very es- 
sence of mining. Mr. Robert Williams we know, and we 
admire greatly his indomitable energy and his keen 
sagacity. The shareholders are still backing him to the 
limit, and have allotted 200,000 shares to him in order to 
ensure his continued co-operation. In 1919 the Union 
Miniere, the parent Belgian company, made a profit of 
£700,000. The output of copper last year was 22,000 
long tons, but it would have been 40,000 if strikes and 
other difficulties had not interfered. It is expected to 
produce 40,000 tons this year. That would be a little less 
copper than the Utah Copper Company is producing 
annually. Mr. A. E. Wheeler, formerly of Montana, is 
consulting engineer to the company. We wish him and 
Mr. Williams every success in 1920. 

T> EFBRRING to deep mining on the Kolar goldfield, 
-*-* in India, and more particularly the impoverishment 
of the celebrated Mysore mine, we note the statements 
made at the annual meeting of the Mysore Gold Mining 
Company, as reported in the 'Financial Times'. It was 
stated by the chairman, Lord Glenconner, that "a mine 
that has produced £20,000,000 worth of gold and is still 
carrying in depth the reef [or vein] which has given 
such results may be looked upon as offering an unusually 
good prospect of renewed success". This was greeted 
with "Hear, hear" ; but we venture to suggest that when 
a mine is 4000 feet deep and is poor in bottom, the pros- 
pect is gloomy. The fact that it has yielded millions in 
gold simply indicates that there are just that many mil- 
lions fewer to extract. The Right Honorable Chairman 
added that he and his co-directors were "strengthened to 
that opinion by the fact that at the Ooregum mine, which 
is deeper than our own, valuable ore-ground is again 
being opened up at the deepest points". This is mis- 

Jantiorv IT. 1!"L*<> 


leading — unintentionally, of course. The ore-shoots of 
the Kolar goldfield pitch northward at a strong angle, s.> 
that any shoot that the Mysore might intercept at. say, 
4500 or 5000 feet in vertical depth, would be cut in the 
Ooregum at between 6000 and 6500 feet, whereas the 
Ooregum is, we believe, barely 5000 feet deep vertically. 
"Why mention the Ooregum and not the Champion Reef, 
which comes between the Mysore and the Ooregum f The 
best evidence concerning the probability of finding new 
ore-bearing ground in the Mysore should be obtainable 
from its adjoining neighbor northward, in which any 
deeper ore-shoots might have been intercepted, because 
the Champion Reef is the deeper of the two. The fact is 
that this mine also is sick in the bottom. This vital ques- 
tion of impoverishment in depth is being tackled in an 
absurdly unscientific way, in disregard of local evidence 
as well as of world-wide experience. What the Mysore 
shareholders need is a report by an independent engineer 
thoroughly versed in the vicissitudes of gold mining. It 
looks to us as if the patient were extremely ill, and the 
kindly old family physician were so unwilling to hurt the 
feelings of the relatives as to object to calling in the aid 
of a specialist. Moreover, the relatives are so fond of the 
invalid that they hate the idea of a cold-blooded verdict 
from an unsympathetic outsider. 

2(l,(Kll|. ton concent ratora. On another page of thus intuit 
we publish a short article on the Hoouatake fin 1'v 
Mr. K. (i. Wayland, the assistant superintendent 

OMOULDERING underground fires cause much trouble 
*^ in metal-mining, entailing difficulties in ventilation, 
expense for bulkheading, and in many instances the loss 
of valuable ore. Danger is a minor factor, as methods of 
fire-fighting have been so perfected that, when the fire 
has once been controlled, operations in the remainder of 
the mine usually can continue undisturbed. In excep- 
tional cases, stoping may even be done under forced ven- 
tilation within the burning area. Some fires have been 
smouldering for twenty or thirty years, resisting the best 
effort to extinguish them. The reason, of course, is found 
in the rock-fraetures that are present in every ore-bear- 
ing zone; such crevices admit air sufficient to support 
combustion, the area usually being so large that concrete 
bulkheads can only control, not extinguish, the fire. 
Heavy timbering, such as that in the Butte mines, is 
always a possible source of danger ; but by far the most 
difficult fires to control are those in sulphide ore. There 
seems to be good evidence that, when the proportion of 
sulphur is sufficiently high, fire can start from spontan- 
eous combustion, assisted probably by the heat generated 
from rock-movement. Such is that in the United Verde 
mine at Jerome, which has been burning since 1897. Most 
of this fire is confined to the zone above the 400-foot level, 
and so far all efforts to stop it have failed. Operations 
at present under way, however, will extinguish it, quite 
simply and completely. "We refer to the excavation by 
steam-shovels of the entire burning area, shipping the 
ore to the smelter, and using the waste to fill some of the 
near-by ravines. This novel project, which is estimated 
to take eight years, will involve the removal of some 
30,000,000 tons of rock and ore, a truly great under- 
taking even in these days of mountains of copper and 

Public Service and Public Practice — II 

In our last issue we discussed some phases of tins in- 
teresting question, illustrating them by reference, more 
particularly, to the activities of the College of Agricul- 
ture in the University of California, and suggesting the 
effect of their example on the Engineering departments. 
On inquiry, we find that, at our State University, there 
is no regulation limiting the outside professional activi- 
ties of any member of the Engineering departments, or 
of the Chemistry and Geology departments, so that it is 
left to the individual professor to decide how much work 
he will perform. Occasionally an individual has been 
subjected to criticism for neglecting his University 
duties for outside professional business, and he has been 
warned by his departmental chief or by the president 
to pay stricter regard to his proper functions. This, 
however, is a matter. of internal policy, which is not regu- 
lated by any fixed rule. Some professors refuse to en- 
gage in outside work because it interferes with their 
scientific research ; some undertake it only during the 
vacation ; others undertake it only when it is offered ; a 
few actually solicit it. Custom in this regard is much 
the same in other universities. In many of them the 
professors of engineering have accepted their appoint- 
ments on the understanding that they will be permitted 
to practise; indeed, it is believed officially that such 
practice adds to their efficiency as teachers. That is a 
popular delusion. We believe that a professor can en- 
rich his lectures just as much, if not more, by visiting a 
number of mines in a given district as by making a de- 
tailed examination of one of them. This applies like- 
wise to mills and smelters. The details collected for a 
report on a specific enterprise are not usually such as 
can be employed advantageously in teaching, which is 
directed mainly to the elucidation of principles; more- 
over, the detailed information obtained in confidence by 
a consultant may not be released for public use. The 
young men in college are not being made into superin- 
tendents or managers, they are being prepared for the 
several years of apprenticeship that precedes appoint- 
ment to such positions of responsibility. After all, a 
professor is much in the same position as an editor ; both 
are teaching, elucidating, and interpreting; but the 
editor faces an adult class. If he is in search of material 
to aid him in his efforts to provide articles that are use- 
ful and interesting, he visits a number of mines, mills, 
or smelters, not one only, and he collects data that can 
be used for comparison, in order to interpret the trend 
and development of technical practice, rather than the 
data necessary to appraise an individual undertaking in 
terms of money. Editors should not engage in engineer- 
ing practice, for the reasons that apply to professors. 
Such practice does not increase the efficiency of either: 
this can be maintained just as well by journeys of obser- 



January 17, 1920 

vation, provided, of course, that they have had experi- 
ence in the field before they became either editors or 
professors. Next, by engaging in outside work, they be- 
come entangled with commercial enterprises of varying 
respectability; they may become involved, without fault 
of their own, in a public fiasco or a disgraceful failure, 
the effect of which reacts upon the journal or the college 
with which they are identified. It is true, the professor 
may compete with his own graduated students, but this 
argument we set aside ; the objections to outside prac- 
tice on the part of professors are not, we believe, based 
on any such motive as petty jealousy; more nearly the 
motive is the solicitude of graduates for the good name 
of their alma mater. Moreover, they have regard for 
the repute of their profession, and on account of that 
they, as we do, deprecate outside practice by professors. 
It is our belief that members of University faculties are 
called for advice largely because of the prestige of their 
position, rather than their exceptional fitness or skill; 
indeed we believe that sincere application to scientific 
research and to class teaching gradually unfits a man for 
commercial work, and that therefore the successful 
teacher is rarely a good technical consultant on mining 
or metallurgical operations. A specially regrettable 
phase of the question is the engagement of professors as 
witnesses, or 'experts', in lawsuits. They become hired 
advocates for one or other side; ceasing to be scientific, 
they become crassly commercial. In suits brought against 
public utility corporations, it is not uncommon to find pro- 
fessors serving as hired advocates to buttress an invasion 
of private rights ; in such cases the honesty of the testi- 
mony not infrequently is ridiculed by the opposing side, 
and even by third parties, to the injury of the University 
with which the witness is identified. The most glaring 
examples of such scandals are afforded by apex-suits over 
mining properties, in which a number of honorable pro- 
fessors on one side swear a thing is black, while an 
equal number of equally honorable professors on the 
opposite side swear that it is white. Such exhibitions 
tend to disparage scientific authority, they throw dis- 
credit upon institutions of learning, they degrade the 
profession of mining geologist. It is high time that they 
were ended by agreement between the litigants to pro- 
vide for testimony that is not hired by either side, but 
selected by the Court itself. However, that is another 
story. The subject is only worthy of discussion if a 
remedy can be devised or a principle evolved. We think 
it is possible to discern a basic principle for guidance 
amid this clash of moral and commercial interests. It is 
a simple one. Confine outside work to such as is of pub- 
lic value, that is, to such as is valuable to the community, 
local or national. Thus professors might serve on State 
and National commissions of inquiry and advice; they 
might be arbitrators in matters of public controversy; 
they might make investigations and reports for the pub- 
lic good, are initiated by municipalities or States; 
they might be retained to study specific mining or metal- 
lurgical operations if they have unique knowledge or 
experience especially fitting them, above all others, for 

the task. In every case the public interest should be 
served by prompt publication of the results of such work ; 
in no case should it be done confidentially for a private 
client or in behalf of an individual commercial interest. 
The idea that Professor Jones performs any public ser- 
vice by advising Mr. Brown to buy a given mine, or that 
Professor Smith does anything useful for his science or 
for his University when he uses his ability to support a 
line of argument prepared by somebody in a lawsuit, is 
absurd. If, on the other hand, either Professor Jones 
or Professor Smith, as a specialist, assists a court of 
justice, a municipality, or a State in ascertaining the 
truth, which is the primary function of the scientist, he 
will be doing a public service, for which he is entitled to 
be paid in proportion to the value of his work. We be- 
lieve that if the idea of public service be adopted as the 
keystone of policy in regard to the outside practice of 
professors, and other holders of public office, it will be 
possible to develop a custom more honorable to all con- 
cerned and of more general usefulness than any at 
present in vogue. In such matters the force of public 
opinion will dominate ; for that reason, we invite letters 
on the subject for publication. 

Money for Europe 

Amid the frothings of the Hearst hysteria it is satis- 
factory to read Mr. Hoover's sane pronouncement on the 
question of loans to Europe. He makes clear the dis- 
tinction between a Government loan and commercial 
credits ; the first leads to a persistent pauperization of 
the war-devastated countries, checking the rehabilitation 
of normal industry, whereas commercial credits, for 
which most of them" still have the requisite assets, en- 
courage a mobilization of domestic resources and a stimu- 
lation of productive labor. Austria, and more particu- 
larly its capital, Vienna, will need direct help — perhaps 
Poland also — but in the main our effort should be di- 
rected toward reorganization and resumption of industry 
rather than a glorified soup-kitchen kind of dole to the 
unfortunate peoples on the other side of the Atlantic. 
Any immediate charitable aid need not run into such 
sums as will necessitate a big Government loan, which 
means increased taxation for our people ; such help can 
come from the reserves of the Grain Corporation. Now 
that the Treaty has become a fact, the first thing to do is 
to have some co-operation in financial measures, so that 
international exchange may be stabilized on some basis 
more favorable to business. On all these matters Mr. 
Hoover is exceptionally qualified to speak ; no American, 
probably no European, is better informed concerning 
conditions in Europe, and it is much to be desired that 
his views be given proper attention at Washington. By 
the way, a few days ago a straw-vote for Presidential 
possibilities was taken during luncheon time at the En- 
gineers Club in San Francisco: out of 72 votes, Mr. 
Hoover received 54, Senator Johnson got one, several 
others got one each, and one vote was marked "Any 

.TaniiHrv IT. l!i'_M 



D I 3 

s o 




z-'-^- -ft r A/ 

The K.litor: 

Sir -As an old subscriber to your excellent paper, may 
I claim ;i little space to criticize your attitude on the 
prohibition issue. In your issue of December 13, you 
criticize a writer for saying that prohibition would be a 
loss to the country. Without going into arguments about 
the morality of the drink question (and let it never be 
forgotten that the wine and beer users of France and 
Great Britain were quitting themselves like men when 
thousands of prohibitionists were spreading discord and 
unrest in the United States and Canada) let us review 
the question of loss of revenue through prohibition. 

The Allies today are faced with enormous war-debts. 
Business and professional men will be taxed almost be- 
yond endurance before this debt is paid, whereas the 
average working-man, earning in many eases large wages, 
gets off scot free. What tax can you suggest that will 
bring in more revenue and be fairer than a heavy tax on 
beer and wine? 

Theories pay no bills, and money must be raised. Why 
not make liquor a Government monopoly and charge a 
stiff price for it? Central stores could be established in 
each centre of, say 10,000 population. Put the stores in 
charge of a first-class Government official. Hold him re- 
sponsible for the sobriety of his district. Register each 
customer by number and record his purchases day by . 
day. If a complaint is made against a man for drunken- 
ness, cancel his license, and make it punishable by a stiff 
fine for any man to give him liquor. 

I have lived in Canada for several years under pro- 
hibition ; I have read in the papers of the great benefits 
that prohibition will bring upon a country that adopts 
it; we are told that jails will be empty and crime de- 
crease, etc. Such is not the case in Canada ; crime is on 
the increase. We have 'blind pigs' and stills galore, and 
the cost of policing the Province is enormous; it far ex- 
ceeds the cost of police protection before prohibition was 

The trouble with the average prohibitionist is that he 
will not face facts. He is governed by sentiment or the 
fear that his family may suffer through strong drink, and 
therefore he argues that -strong drink must be abolished, 
forgetting, in his ignorance, that there are evils in the 
world that cannot be abolished, only controlled. The 
social evil, as Kipling says, is the oldest on earth. Does 
any sensible man think it can be abolished ? Marriage is 
in many eases a failure. Shall we abolish marriage ? It 
is a notable fact that no great statesman or leader of 

men from Jesus I Ihrist down to the present age haa ever 
been a prohibitionist. This party has to depend on such 
men as W. J. Bryan and Billy Sunday. I am sorry. Sir. 
to see you in such company. 

We are told solemnly by the worthy prohibitionist that 
drink causes physical deterioration. Was this the case 
with the sailors that manned the British navy or the men 
in the trenches? Germany has not been a prohibition 
nation, and whatever we can say about the effects of 
drink on them mentally, the Germans certainly kept the 
world busy to lick them. The Turks are practically pro- 
hibitionists. Are they by any means a model or an effi- 
cient nation compared with other nations? It is well to 
bear in mind that most nations that use no liquor are 
controlled by people that use well and moderately the 
good gifts of God. 

It is also well to bear in mind that most of the good re- 
forms come by evolution. We have enacted drastic laws 
in England and the United States years ago, and, like the 
present prohibition movement, they will fail, as the 
churches are failing today, because instead of following 
a doctrine of love, they are using a big stick. 

The curse of the world is the extremist. The Kaiser 
was a military extremist, and plunged the world in 
misery. Who will say that Lloyd George and Herbert 
Asquith were not extremists when they took the stand 
against a larger army and navy, which might have 
averted the war, as the Social Democrats of Germany 
were rapidly increasing and were getting tired of the 
Kaiser's policy? 

In conclusion, Mr. Editor, I hope you will take my 
criticism in the spirit it is meant, without malice. There 
are thousands of men in Canada today who are not in- 
terested in the liquor trade, and many of whom do not 
use liquor themselves, who realize that the policy of pro- 
hibition for Canada is suicidal. Our hewers of wood and 
drawers of water came mostly from beer and wine-using 
countries. These immigrants are passing us up, and 
many of our best workmen are returning to Europe. 
And all this is being brought about by a well-organized 
body of well-meaning people who do not realize the task 
they have undertaken and are indifferent to anything but 
riding their own hobby. 

I have faith enough in the old law-makers to believe 
that if drink is such a curse as the prohibitionists would 
try to make us believe, that an eleventh commandment 
would have been added forbidding the use of liquor. Mr. 
Editor, do not kid yourself with prohibition buncombe 
such as has been published in Canada and elsewhere. 



January 17, 1920 

Any sane business man in Canada knows only too well 
that we have suffered a financial loss through prohibition. 
The War caused a season of high wages, and we now 
have the bill to pay. It is not the time to try experi- 
menta The British government is not asleep on financial 
matters and realizes that it cannot afford to lose the 
liquor income because a small percentage of her citizens 
abuse liquor. By adopting a policy of strict control, the 
liquor business can be handled successfully. Prohibition 
can never succeed, because as a famous statesman has 
said, "no law can be successful when opposed by a large 

minority "- F. J. BOURNE. 

Cobalt, Ontario, December 20. 

[Our correspondent should not class us with prohibi- 
tionists, but only with those willing to accept the deci- 
sion of the majority in this democracy. "We dislike any 
interference with our personal habits, and in this respect 
we resemble other good citizens, but we recognize our 
obligation not to 'kick against the pricks', but, rather, 
goodnaturedly to comply with the law as enacted by 
Congress. Extremists are unpleasant people, we ac- 
knowledge, but we are not of them. We cannot accept 
the notion that loss of revenue is an argument against 
prohibition, because those living in States that 'went 
dry' before the Federal enactment unite in testifying to 
the increase of business and the improvement in public 
morals consequent upon compulsory abstinence. — 

The Industrial Conference 

The Editor : 

Sir — In your editorial on this subject, appearing in 
the issue of January 10, you call attention to the fact 
that the purpose of the Conference at this time is to de- 
vise machinery for the adjustment of disputes, not to 
discuss the causes of them. However, I take it that you 
will agree that the "causes" must sooner or later be 
found and eradicated if we are to reach a satisfactory 
basis for carrying on industry. My idea is that this can- 
not be brought about until some arrangement is reached 
whereby manual workers are able to see advantage for 
themselves as individuals, and as a class, for putting 
forth their best effort. 

A fundamental tenet of radical labor-unionism is the 
principle that an irreconcilable conflict exists between the 
interests of 'capital' on the one hand and of 'labor' on 
the other; that anything that can possibly be of ad- 
vantage to the employer must necessarily work to the 
disadvantage of the employed. To this patently unsound 
uoetrine is added the theory that ' flirect action ' is labor 's 
only effectual weapon in the struggle for supremacy, and 
that the end always justifies the means. It is then 
natural that a large proportion of even the more con- 
servative workers honestly believe that their own inter- 
ests are best served by doing the minimum amount of 
work for the largest wages that the employers can be 
forced to pay. On the other hand, it seems to me that 
the employer does not come into court with entirely clean 

hands. Too generally in the past his policy haa been 
dictated by opportunism. When the supply of men, who 
must work to live, has been plentiful and work scarce, 
wages have been cut and employees have been driven to 
greater effort. Labor efficiency has been regulated 
largely by the length of the daily line of applicants seek- 
ing work ; a man will work harder to hold his job if there 
are fifty equally good men waiting for the first oppor- 
tunity to take his place, for by the same token he will 
have just that much more difficulty getting another job 
if he is discharged. Just now the worker is having his 
turn, for there are more places than there are men, and 
the result is the much-decried inefficiency in mining as 
well as in other industries throughout the country. 'A 
fair day's work for a fair day's pay', while a step in the 
right direction, does not go far enough. There must be 
provision for the man who by superior skill or intelli- 
gence, or by more industrious effort, can and does do 
more than "a fair day's work". He must be paid ex- 
actly in proportion to the value of his service to the en- 
terprise, while the less capable man, earning the mini- 
mum wage, must receive enough to provide the reason- 
able requirements of a decent existence. One step to- 
ward a solution of the present problem of industrial in- 
efficiency is the honest application of the principle of 
the 'square deal' — for the employer and the employee 
alike. The employer is rapidly coming to the realiza- 
tion of this fact, but the process of convincing the 
worker and gaining his co-operation will doubtless be 
slow and difficult. Past experience unfortunately is not 
calculated to instil confidence in the average worker as 
to the likelihood of getting square treatment from the 
man for whom he works. The development of mutual 
trust seems to be the first essential. 

I should like to hestr the views of some of your other 
readers regarding this subject, particularly those who 
have been working to promote understanding between 
the working man and his employer. I think discussion in 
which a 'spade' is called a 'spade' will do good rather 
than harm. 


San Francisco, January 10. 

Smelting Iron Ores 

The Editor: 

Sir — In reply to Dwight E. Woodbridge's criticism of 
my letter on the smelting of iron ores on the Pacific 
Coast, I take it, though his wording does not leave the 
matter exactly clear, that he denies that magnetite un- 
mixed with other iron ores cannot be smelted by ordinary 
blast-furnace methods. If Mr. Woodbridge can give in- 
stances of where straight magnetite is being smelted 
economically by ordinary blast-furnace practice he will 
be conferring a favor on a considerable number of people, 
who are under the same 'delusion' as myself. It would 
be interesting, too, if he could give the ratio of coke to 
ore in the operation and the temperature at which the 
magnetite is reduced. 

F. H. Mason. 

Victoria, B. C, December 31. 

Jamiiii\ IT. 1920 



Chloridizing Processes 


•Tin' revival of interest in chloridizing volatilization 
processes will result in a successful application of one or 

other of them. The failures resulting from attempts to 
conduct various methods on a commercial scalet were 
in my opinion due to lack of sufficient knowledge of the 
then unknown chemical reactions and of certain peculiar 
effects of heat. 

During the early years of the European war I had the 
opportunity of observing the attempts made with three 
different shaft-furnace plants to treat antimony ores by 
volatilization, all of which failed. My observations of 
these attempts caused me to believe that the process could 
be best carried on in a furnace of the revolving-kiln type. 
I tried treating the ore in a small furnace and got such 
good results that a furnace 24 ft. long by 38 in. diameter 
on the feed and flue end and 50 in. diameter on the fire 
and discharge end was installed. The early work with 
this furnace did not result in better than 60% extrac- 
tions. I found that the low heat at, or toward, the flue 
end caused the antimonj"- tri-oxide fume to be oxidized to 
the non-volatile tetra-oxide, which precipitated in the 
furnace and mixed with the molten stibnite to form an 
almost non-volatile oxy-sulpbide. This stuck to the wall 
of the furnace and balled the charge so much that it was 
necessary to shut the furnace down for cleaning purposes 
at intervals of a few days. I then made changes that 
caused the flue end to be hotter, thereby causing the ore 
to be heated more quickly, a procedure that resulted in 
doubling the capacity of the furnace and yielding higher 
extractions, which were eventually brought to over 90%, 
and, furthermore almost completely eliminated the cause 
of the costly shut-downs for cleaning purposes. 

The operations of the antimony plant had shown me 
that the more rapidly the ore could be heated to a point 
sufficiently high to prevent harmful reactions from occur- 
ring and cause good rates of volatilization, the better the 
resulting extraction. 

During the past two years I have conducted many tests 
on a number of ores with chloridizing methods and I find 
that in chloridizing volatilization also it is necessary to 
heat the ore quickly in order to prevent harmful reac- 
tions. These would probably involve the formation of 
non-volatile or nearly non-volatile compounds like oxy- 
chloride of lead, oxides of copper, or alkaline zincates, or 
alkaline lead silicates; also the formation of fused com- 
pounds, like, for example, sodium sulphate, which coat 

*The disclosures made hereinafter are subject to patent 
applications by the author; some of the patent applications 
are prepared, others are being prepared. 

t'The Chloride-Volatilization Process', by Blarney Stevens. 
'M. & S. P.', July 12, 1919. Also discussion of preceding by 
Stuart Croasdale in the issue of August 9, 1919. 

the minerals in the ore and hinder the proper reactions, 
or prevent volatilization of the metal compound so en- 
cased. Slow heating not only causes low extractions, due 
to these harmful reactions, but also decreases the capacity 
of the furnace, and therefore entails an excessive con- 
sumption of fuel. It may also prevent the development 
of beneficial reactions. 

It is probably due, mainly, to the serious effect of slow 
heating, especially when sodium chloride is us"d, that 
most of the large-scale attempts heretofore maJe with 
chloridizing volatilization processes have been unsuccess- 
ful. These attempts were conducted usually in rotary- 
kiln furnaces that were fired at the discharge end, the 
aim evidently being directed to economy of heat by mini- 
mizing the difference in temperature between the gases 
leaving the furnace and the charge entering it at the same 
place. Such procedure in the long furnaces required for 
commercial work would naturally result in the ore being 
slowly heated, which would cause low extractions or low 
furnace-capacity, and consequent failure. 

The importance of rapid heating is apparently not 
recognized by Mr. Croasdale, who after having failed 
with 25-ft. furnaces now proposes furnaces of the regular 
cement-kiln type from 75 to 100 ft. long. Mr. Stevens 
also seems to favor the long kiln-furnace. G. H. Wigton 
in Patent No. 1,264,586 states that the ore should be 
slowly heated. 

The fact that slow heating, especially in cases wherein 
sodium chloride is the chloride used, is the cause of poor 
results is clearly proved by tests that I conducted on a 
number of different types of ore. One ore gave the fol- 
lowing analysis : 

Before treatment (analysis) 

An 0.03 oz. 

Ag- 10.86 oz. 

PbC0 3 15.78 = 10.8 % Pb* 

PbSO, 2.41 = 0.38% S 

ZnCO s 10.13= 0.7 % Zn 

CaO,Si0 27.02 = 14.0 % SiO = 

CaCOj 12.34 = 19.93% OaOt 

FeC0 3 21.74 = 15.00% Fes0 3 

CuC0 3 Cu(OH). 1.91= 1.1 % Cu 

Deduct error 0.33 

After treatment (estimate 
per ton of untreated ore) 

Au None 

As None 

Pb None 

S0 3 0.96 

ZnO 12.12 

Ca0 3 SiO 27.02 

CaO 6.91 

FeoOg 15.00 

Cub 0.28 

Total 100.00% 62.28 

•Includes Pb in PbSO«. tlncludes CaO in Ca0 3 SiO. 

Lead soluble in saturated brine = 14% extraction. 

The loss of weight by treatment, according to the 
analyses, would be 37.72%. A small test made with 150 
grammes of 10-mesh ore and 17 gm. of CaCl 2 2H 2 mixed 
with water to form a cake resulted in an almost complete 
extraction of lead, silver, and gold, the copper extraction 
being over 75%, whereas only traces of zinc were ex- 
tracted. The loss of weight was 36.8%. Allowing 6.95 
gm. of additional weight to the heading for the CaO re- 
sulting from the decomposition of the calcium chlo- 



January 17, 1920 

ride (there was no dust loss because the charge was not 
rabbled, and consequently retained its original form 
throughout the test). The difference between the loss 
shown by analysis and that shown by the small test is 
insignificant and could be accounted for by slight varia- 
tion in sampling and weighing and to moisture absorbed 
by the ore used in the test. 

The tests shown on the charts were run on the same 
•character of ore as shown by the preceding analysis. The 
charges were sampled every five or ten minutes as indi- 
cated by the station dots on the chart. Tests marked 1, 
2, and 3, were made with 11% NaCl added to the ore. 
Those marked No. 4 and 5 were made with CaCl 2 2H 2 0, 
11% and 9% respectively. The low extraction in No. 5 
was due to small amount of clinker formed and to poor 
mixture of lumpy chloride and ore. 

These tests prove the necessity and effect of rapid heat- 
ing, especially when sodium chloride is used. Test No. 5 
shows an extraction line almost paralleling the temper- 
ature line, proving that the extraction can be obtained 
almost as quickly as the ore can be heated. 

There are many ways of heating the ore rapidly; for 
example, a revolving furnace could be heated at the feed 
end ; or, if a very long furnace, it could be heated at both 
ends. Another example would be a furnace of the shaft 
type, like the Stedfeldt or Scott, in which the heat is ap- 
plied at any desired point. With the shaft-furnaces the 
extraction could probably be obtained in a few minutes, 
especially when chlorides of the alkaline earths are used. 

The consumption of fuel in the chloridizing- volatiliza- 
tion process will not be a serious item. In the case of an 
ore somewhat similar to the analysis quoted above, to 
which would be added 10% of its weight of salt, the 
chemical consumption of heat, allowing for all thermo- 
ehemieal reactions, including heating of the ore, salt, and 
gases therefrom, to 1000 °C., would amount to 701 B.T.TJ. 
per pound of ore. Allowing 100% excess air for burning 
fuel-oil of 20,000 B.T.TJ. grade and allowing the air to be 
pre-heated to 600°F. by means of the heat of the flue- 
-gases, which are allowed a temperature of 700°C. as they 
leave the furnace, there would be 13,512 B.T.TJ. per 
pound of oil available for heating the ore and for furnace 
radiation. Assuming that the furnace radiation is 15% 
of the total heat-units in the oil, there would remain 
10,512 B.T.TJ. per pound of oil, or sufficient to heat 15 lb. 
■of ore. The fuel consumption would therefore be 6|%, 

In the case of a small multiple-hearth furnace having a 
capacity, with this method of heating, of one ton per day 
and equipped with air-cooled rabbles, about half of the 
air from the rabbles being returned to the furnace 
through the burners, but not equipped for utilizing the 
•Heat of the flue-gases other than to slightly pre-heat the 
ore, the fuel consumption was at the rate of 60 gal. per 
ton of ore. It will certainly prove advisable in practice 
to utilize the heat of the flue-gases for either pre-heating 
the air entering the furnace or for partly drying the ore, 
or for both purposes. 

The analysis shows that the ore does not contain suffi- 
cient sulphur to complete the reactions illustrated in Mr. 

Croasdale's TJ. S. Patent No. 741,712, and, furthermore, 
it clearly shows that there is no free silica, which, accord- 
ing to Mr. WigtoVs TJ. S. Patent No. 1,264,586, is essen- 
tial. Tests made on this ore as well as tests on other ores 
in which sodium chloride and sulphur or silica were used 
in amounts according to the reactions of Mr. Croasdale's 
or Mr. Wigton's patent specifications resulted in lower 
extractions than those of parallel tests run at the same 
time under the same conditions excepting for the omis- 
sion of added sulphur or silica in the parallel tests. 

Mr. Croasdale illustrates the principle of his patent by 
the equation: 

2XC1 + RS + 4 = X 2 S0 4 + RCL 

In the case of a lead sulphide ore in which sodium chlo- 
ride is used, the translation of the above equation would 

PbS + 2NaCl + 40 = PbCL + Na 2 S0 4 

Such chemical change would not occur in one step ; it 
would require two steps, as follows : 

No.l PbS + 4 = PbS0 4 
No. 2 PbS0 4 + 2NaCl = PbCL + Na 2 S0 4 

However, when lead sulphide is roasted in air, as in 
practice, the resulting product consists of a mixture of 
PbO and PbS0 4 and occasionally some undecomposed 
PbS. The remainder of the sulphur is oxidized and liber- 
ated in the form of S0 2 . The proportional amount of 
PbS0 4 formed is not sufficient to cause a 'complete' ex- 
traction of the lead as lead chloride according to step No. 
2; furthermore, step No. 2 is not a good reaction for 
volatilization because the sodium sulphate formed coats 
some of the lead compound and either hinders the forma- 
tion of lead chloride or prevents its economical volatiliza- 
tion. The PbO does not combine directly with NaCl to 
form lead chloride, and if the PbO formed during the 
roasting of the PbS were coated with either molten 
sodium chloride or sodium sulphate (the latter from the 
second step) it would not be acted upon. Now, if water- 
vapor is present this would react with the SO. gas and 
the sodium chloride to form HC1, which would combine 
with any PbO, uncoated by sodium, and thereby form the 
volatile lead chloride. Copper ores would act similarly 
as in the case just mentioned with the exception that the 
chlorides of copper are unstable in the presence of air at 
the temperature required for the volatilization process 
and are easily converted to CuO ; but when water vapors 
are present they would result in the formation of hydro- 
chloric acid, which would unite with CuO to form a chlo- 
ride. Chlorine does not combine with CuO at a temper- 
ature of about 400° C. when air is present, but HC1 does. 
Chlorine does not combine with CuS0 4 , either in cold 
solutions or heated salts, to form chlorides of copper, but 
HC1 does. 

Zinc is only volatilized in chloridizing-volatilization 
processes when it is in the presence of sulphur ; zinc is not 
volatilized quantatively from ores wherein it exists in the 
form of an oxide or carbonate unless sulphur in some 
available form is present or is added to the ore ; whereas 
lead can be volatilized in either case. The reactions in 
the case of zinc sulphides could be illustrated as in Mr. 

.January 17, L920 



Croasdale's patent. In any case, where DUO Bllphldfl il 
treated in the presence of sodium ehloride, trouble from a 

coating of sodium sulphate is inevitable. 

The pitHMH of Seidell Irwin Clawson (Patent No. 
1,192,037) would, in general, in so fur aa the reactions 

hereiubefore are oonoemed, be similar to Mr. Croasdale's. 
George Wigton, in bis patent No. l.'J(>4,586, among other 
tilings limits his patent to a react inn wherein a silicate 
like sodium silicate is formed. He then attempts to 
qualify this by stating in effect that by heat 
PbCO s = PbO -f O ' 
and PbO ■ 2NaCl, I'hci, • N,,,o 
But in his illustration, he publishes the reactions 
PbCO, • IN'aH + SiO, -^-0 = PbCL- r ■Na..O + 
Na. ! SK) a + CI, + ( 10 
This last reaction appears very doubtful. I have found 
in tests with ore and in tests with pure reagents that 

2, Abundant lead chloride fame was given off when 
litharge was treated with fnci/Jil 0, or MgCl ,611,0 or 
the fused product resulting from Fusing Cat 'I -11,0 at 
high heat All the lead remaining was found to i- 


if. Til re galena with sodium chloride acted the same as 
in PbO, with the exception thai the solution of the fused 

product contained only faint traces of lead. 

4. Pure galena with < at 1,'JIL.O gave off an abundance 
of lend chloride fume. No fused coatings like sodium sul- 
phate were formed. On boiling for a few minutes a sat- 
urated solution of sodium chloride containing galena, 
only a faint trace of lead was found in solution, whereas 
with both calcium and magnesium ehloride solutions ap- 
preciable quantities of lead were found in solution. The 
magnesium chloride solution contained the most lead. 
The same treatment in parallel tests with the analyzed 

1900' E too 




1800' F. o / 


















■SO. 8 




























j - 



- 1- 



















60 70 BO 90 

Time in minutes 

CHART No. 1 

100 110 120 

PbO + NaCl + Heat does not quantitatively result in 
the volatilization of lead chloride, and that whenever 
sodium silicate is formed the extraction is reduced as the 
sodium silicate increases. 

I have found, hoth by tests on ores and by direct ex- 
periment on minerals and reagents, that the action of 
sodium chloride in chloridizing metallurgy differs greatly 
from the action of chlorides of the alkaline earths and 
that sodium chloride is much inferior to chlorides of the 
alkaline earths. By direct tests on minerals and reagents 
conducted in an open crucible over a bunsen burner, the 
results are as follows : 

1. No lead chloride fume was detected when salt and 
litharge were heated to fusion and above the boiling-point 
of lead chloride. The fused product, when treated with 
water and the mixture boiled to saturation of the solu- 
tion, showed only very small quantities of lead chloride 
in the solution. 

ore shown in the fore part of this article resulted in 14% 
extraction of lead by means of sodium chloride solution, 
about 60% extraction with calcium chloride solution, and 
over 99% with magnesium chloride solution. Magnesium 
chloride, and in some eases calcium chloride solutions, 
could be used to extract the metals from some ores to bet- 
ter advantage than the acidified brine solutions that are 
usually recommended. 

I have not decided as to just what reaction takes place 

between sulphides like lead sulphide and chlorides like 

alkaline-earth chlorides, but it appears that the following 

may be a representative reaction when heat is applied : 

CaCL + H 2 + Heat = CaO -f 2HC1 

PbS + 2HC1 = PbCl 2 + H 2 S 

PbS + CaCl, + H 2 + Heat = PbCl 2 + H,S + CaO 

The H 2 S would probably be further oxidized by the 
furnace gases. In the case of oxides like PbO the reac- 
tions would prohably be 



January 17, 1920 

MgCl 2 + H 2 + Heat = MgO + 2HC1 
and 2HC1 + PbO = PbCL, + H 2 
or, in the case of fused calcium chloride, it may possibly 

CaCL, + PbO = PbCl 2 + CaO 
If the amount of water-vapor present were reduced, 
chlorine would be liberated instead of HC1 according as 
the amount of water-vapor varied; in such cases the re- 
actions would be different than those illustrated above. 
The desired action of sodium chloride with ores con- 
taining little or no sulphur or silica, appears to be due to 
the action of some element or compound such as a form of 
oxygen or water-vapor contained in the furnace gases 
either by the aid of a catalyzer or by dissociation of 

the necessity of high heat, the necessity of exposing the 
mineral to the gases, which is unnecessary when other 
chloridizing agents are used, the absence of direct reac- 
tion between lead oxide and sodium chloride, and the 
effects of coatings like silicates or sulphates, it is reason- 
able to believe that the sodium chloride is altered by the 
actions of the gases to a sodium compound like NajO and 
chlorine or hydrochloric acid, and the active chlorine or 
compound thereof attacks the lead compound to form 
lead chloride before the sodium compound can react with 
silica, lead, or both, to form fusible non-volatile com- 
pounds; also, that should the lead chloride thus formed 
become mixed with the other fusible compound, a great 
part of the lead chloride would distil out of such a mix- 

1900° F. 100 




1800° F. o 






































> f 






















3 s 




























\ 8 






o , 



Time in minutes 


sodium chloride vapor at high heat in the presence of 
elements or compounds contained in the furnace gases. 

In many, if not all, cases wherein sodium chloride is 
the chloridizing agent, it is necessary to expose the ore 
particles to gases, like those from the furnace, containing 
air or water-vapor, or both, in order to obtain good ex- 
tractions. It appears, in lead oxide or carbonate, that the 
desired chloridizing of the lead, when sodium chloride is 
used in the presence of gases, takes place only at high 
temperatures, apparently above the boiling-point of so- 
dium chloride, which temperatures are very much greater 
than the temperatures required by chlorides of the alka- 
line earths. 

The effect of slow heating is more detrimental to chlo- 
ridizing volatilization when sodium chloride is used, 
especially in the case of lead oxide, than in the case of 
alkaline-earth chlorides. 

Taking into consideration the effect of slow heating, 

ture because of its (lead chloride) high vapor-pressure at 
the temperature under consideration. Sodium chloride 
does give good results in some such cases but the results 
are not as good nor are they as easily obtained as those 
obtained by the use of the alkaline earth chlorides in 
otherwise parallel tests. 

With all the ores I have thus far tried to treat by 
means of wetting them with solutions of either calcium or 
magnesium chlorides and forming cakes thereby, and 
heating them without rabbling or disturbing the cakes 
during the treatment, I have gotten just as high extrac- 
tions (extractions varying from 90 to 99+%) as were 
obtained with parallel tests run at same time but rabbled 
throughout and without wetting. This in the case of 
chlorides like alkaline earth chlorides proves that rab- 
bling is not necessary and that it is not necessary to have 
each particle of ore exposed to the gases of the furnace ; 
however when sodium chloride is the main chloridizing 

January 17. I'.rjo 



agent used I found iluu rabbling wils ncifnanmj to pro- 

dure Rood results. 

Tin' fact that good extract ions ean be ohtaiued from 
ore molded into cakes that only expose one face to tho 
funiaee gases and that are not broken during treatment, 
certainly proves how little air is necessary. 

The best furnace oonditiona would depend mainly 
upon thi' ore or mineral and the oMoriduung agent. To 
volatilise Borne metals as obloridea, reducing conditions 
would be QeeeaBaryj whereas with other metals, neutral 
or oxidizing conditions would be best In some cases of 
copper, or like ores, highly oxidizing conditions should 
be avoided. In the case of an ore like the one shown by 
the analysis quoted above, reducing conditions would. 

than do cotton bags. This fact is learned from the 
bleaching and cleaning industries. 

(n the Pohle-Oroaadals plant at Mayer, Arizona*, 
woolen bags were used. The results there may have 

prompted the doubt regarding the efficiency of hag- 

When using bag-houses it would be a good plan to 
feed an alkali or an alkaline earth to the flue-gasc* be- 
fore tiny enter the hags, because this procedure will not 
only neutralize tree acid and thereby save the bags, but 
it will also save chlorine. It will probably be found 
necessary or advisable, in order to cut down the equip- 
ment and operating costs, to make an addition of an 
alkali or alkaline earth (as carbonate or oxide) to the 

1900' F. too 





1800° F.o 

1 . 









lead 83 







1 / 























„ * 























































10 20 30 40 50 60 70 SO 30 100 

Time in minutes 
chart No. 3 

among other obvious happenings, cause the ore to slag. 

Reference is made by some people to the supposed 
difficulty attending the collection of the fume. It is said 
by a few, and referred to by others, that the Cottrell 
system is the cure for all evils and it is also stated that 
that system is the only one which will successfully or 
advantageously collect the fume from chloridizing vola- 
tilization. These fumes are more easily collected than 
antimony oxide fumes, which are almost completely 
caught by means of properly designed chambers and bag- 
houses, or absorption devices, like spray or coke-towers. 
I. have not experienced any difficulty whatsoever in pre- 
venting the escape, even to traces of chloride fume that 
were sent to a bag-plant. The bags will collect as much, 
if not more, of the chloride fume sent to them than will 
a Cottrell plant. I have found that cotton bags stand 
the chloride gases better than they stand sulphurous 
gases. Woolen bags will not stand the chloride fumes, 
although they withstand sulphurous fumes much better 

furnace-gases before they enter a Cottrell plant, since 
free hydrochloric acid or moist chlorine gas would injure 
the metal parts. 

A scrubbing or absorption system should prove advan- 
tageous. Such systems are cheaply erected ; they require 
little attention ; they are almost fool-proof, and are more 
cheaply operated than any other system. With such a 
system it is possible to make numerous separations. Take, 
for example, a lead-zinc-copper-gold-silver ore that is 
being treated by chloridization-volatilization. The fume, 
containing all the metals as chlorides, could be sent to 
the lower part of a tower filled with pieces of, say, lime- 
stone, over the surface of which trickles a solution, say, 
of calcium chloride, which is fed at the top of the tower 
and which after passing through the porous filling of 
limestone is drawn from the tower at a point near the 
base. The ascending gases, containing the chlorides, on 
passing through the porous fill, come in direct contact 

»'M. & S. P.', September 1, 1906. 


January 17, 1920 

with the descending solution. Such chlorides as lead 
chloride are thereby dissolved in the descending solution, 
whereas such chlorides as zinc chloride are insoluble. 
Any free chlorine or hydrochloric acid in the gases reacts 
with the limestone to form calcium chloride or any oxy- 
chloride, and is thereby recovered. Calcium oxy-ehloride, 
or chloride of lime, is an effective chloridizing agent in 
volatilizing processes. The valuable chlorides in the 
fume are recovered either as dissolved metals in the 
solution or insoluble salts of the metals suspended in 
the solution and they are removed at the base of the 
tower, together with any ore-dust or calcium sulphate. 
The solutions and the suspended particles can be treated 
by ony one of several methods ; for instance, they may be 

after treatment can be returned to the tower for re-use 
or they can bg otherwise disposed of, for example, by 
mixing with the ore. With insoluble anodes the precipi- 
tation is not complete, but, as the solution need not be 
thrown to waste, it matters but little if the precipitation 
is not complete so long as an appreciable precipitation 
takes place. Chlorine will be liberated when insoluble 
anodes are used, and this chlorine can either be returned 
to the tower or fed to the furnace to chloridize the min- 
erals. The cathode efficiency is high when complete 
precipitation is not attempted. The use of insoluble 
anodes in this way would be cheaper than the use of 
soluble anodes. 
When the ore contains so much sulphur as to cause un- 

1900' F. too 


i i 






















•* . 

.<■ / 

' ) 








§ « 



<o SO 





























— n 












1800° F. o 





+ i 

20 30 

Time in 

40 50 


60- 70 

1900° F. too 

tZ 60 








si 1 
















,' s 




u / 








,' i 





1 1 









i rf 






10 20 30 40 

Time in minutes 


treated by settlers, or a series of settlers, to remove the 
suspended particles such as zinc chloride, which can be 
treated as desired to recover the zinc and the chlorine. 
Then the solutions may be treated with lime to precipitate 
the metals, and the precipitate may be treated to recover 
the chlorine and the metals ; or they may be treated with 
a precipitant like lead to precipitate any silver, gold, 
and copper ; or they may first be treated with copper to 
precipitate the gold and silver and then with lead to 
precipitate the copper. The solution containing lead 
chloride may then be precipitated by lime and the prod- 
uct smelted with an alkali or alkaline-earth carbonate 
and carbon to produce lead bullion and recover the 
chloride ; or the precipitate may be shipped to the mar- 
ket; or the solution containing lead chloride may be 
treated by electrolysis to precipitate the lead. If soluble 
anodes are used, no chlorine is liberated and the lead 
can be almost completely precipitated. The solutions 

profitable consumption of limestone, an insoluble filling 
and water could be used in place of the limestone and 
calcium chloride solutions. Then the zinc chloride would 
be the soluble chloride, as well as the copper and some 
silver, whereas the lead chloride would be mostly in- 
soluble. The metals could be separated and recovered by 
well-known methods. 

Perhaps in some cases it would be more profitable to 
roast the ore to remove the sulphur before commencing 
chloridizing volatilization. In cases where the chloride 
fume is caught dry, as in a bag-house, it can be treated 
by means of wet methods to separate and recover the 
metals, or the product can be smelted with an alkali or 
an alkaline-earth carbonate and carbon to produce bul- 
lion and an available chloride. The selection of the best 
means of collecting the fume and treating it, as well as 
the mode of application of chloridizing volatilization, 
depends a great deal on the character of the ore and 

January 17. 1920 


- I 

the local conditions under which it is nrnrmnrr to <lo the 

The proper degr I grinding to be applied to an 

ore will depend upon the character of the ore itaelf, the 
chloridizing agent, the type of fnmaoe, and the method 
of applying the ehloridiaing agent When Bodium 
chloriili- was oaed I obtained better extractions from some 
ores when ground to pass a {-inch aperture than after 
finer grinding. I found that the ore heated quicker and 
that it sintered lees when coarsely ground. 

The manner of applying the chloridizing agent will 
also depend upon the ore and to a smaller extent upon 
local conditions. The ehloridi/.ing agent may be added 
in a solid form or it may he added as a solution. Except 
where fuel is expensive or water scarce, it will be ad- 
visable, unless possibly the ore is to be pre-roasted before 
being subjected to chloridizing volatilization, to crush the 
ore in solution, then de-water to a desired point, say, 
where the proportion of solution retained is sufficient to 
provide the proper amount of chloridizing agent. The 
thickened pulp may then be fed to a suitable dryer, such 
as, for example, a double-action broken-flight conveyor 
by which ore is dried as much as desired and the lumps 
broken up. Such a drier could be heated by means of 
the flue-gases from the furnace. The ore could then be 
fed to the furnace. Grinding in solution will reduce the 
cost of grinding by about 50% ; it will prevent the dust 
nuisance ; it will cause less loss by dusting in the fur- 
nace; it will save chloridizing agents; it will ensure a 
perfect mixture of chloridizing agent and the ore, there- 
by ensuring good extractions; and it will increase the 
extraction in oxidized lead ores because lead is dissolved 
by the chloride solution, and it can tben be recovered 
from the decanted solutions by precipitation. In cases 
of oxidized lead ores chloridization will he almost com- 
plete before the ore reaches the furnace. Ores will settle 
well from saturated calcium-chloride solutions, especially 
if sodium chloride is present. A saturated solution of 
calcium chloride will contain 40% CaCL, equivalent to 
about 53% CaCL2H.,0. I have experimented with the 
Cerro Gordo dump-ore, which contains considerable dust 
and which is somewhat similar to the ore quoted above, 
but of somewhat lower grade; this ore when ground to 
pass 10-mesh will settle readily, in calcium-chloride solu- 
tions containing a little sodium chloride, to a pulp con- 
taining less than 20% solution. On drying such a pulp 
(containing 20% saturated solution) down to near the 
point of crystallization of CaCl 2 2H 2 0, it would be neces- 
sary to evaporate 180 lb. of water per ton of ore. The 
dried mixture would contain about 10.6% CaCl 2 2H 2 0, 
which is more than sufficient for treatment of the ore by 
chloridizing volatilization. The flue-gases would contain 
more than sufficient available heat with which to drive off 
the small amount of water. In this particular case, over 
50% of the lead and some silver would be recovered from 
the decanted solutions. On this ore I have repeatedly 
obtained over 98% of the silver, lead, and gold contents 
by chloridizing volatilization. Assuming the improbable, 
that only 75% furnace extraction of the lead could be 

obtained, then, if BOfl were extracted by solutions and 
?.">', of the remaining by volatilization, the total extrac- 
tion would be • s -"'' . 

The consumption of chloridizing agents will not be a 

is item of cost in the process, because then is little 
chance for stack losses, especially if an absorbent like 
calcium carbonate is used. The combined chlorine can 
oearly all be recovered in an available form and most of 
the chlorine is driven from the ore before it is discharged. 
An allowance of 10% cf the chloride added to the ore 
would in most cases cover the possihle losses. The amount 
of chloride required l>y the ore will vary with the char- 
acter of the ore, the type of furnace, and the nature nf the 
chloride, as well as the manner of applying the chloride. 
The amount added to the ore may vary anywhere from 
1 to 12% or more of the weight of the ore; therefore, the 
loss would not exceed, say, 20 lb. per ton of ore. In most 
eases it will be found advisable to work with calcium 
chloride and in many cases the small losses of the chloride 
can be made up with a cheap salt, like sodium chloride, 
which may be added to the charge fed to the furnace. 
Saturated or nearly saturated solutions of magnesium 
chloride would be cheap where freight-rates are not pro- 
hibitive, as they can be purchased from ocean salt-fac- 
tories for a few cents per gallon loaded on board tank- 
cars. The problem would be to get the tank-cars. 

Ic some cases chlorine gas may be used as the chlorid- 
izing agent to advantage ; for example, in the case of ores 
that tend to fuse when an alkaline chloride is used. 

While chloridizing volatilization will find a big field in 
complex ores, it may also be used on simple ores, like a 
straight precious-metal ore, as the cost of operation is 
not high. On an oxidized silver tailing from pan amal- 
gamation, in which the silver was combined with man- 
ganese, and in which no lead or copper was present, and, 
further, in which the gangue consisted of silica and 
barium sulphate, I have obtained 80% extractions on the 
first trial, whereas the best extraction that could be 
obtained either by cyanidation, concentration, or flota- 
tion, or by all three methods, was not much over 50%. 
The estimated cost of treating this tailing by chloridizing 
volatilization in a 50-ton plant was $2.43 per ton. 

The possibility of obtaining preferential extractions, 
say, of silver in a silver-lead ore, during volatilization is 
indicated by tests on an ore which, when 10% chloridiz- 
ing agent was used gave over 80% of the silver and lead, 
and which, when only 4% chloridizing agent was used, 
gave over 80% extraction of silver and 37% of the lead. 

Sintering or the formation of fusible silicates hinder 
extraction, but lead extractions usually suffer more than 
silver extractions in such cases. As a rule alkaline- 
earth chlorides will give better results even at lower 
heats than will sodium chloride. 

The temperature required will vary according to the 
altitude, class of ore, chloridizing agent, and type of 

The cost of the plant varies, of course, with local con- 
ditions, but a plant of 50-ton daily capacity could prob- 
ably be erected at a cost of about $750 per ton-capacity. 



January 17, 1920 

The Homestake Fire of 1919 


•The early mining on the Homestake orebody was done 
with the square-set system and an- enormous quantity of 
timber was used. This system has been discontinued in 
carrying up the stopes, and shrinkage stoping is em- 
ployed from the sill-floor up to a point 25 ft. below the 
next level, leaving a crown of ore above each stope. After 
the broken ore is drawn and sent to the mill, a timber 
mat is laid on the sill-floor and the empty stope is filled 
with waste from the level above. Subsequently the pil- 
lars and crowns are removed by square-set stoping and 
filled with waste. 

The fire, which is nowf burning at the Homestake 
mine, started on the evening of September 25, 1919, above 
the top (sixth) floor of one of the small square-set stopes 
in No. 3 pillar north of the Star cross-cut on the 800-ft. 

This stope had broken into a large area of broken ore, 
waste, and timber above the 700-ft. level, and the night 
shift was engaged in drawing this ore. The broken ore 
and timber had arched over and hung up about 30 ft. 
above the grizzly, and in blasting it down the men set 
fire to some of the timber. They immediately tried to 
draw this burning timber out, but failed, and steps were 
at onee taken to pipe water into the stope from the 800-ft. 

Smoke and gas from the burning timber soon rendered 
it impossible to work in the stope without rescue appar- 
atus and the gas was spreading to other parts of the mine. 
Therefore, the work of building brattices to isolate the 
fire area was commenced at once. Wooden brattices, 
plastered with cement, were built in all openings into this 
part of the mine on the 600, 700, and 800-ft. levels. The 
increasing volume of smoke and gas soon made it neces- 
sary to use oxygen apparatus in this work also. Later it 
was necessary to build brattices on the 900, 1000, and 
1100-ft. levels as well. 

At the same time, pipe-lines were laid on the 600 and 
700-ft. levels, and the area immediately over the fire was 
flooded with water. On the 600-ft. level a cross-cut was 
driven from the foot-wall into the caved ground above 
the fire and an attempt was made to drive a pipe ahead 
to a point directly over the fire and turn water into this 
cavity. This work was under the direction of the 
Bureau of Mines engineers. Two short headers were 
driven on the 700-ft. level in an effort to get near the 
fire, and in one of these some burning timber was en- 
countered and extinguished, but without effect on the 
main body of the fire. This is the only instance in which 
fire was actually seen since the first night. 

Chemical apparatus from the Lead City fire depart- 
ment was used at this point and a stream was kept play- 
ing for about 24 hours without any tangible result. 

*From the 'Pahasapa Quarterly'. The author is chief en- 
gineer for the Homestake Mining Company. 
tThe fire was extinguished early in December. 

In the meantime, car No. 5 of the Bureau of Mines had 
arrived at Lead and its crew was giving every aid in the 
helmet work anij in devising means for combatting the 

On October 5, after a conference of department heads, 
it was decided to hang up the mills and flood the mines. 
On October 7 the first 12-in. pipe-line began to flow into 
the open-cut and on the 9th the second one. These pipe- 
lines were each 600 ft. long and were laid on the surface 
of Mill street from a point in front of the general offices 
into the open-cut. 

A 3200-ft. flume was also constructed along the side of 
Whitewood creek from a point a short distance below 
Kirk to the mouth of Savage tunnel, which connects with 
the 300-ft. level of the Homestake mine. Water was 
turned into this flume on October 12. Water flowing in 
Deadwood gulch at Central City also was caught and 
pumped into the mine. The Golden Reward mine at 
Aztec, at the head of Whitewood creek, was equipped 
with skips and is being unwatered, the water flowing 
into the Savage tunnel, three or four miles downstream. 
The total amount of water running into the mines is 
about 1300 cu. ft. per minute, and the total volume to 
be filled is about 100,000,000 cubic feet. 

Concrete bulkheads have been built in all the openings 
from the Homestake mine proper into the Caledonia 
workings, so that these workings will not be flooded. The 
bulkheads were designed to stand pressure that would 
result if the mine were filled to the 300-ft. level, and a 
large factor of safety was used. The lowest bulkhead is 
on the 900-ft. level and is nine feet thick ; those on the 
800-ft. level are six feet thick ; the rest are five feet. In 
all, 11 bulkheads we're built. 

The concrete was mixed in a revolving mixer on the 
surface and transported in mine cars down the shafts to 
the various bulkheads. After the forms had been re- 
moved from the concrete a finishing coat was troweled on. 

All electrical machinery, drilling machines, locomo- 
tives, and everything that the water would damage was 
removed from the mine and the levels were thoroughly 
cleared of trash, stray timber, and anything that could 
float about and cause damage. The shaft openings have 
been laced to keep timber from floating into them and 
interfering with the skips or cages. 

As soon as the water is high enough in the mine the 
work of unwatering will begin. The main dependence 
will be placed upon water skips operated by five of the 
hoisting-engines, and upon air-lifts. The pumps will, 
of course, also be used as soon as it is possible. 

Stamps will begin dropping almost as soon as the work 
of unwatering is started ; and long before the mine is 
entirely pumped out normal production will have been 
reached. The company has been able to keep all of the 
mine and mill crews employed on the needed surface im- 
provements and exploration work, so that the fire has had 
little effect upon the community. 

Fighting the fire has entailed a great deal of hard, dis- 
agreeable, and hazardous work, but the mine crew has 
undertaken it willingly and carried it out with great re- 

January 17. H'-jn 




Mining and Smelting Near Matehuala, Mexico 


To reach Matehuala one leaves the main line of the 
Laredo-Mexico City or National railway at the station of 
Vanegas and proceeds by a branch line for 30 km. south- 
eastward. The city itself has the typical flat-roofed 
structures of the Mexican plateau and, beyond its smelt- 
ing industry, has little to distinguish it from scores of 
other towns of a few thousand inhabitants. I shall first 
describe the American Smelting & Refining Co. 's smelter, 
and then give a few notes concerning the neighboring 
mines, which furnish the bulk of its ore-supply. These 
are situated at La Paz and Catorce in the mountain range 
lying west of Matehuala and east of the main line of the 
National railway. 

Smelter. The smelting is done entirely in blast-fur- 
naces, of which there are three of different sizes, the 
principal dimensions being as follows: 



Number of jackets 



Two tiers 





Each Each 







side end 



No. 1 . . . 




3 2 



. 250 



4 2 



No. 3.. . 

. 450 



8 4 



The cast-iron baseplates of the crucible of the largest 
furnace rest on 18 cast-iron posts, whereas those of the 
smaller furnaces are supported by the usual jack-screws. 
The feeding is done by hand, through long doors on each 
side of the smoke-hood, from buggies that have been filled 
at the ore-beds and raised to the feed-floor level by a 
hydraulic elevator. The column of ore is run 9 ft. high 
above the tuyeres and the consumption of coke is 10% 
on the charge, as most of the ore is oxidized and only 
enough sulphide is fed to make the matte to catch the 
gold, silver, and copper. The blast-pressure is 24 oz. 
per square inch. It is furnished by two Connelsville 
eycloidal blowers, one making 67 and the other 100 cu. 

ft. per revolution, belted to a Bass 180-hp. tandem-com- 
pound engine. As a relay is a Root No. 10 eycloidal 
blower direct-connected to a Nordberg tandem-compound 
engine of 200 horse-power. 

Slag from the furnace flows continuously to a cylin- 
drical steel fore-hearth lined with firebrick and water- 
cooled by jets from an exterior ring of 1-in. pipe set 1£ 
ft. below the top rim. From the fore-hearth the slag 
overflows to Nasmyth slag-cars, which are hauled by 
electric-trolley locomotives to the dump. The matte set- 
tles in the fore-hearth and is thence tapped into cast- 
iron molds with ellipsoidal bottoms, 6i ft. long by 21 ft. 
wide by 1J ft. deep, set on four wheels and holding 650 
kg. When solid, the matte is dumped from the molds to 
the ore-bed level, where it is sprinkled with water and 
broken into lumps, for return to the furnace, until it 
runs high enough in sulphur for shipment. This means 
42% sulphur, the first matte having some 10% less. 

The supply of copper ore comes chiefly from the 
Dolores and the dry pyrite is a silver ore from the La 
Paz mines. When larger than a fist it is passed through 
a jaw-crusher; otherwise it is dumped directly from the 
barrows, which run on plank-platforms, at the level of 
the railway-car floors, over the ore-beds. The sample is 
obtained by taking every tenth shovel or so, when unload- 
ing the railway-cars, and wheeling it in barrows to the 
sampling-mill. Here the sample passes from a jaw- 
crusher, a bucket-elevator, and a Vezin automatic sam- 
pler into a pair of rolls. The discharge from the rolls is 
quartered on an iron plate to assay size by aid of a hand- 
sieve and a pair of fine rolls. The ore-beds have flat floors 
and are surrounded by walls of slag-brick. 

Power is suplied by five horizontal boilers; of these 
three are of the return-tubular type, 5 ft. diam. by 18 ft. 



January 17, 1920 

long, and two are Hazleton patent boilers, 10 ft. diam. 
by 18 ft. long, each with a single internal corrugated flue 
in the lower half of the shell and a set of return-tubes 
in the upper half. As in the blowing-plant, the direet- 
current electric generators are in duplicate. The first set 
is a General Electric dynamo of 125 volts and 800 amp., 
direct-connected to an Ideal high-speed engine of 260 
r.p.m. The relay set consists of two Wood dynamos, one 
of 40 and one of 25 kw., belted to an Atlas slide-valve 
engine. There is also an ice-machine, belted from an 
electric motor, with a capacity of one ton per day. Part 
of the ice is used for drinking-water, the remainder being 
sold in the city. 

This plant has to do its own repairing, so the shops are 
correspondingly complete. The smithy has four 4-ft. 
forges and a shear-press; the machine-shop has two 
lathes, a planer, a shaper, a drill-press, an emery-grinder, 
a grindstone, and a pipe-machine. 

To catch the blast-furnace dust, there is an extensive 
flue system. First the furnace down-comers pour some 
90%. of the dust into a brick settling-chamber, the floor 
of which is arranged in a line of hoppers that can be 
spouted direct into a small car. The smoke then passes 
into twin flues, either of which can be cut off for repair 
or cleaning by a steel drop-door at its entrance. For the 
first part of their length, the twin flues are 16 ft. high 
and have a longitudinal arched roof supported by tie- 
rods and buckstays; for the last 100 m. or so they are 
20 ft. high and have a roof of transverse jack arches. 
The flues have flat floors, which can be cleaned through 
small doors on their exterior sides. Finally the smoke 
escapes through an octagonal brick stack, 16 ft. inside 
diameter by 250 ft. high. 

Altogether, the Matehuala plant is satisfactory for its 
purpose, which is the smelting of large quantities of low- 
grade copper ore, mostly oxidized and coarse, for the 
production of a copper-matte that serves meanwhile as a 
collector for dry silver ores, some of high grade. It was 
built by the National Metallurgical Co. under the direc- 
tion of G. B. Ladd of Pittsburgh, and was acquired by its 
present owners in 1910. 

■Water-supply. Formerly the population of Mate- 
huala were frequently forced by thirst to migrate during 
the dry season, but this scarcity of water was remedied 
as a preliminary to the construction of the smelter. By 
an expenditure of $360,000, the only mountain stream in 
the vicinity, for a long radius, was secured at Maroma, 
whence -it is brought to town in a 30-km. canal, the mini- 
mum supply being 400 gal. per minute. 

Powbr-Plant. Adjoining the smelter is the power- 
plant of the Dolores copper mine of the A. S. & R. Co., 
situated eight miles .away on the company's narrow- 
gauge steam-railway. The plant is one of 300 hp. and has 
two Erie City water-tube boilers, fed by Knowles pumps 
with water from the tower outside, which cools the con- 
densed steam from the engines. There are two Nordberg 
tandem-compound Corliss engines, each belted to a Gen- 
eral Electric thref-phase generator of 600 volts and 242 
amperes. The resulting alternating current is stepped 

up to 10,000 volts for transmission and reduced at its 
terminal to 440 volts for mining purposes. 

The Mines ot' La Paz. This district has two distinct 
classes of deposits: contact masses of copper ore and 
fissure-veins of silver mineral. Of the former, the chief 
shippers are the Dolores and the Cobriza; of the latter, 
the Santa Maria de La Paz, the Nueva Paz, and the 
Esmeralda. Other less developed mines are the Maria 
Luisa, the Augustias, the Perla, the Santo Nifio, and the 

The Dolores mine was acquired by its present owners 
in 1901 and was developed for several years with a force 
of 2000 to 3000 men. When it reached the productive 
stage it was found that 700 men sufficed to get out a daily 
shipment of 500 tons. Whenever required, the orebodies 
can easily yield double this quantity. 

The geology is sketched in plan and section in Fig. 1, 
which shows a limestone hill intruded by a laccolith of 
monzonite-porphyry. The Dolores porphyry shows in 
the plan as a triangle whose sides are designated as the 
North contact, the South contact, and the Fault. The 
last has a down-throw on its east side, where lie the 
fissures of the silver zone. The South contact follows the 
direction of the limestone beds but the North contact cuts 
across them. The orebodies lie along the contacts and are 
large for this type, one having been found 300 ft. long, 
70 ft. thick, and over 300 ft. deep. As the North contact 
of the Dolores property is a half-mile long, the South con- 
tact nearly as extensive, and there are also several lime- 
stone horses, occurring in the laccolith, where contacts 
may likewise contain lenses of ore, it is evident that the 
area favorable to exploration is immense. The contact 
zone is highly metamorphosed into a hard crystalline 
mass of garnet, chalcedony, wollastonite, epidote, and 
hornblende. Where replaced by ore the contact rock 
shows azurite, pyrite, and chalcopyrite, and the com- 
mercial product runs 40% silica and 3% copper, with 
2£ gm. of gold and 70 gm. of silver per metric ton. Orig- 
inally the ore was shipped to Aguascalientes for smelting, 
and then only a sorted grade going 5% copper was pay- 
able, but since the purchase of the Matehuala smelter 
the shipping grade has been reduced to 3%. 

The mine is opened by a vertical shaft from the surface 
and by two cross-cut adits, one on the South and the 
other on the North contact. The main shaft has two com- 
partments, equipped with balanced two-ton skips, and is 
over 100 m. deep. The South adit is double-tracked and 
connects with a two-compartment vertical shaft also fur- 
nished with two-ton skips and over 100 m. deep. The 
North adit has a like shaft but with a third compartment 
for a ladder-way. These shafts are driven in self-sustain- 
ing rock and are consequently only timbered enough to 
hold the skip-guides and the ore-bins at the levels placed 
at 100-ft. vertical intervals. 

The shafts are fitted with Wellman-Seaver-Morgan 
second-motion electric hoists of 125 hp. each. These have 
inch ropes with a maximum speed of 500 ft, per minute, 
wound on double 5-ft. drums. The motors are General 
Electric of 440 volts and a three-phase current. These 

January 17. 1920 



electric engines were put in a decade or so ago to replace 
smaller gasoline prospecting hoists. The electric current, 
which arrives from the generating statii.n of Miitehuala 
at 10.000 volts ami is stepped down to 440 volte at the 
mine, also drives an Ingersoll-Rand air-compresBor capa- 
ble of supplying twenta Ave 8-in. piston-drills at B0 lb. 
pressure. This machine is turned by a constant Bpeed 
synchronous motor and its air-cylinders are cross-com- 
pound, equipped with the piston-intake and an automatic 
release. This last opens two relief-valves when the air- 
receiver is overloaded and prevents the pistons from 
doing aught but churn the air. 

Before the installation of tliis air-compressor, in 1911, 

Fig. 1 

all development was done by double-hand drills and was 
extremely slow, as a gang could only drill a metre of 
inch holes in contaet-rock and two metres in limestone 
per shift. This meant a weekly advance of 11 to 3 metres, 
when working two gangs at the face of a tunnel 2 m. 
high by 1.8 m. wide on each of the two daily shifts. With 
air-drills, this speed can be quadrupled and often quin- 

Tramming is done in Koppel side-dump steel cars, 
holding 840 kg. and with wheels shrank on the axles, 
which run in outside boxes as in railway practice. All 
tramming is done by contract under direction of the com- 
pany's boss. In fact, the contract system is generally 
used for all labor in the mine except skip-tenders and 
hoisting-engineers. The development is paid by metre 
of advance and the stoping by the ton broken. The com- 
pany furnishes the contractors everything free, except 
explosives, which are sold at cost. Generally one con- 
tractor has charge of only one heading or stope and em- 

ploya bis assistants on day's pay, which is advanced by 
the company, as the work progresses, and deducted from 
the contract price on the clay of settlement 

Bvery mine-car is sampled before dumping, and. nn 
leas all the oars from a stope are up to the required grade, 
the foreman also samples the face, as its appearance alone 

is an uncertain guide. In the assay-Office, the mini- run 
samples are only tested for copper, because each per cent 
ol' copper means 0.8 gm. of gold ami •_':! gm. of silver per 
metric ton. 

In hand work, the progress is so slow that little powder 
is consumed and artificial ventilation is therefore un- 
Decessary, while in development by power-drills the com- 
pressed air suffices to blow out any excess of smoke. Like 
wise little or no pumping is required, as the natural 
fissures of the contact formation suffice to keep the work- 
ings dry in this region of small rainfall. Indeed, water 
is so scarce locally that a considerable quantity for do- 
mestic and mining use is brought in daily on the railway 
from Matehuala. 

The company provides a doctor and hospital for its 


Fm. 2 

employees, who are entitled to free treatment and an 
allowance of money during illness by the payment of a 
small monthly contribution to the hospital fund. Be- 
sides an American foreman, practically all underground 
men are Mexicans. The official staff, which includes a 
superintendent, a doctor, an assayer, and a surveyor, 
was all American at the time of my visit. 

The Dolores mine is probably the best example of a 
copper mine in a lime-porphyry contact formation in the 
eastern Sierra Madre. In the large size of its orebodies 
and in the nature and grade of its output, it is strikingly 
similar to the mines of the Suan Concession in Korea.* 
Here, however, the area of productive contact is con- 
siderably smaller and the altitude above sea-level much 
higher than in its Korean counterpart. 

Santa Maria de La Paz. This mine is owned by a 
native company, with many French stockholders ; it also 
owns the neighboring Nueva Paz mine. The shares are 
quoted on the Stock Exchange in Mexico City; the com- 
pany has paid a large sum in dividends from an output 
of rich ore extending over many years. Quite unlike the 
adjoining Dolores mines, its deposits produce principally 
silver and gold from fissure-veins along porphyry dikes, 
of which there are two series: the first running from 

*'M. & S. P.', Oct. 11 and 25, 1919, pp. 509 and 599. 



January 17, 1920 

north-east to south-west, and the second from east to 
west. The main orebodies are found along the foot-walls 
of the first system of dikes and occur in vertical shoots 
50 to 80 m. long and i to 3 m. wide, following the dip of 
the porphyry, which is 60° to 70° south-east. The best 
bonanzas in size and grade are found at the intersection 
of two dikes of different strike. A short distance east 
of the fault shown in Fig. 3 is another fault, and this lat- 
ter forms the western limit of the dikes that cut the 
slates, schists, and limestones in the La Paz property. 
In depth, the orebodies are apt to be of lozenge shape and 
to occur en echelon along the propitious fissures, as in 
Fig. 2. 

The ore is hard, with a gangue of calcite and quartz, 
and contains some galena, pyrite, and sphalerite, with a 
little chalcopyrite, besides the sulphides and sulpho-anti- 
monides of silver that furnish most of the yield. The 
Santa Maria mine is opened by a vertical shaft over 500 
m. deep and ships its high-grade ore to the lead smelters 
at Monterrey, while its eommon ore goes to the Mate- 
huala copper plant. For seven years previous to 1904, 
the mineral output was treated in a plant at the mine, the 
greater part of which was still preserved at my visit, for 
use in emergencies. 

The Santa Maria reduction works consist of a concen- 
trating mill and a lead smelter. The mill contains a jaw- 
erusher, two sets of rolls, 11 Wilfley tables, and one Wil- 
fley slime-table, besides two bucket-elevators and the 
necessary bins, sluices, etc. It was run by a small simple 
horizontal steam-engine fed by the boilers supplying the 
smelter. This mill evidently handled the low-grade ore to 
make table and slime concentrates to feed the smelter. 

The smelter has three roasters and three blast-furnaces 
for making lead bullion. The roasters are built of the 
local porphyry and sandstone, with firebrick only for 
lining the arches and doors where high temperatures 
prevail. The hearths are 16 by 50 ft. and their smoke 
passes to a dust-flue, with adobe-brick walls and a roof 
of flat cast-iron plates with no buckstays, debouching into 
a stack built of red brick and 60 ft. high. The dust-flue 
is 3J ft. wide by 5J ft. high inside and its 20-in. adobe 
walls are protected by a stone coping, 12 in. wide, between 
which the iron roof-plates are set. 

Of the blast-furnaces, the two older ones are of round 
section, 4 ft. inside diam. at tuyeres, and provided with 
four cast-iron water-jackets, 4£ ft. high, in which are set 
seven 3-in. tuyeres. The newest furnace is rectangular 
and has two tiers of four cast-iron jackets on each side 
and two at each end, with six 3-in. tuyeres on each side. 
Above the jackets, it has the usual brick shaft resting on 
a base of I-beams supported by east-iron posts. The 
furnaces are hand-fed and their smoke debouches into an 
adobe dust-flue of similar construction, but of larger size, 
to that used by the roasters. For blast, there is a cy- 
cloidal positive blower, belted to a Ball high-speed engine, 
to supply all three blast-furnaces. 

Esmeralda Mine. This property, also owned by a 
native company, lies just east of the La Paz mine and has 
opened five ore-shoots along one of the north-east systems 

of dikes already mentioned. These shoots are still strong 
at the bottom of the La Cruz shafts which is over 500 m. 
deep. The country-rock here is entirely' limestone and 
the ore-shoots lie between it and the floor of the dike. At 
the time of my visit, 400 tons of ore was being shipped 
per week with an average assay of 1.2 kg. silver per ton. 
Of this ore, the first-class, going 2 kg. and up, went to 
Monterrey, while the second-class, going around 0.8 kg., 
went to Matehuala. The vein-minerals are the same as 
those in the La Paz mine 

The steam for the power-plant is furnished by three 
return-tubular boilers, each of 150 hp., made by the 
Ames Iron Works of Oswego, New York, and fired by 
domestic coal. The air-compressor is of Laidlaw-Dunn- 
Gordon make and of 125 hp., making 1500 cu. ft. per 
minute; it has cross-compound air and steam cylinders 
and runs only the underground hoists and pumps, drill- 
ing being done by hand. The shaft head-frame is of two- 
post wooden type; and the steam second-motion hoisting- 
engine is of German make and of 80 hp., with two inde- 
pendent drums of 2 m. diam. which handle two one-ton 
buckets, in counterbalance, by a f-in. rope. 

The Mines of Catorce. Outside of Pachuca, this dis- 
trict has probably produced more silver than any of its 
rivals in the eastern Sierra Madre. It lies on the western 
flank of the mountain range that contains La Paz, which 
is 12 miles away as the crow flies. It is reached by a 
wagon-road from the station of Catorce on the National 
railway. Leaving this valley station at an elevation 
around 6000 ft., the road becomes steeper and steeper as 
it ascends the mountain slope, finally following long 
sweeping curves blasted from the canyon-walls in so 
costly a fashion as to bespeak the ancient importance of 
the mines above. Twelve miles from the railway the city 
of Catorce itself is readied at 9540 ft. elevation, and its 
hundreds of snug adobe and stone houses, mostly vacant, 
denote the chill of the climate and the modern somnolence 
of the camp, a sad condition which the recent rise in the 
price of silver may do much to correct. 

As Mexican mining districts go, Catorce is quite young, 
not having been discovered till 1773. Its surfieial ores 
were immensely rich in hornsilver, and from 1778 till 
1810, when the War of Independence stopped production, 
the gross output was over .$4,000,000 per annum, or a 
total for 32 years of at least $128,000,000. Even in 1810, 
many of the best mines had reached water-level and sul- 
phide ore, and after the expulsion of the Spaniards most 
of them remained closed for many years. In 1826, an 
English company installed a Cornish pump and re- 
opened the Concepcion mine, but the pump was burnt 
out after a few years and little was done thereafter till 
in 1882 a native syndicate succeeded in unwatering part 
of the workings. This syndicate produced largely till 
1897, when the mine was again flooded, owing to the 
pumps being stopped on account of the low price of 

Along the wagon-road from Catorce station to Catorce 
city are two deserted towns, formerly inhabited by the 
mill-hands who worked the patio process along the gulch 

January 17. ltiju 


on the civs from the mines above. Soon after the railway 

reached Oatoree station. 86 yean ago, the richer on 
began to be shipped to the Monterrey lead smeltera 
Since smelting began at Matelmala, the Catoroe ahipping 

ore has been packed over the mountain ridge to the east 
and carried 21 miles to Cedral station for malting at 

Matelmala. The creek in Catoree gulch, whirl, formerly 
watered the patios, now furnishes irrigation for small 
gardens along its banks and for some meadows near 
Catoree station, where fodder for the pack-animals sup- 
plying the mines is raised. 

Going east from Catoree station, the wagon-road to 
Catoree follows the valley tor half the distance and is 
now so out of repair as to be practicable only for pack- 
animals. At its mouth, Catoree gulch shows itself as an 
eroded anticlinal fold in blue limestone, interlined occa- 
sionally with red and green shale. Half-way up the gulch 
to the town, large cliffs of red andesite begin to appear 
Hi the limestone crests of the hills, and frequent 
dikes of greenish diorite and light-colored porphyries are 

The mines lie east of town, toward the summit of the 
Catoree range, and occur as fissure-veins in limestone, 
wherever it is intruded by porphyry dikes. The ore de- 
posits are thus, geologically, similar to the silver veins 
of La Paz, across the range. The Santa Ana mine is the 
best equipped property in the district; it has a coal- 
burning steam-plant supplying electric pumps and hoists 
installed at a cost of 2,000,000 pesos. At the time of my 
visit, it was the only mine that was pumping and able to 
extract ore below the level of ground-water. It employed 
200 men and ran a horse-tramway from Catoree to the 
mine, a half hour's ride, for its employees. Only dis- 
covered in 1870, it has produced much oxidized ore and 
is now finding rich silver sulphide below the water-level. 
There are many other old mines, some of which have 
been idle for decades, owing to the expense of pumping 
and the cheapness of silver, that will undoubtedly be ■ 
resuscitated if silver continues at its present price. Sueh 
are the Valenciana, the Dolores, the Sirena, the Boquiero, 
the Guadalupe, the Prisea, the Padre Flores, the San 
Agustin, and the Purisima. 

Concepcion Mine. As already noted, this property 
has been one of the most productive of the district, and, 
after more than a century of sporadic activity, has good 
future prospects. As sketched in Fig. 2, there is one 
fissure, called the Madre, and one developed branch, the 
Refugio, both opened by the main drainage-adit, a mile 
long and 350 m. vertically below the crest of the outcrop 
workings at shaft No. 3. The vein is 20 m. thick and 
dips 64° south-jvest, while the limestone beds dip 30° 
north-west. The vein-filling is quartz and ealcite except 
in the ore-shoots, of which there are four developed in 
the length of the adit and pierced by the shafts at 1, 
2, 3, and 4 in Fig. 2. The distribution of these ore-shoots 
is apparently controlled by porphyry dikes, which cut 
the vein at intervals, dip sub-vertically, and are 5 to 20 m. 
thick. In Fig. 2, only the three principal dikes are 
shown at a, b, and c, and it can readily be seen that they 

follow closely the biggest ore-shoots, at 1, 2, and ;t re- 
The on-ahoota are not continuous chimneys, but rather 

form a zone of lozenge-shape lenses, J to 10 m. thiek 
and occurring anywhere between the vein-waits They 
often reach a length of 80 m. and a height of 100 m., and 
are apt to occnr • « echelon as shown in Fig. 2. The ore- 
minerals are eyrargyrite, hematite, pyrolusite, and a little 
malachite in the oxidized zone, which extends to water- 
level at 400 m. vertically below the collar of the General 
or No. 3 shaft. Below this is a rich secondary zone of 
the sulphides, sulpho-antimonides. and sulpho-arsenidee 
of silver with pyrite and sphalerite. The richest ore, 
often 500 oz. per ton, was found in the big Lenses of shoots 
No. 3 and No. 4, while much ore of the lenses at No. 1 
and No. 2 only assays 20 oz. At my visit, 100 men, by 
hand-drilling only, were getting out 30 to 50 tons weekly 
of sorted ore going 40 to 80 oz. of silver per ton. This 
was oxidized ore gleaned from the old stopes above the 
adit-level (as pumping the workings lower down had 
ceased in the 'nineties) and trammed to the mouth of 
the adit. 

For handling the ore when working below the adit- 
level, there is a 200-hp. steam-hoist at No. 3 shaft ; this 
operates two balanced buckets of two-ton capacity. As 
relays are two 30-hp. hoists. The surface hoists and a 
100-hp. air-compressor, for mine and hoists, are supplied 
with steam by seven 80-hp. boilers of the horizontal re- 
turn-tubular type. 

The mill is a concentrator for the treatment of sulphide 
ores. It is equipped with a 25-hp. vertical boiler, a 15- 
hp. horizontal simple engine, a 10-stamp battery, built 
by the Pacific Iron Works, a 4-ft. Huntington mill, a 
two-compartment Harz jig, a 3-ft. two-field trommel, 6 
Wilfley tables, and two Frue vanners. As this plant 
made a poor saving even on sulphides and was useless 
for oxidized ores, -it was planned to transform it into a 
cyanide-leaching mill. The ore above a 40-oz. grade 
would then be still shipped to Matehuala, but the poorer 
quality of oxidized ore could be profitably leached. To 
reduce the cost of power, two choices were open : the first 
to buy electricity from the adjoining Santa Ana plant, 
the second to install gas-engines and supply them by 
coal-burning gas-producers. 

American sheet zinc, in exact sizes and properly 
marked, should be in good demand in European coun- 
tries. Present conditions even favor the introduction 
there of American finished roofing plates. It has re- 
cently been shown that American machinery for this 
purpose can be much more economically operated here 
than that now in use on the continent. The largest use 
for sheet zinc in Europe is, of course, in building con- 
struction, and, strange as it may be, this field seems to 
be capable of worth while expansion by the United States. 
The American Zinc Institute is adopting publicity meth- 
ods which have made so general the use of zinc construc- 
tion in Europe, explaining that zinc is moderate in cost, 
light, easily worked, and long lived. 



January 17, 1920 

Tungsten in China 

Tungsten mines in China were discovered only re- 
cently in deposits in the southern part helow the 30th 
degree of north latitude. At the present time, with a 
few exceptions, the mines are not owned by any private 
companies or by the Government, but anyone may em- 
ploy men to work a mine. The principal districts in 
which tungsten is found are in the Province of Hunan 
(southern part), in Hangchow and its vicinity; Kiangsi 
(southern part), in the Lunghanhsien, Tinnan, Sin- 
tenghsien, Nankanghsien, and Taiyu districts ; and 
Kwangtung (eastern part), in the Wuwha, Hingningh- 
sien, Kaiyung, Heifung, Lukfung, and Wailia districts, 
(northern part), in the Namyung, Lokehong, Chihing, 
and Chukiang districts. The districts mentioned above 
are only those in which operations are now being carried 
on, there being other large areas in which tungsten de- 
posits are found, in the southern parts of the Provinces 
of Hunan and Kiangsi and the north-eastern part of 
Kwangtung, which have not as yet been opened. 

Chinese tungsten, in the form of wolframite, occurs 
either as sands or pebbles in the streams or in small veins 
in the granitic rocks. The former deposits are sometimes 
accompanied by cassiterite or magnetite, or both, usually 
mixed with quartz sands, the latter in the form of veins 
ranging in thickness from a fraction of an inch to 2 or 
3 in. Although both kinds of deposits are found in many 
widely scattered regions, they are never found in large 
quantities in any particular area. For this reason, and 
also because this industry is of very recent origin in 
China, no modern systematic methods have been in- 
augurated to explore this field. 

Rakes, toms, and pans are used for washing the stream 
ores, while in the case of vein ores, hand-hammers, drills, 
and sometimes black powder are used for extracting the 
ore. With the exception of a few places in Hunan and 
Kwangtung, nearly all the mining is carried on by farm- 
ers, who work during their spare time after their farm- 
ing labor is completed. But during the early part of 
1918 the industry had grown to such an extent that many 
of the farmers suspended their farm work and devoted 
themselves entirely to tungsten mining. 

The concentrate offered on the market is rather impure, 
and usually must be reconeentrated for export purposes. 
For this purpose a few native, as well as foreign, com- 
panies have sprung up, each having a concentrating plant 
of some sort. The Tui Hwa Mineral Supply Co. has a 
fairly well-equipped plant, containing shaking-screens, 
jigs, rocking tables, and round revolving tables for con- 
centrating its own ores and those collected from mining 
centres ; and it is in a position to produce concentrates of 
67 to 72% W0 3 with about 5% of manganese and con- 
taining hut a small amount of impurities such as copper 
or tin. 

The farmers take their concentrate to the local market 
where they dispose of it to local dealers at the best prices 
obtainable. The local dealers, in turn, sell to licensed 
collectors from the ports. The port dealer has to pay 

a tax to the Government, and, after shipping the concen- 
trate to his own port, he is under obligation to export it 
within a certain^>eriod, usually three months. If he fails 
to do this he is obliged to get another license for the same 
ore or forfeit the ore to the Government. 

According to the statistical abstracts of the year 1918, 
as prepared by the Chinese Maritime Customs, the total 
exports of tungsten ore amounted to 10,365 short tons. 
However, the total production for the year 1918 exceeded 
this figure, there being large quantities left in the mining 
districts which could not be sold owing to the cessation of 
hostilities in Europe. The working of the deposits con- 
tinued, nevertheless, until February 1919, when the oper- 
ators saw that the returns would not even pay their work- 
men. It is stated that mining operations cannot be re- 
sumed unless the market price is high enough to enable 
operators to pay each workman 20 tael cents per day for 
his labor. The following is an estimate of the cost of 
placing a short ton of concentrate on the market. The 
average rate of exchange in 1917 was $1.08 gold, and in 
1918, $1,193 gold. The rate in the latter part of July 
1919 was $1.37 gold. 


Cost of extraction 300 

Cost of transportation 40 

Customs duties, license fees, local taxes, etc 100 

Cost of insurance and incidental charges 20 

Total cost 460 

The above figure was arrived at by estimating the cost 
of labor at 20 tael cents per workman per day. Each 
workman can extract about 1J lb. of ore per day. The 
cost of transportation covers the cost from the mines to 
Shanghai or Hongkong. The export duty on every ton 
of ore is about 15 taels; local taxes and license fees 
amount to 85 taels. 

The market prices since the outbreak of the War were 
as follows: War-time »prices, 800 to 1000 taels per ton; 
November 1918 to January 1919, 500 taels per ton ; Janu- 
ary 1919 to August 1919, no market in Shanghai and 
Hongkong, only a few transactions having taken place in 
Canton and Swatow at prices varying from 350 to 250 
taels per ton. As evidenced by these figures, the signing 
of the armistice caused an almost complete stagnation of 
the market, which resulted in the cessation of all mining 

Up to August 1919 tungsten ore was wholly an export 
product. China has no way of utilizing the ore. A plan 
was formulated last year for establishing a plant at 
Hankow for making ferro-tungsten, but the scheme was 
postponed on account of the inactivity of the tungsten 
market. It is understood that there is a small smelting 
plant at Dalny, which, however, is still in an experi- 
mental stage. 

It is difficult even to estimate approximately the quan- 
tities of future production for any definite length of time, 
as, thus far, no authoritative survey has been made of this 
field in China. It is estimated that all the mines in the 
above-mentioned districts are capable of equaling their 
production during the year 1918 for more than 10 years. 
Future shipments abroad will be governed entirely by the 
demands of the American and European markets. 

January 17. 1920 



Metal Production in California for 1919 


•The output nt' gold, silver, copper, lead, and 
from metal mines in I alifornia in 1919 was valued .-it 
$23,124,045, as compared with $31,187,807 in 1918. This 
is .i decn as 163,762, or 2 

Gold. The mine output of gold for the State in 1918 
$16,528,953. The estimate for 1919 indicates a pro- 
duction of $17,320,250, which is about $791,300 more 
than in 1918. Although the conditions for gold mining 
continue to be unfavorable, some such increase as this 
was to be expected in view of the fact that the decrease 
in the sold output in 1918, as compared with 1917. was 
abnormally large. The decrease in 1918 was $3,558,551, 
the largest in many years, so the increase Eor 1919 i 
shows that mining in California lias begun to readjust 
itself to the present general conditions, and in a few 
years the gold mines of the State will no doubt be able 
again to produce their average normal annual output of 
about $20,000,000. One very good indication of this re- 
adjustment is that tin- Mother Lode mines, which pro- 
duce most of the gold-hearing ore. though still making a 
smaller output than usual, are materially raising the 
average grade of the ore per ton. Moreover, some of 
these mines are finding in the lower levels a better grade 
of ore than was found in levels 1000 ft. or more above. 
The gold mine with the deepest vertical shaft in the 
State and in the United States is now extracting from 
the 4050-ft. level ore of much higher average grade than 
any other ore found for several years, a fact that is en- 
eouraging to all the gold miners in the Mother Lode 
counties and that is inducing them to sink deeper work- 

The labor conditions in the gold mines of the State, 
though still unfavorable, were improved somewhat in 
1919 as compared with 1918 — that is, more skilled labor 
was available or the mines were worked on more nearly 
full time. The employers complain, however, that labor 
is far more inefficient now than in normal times. 

The principal cause of the reduction in the gold output 
of the State has been that steady continuous operation of 
the properties seemed impossible, owing to war condi- 
tions, scarcity of competent men, high costs, and curtail- 
ment of freight and power. Some mines were worked 
only a few months, others were worked with only one 
shift instead of three, and still others have been com- 
pelled to cease work entirely for long periods. Moreover, 
few of the large companies were willing to push produc- 
tion under the increased cost and to pay the resultant 
war tax. Many small mines that are owned and worked 
by only a few men still lie idle, or partly so, most of the 

♦Preliminary report from the San Francisco office of the 
U. S. Geological Survey. 

output being made bj the larger mines. For three con- 
secutive years milling in California ha.s been handi- 
capped by dry .seasons, when water t'ur washing gravel 
and i'"i' operating power was abnormally scarce. The 
large quantity of snow in the higher mountains at the 
end of 1919, however, gives promise of a better water 
season for 1920. 

The cost of producing ai nee of gold at the mine 

lias more than doubled during the last tun years, and 
therefore, mines that had been working on a narrow 
margin of profit had to cease operations. Even the best 
of the deep mines now being worked are making only a 
small profit and some are making none at all; and the 
mines kept in operation have not been worked to their 
full capacity. Few new large mines have been opened 
during the year and prospeeting for gold has nearly 
ceased, for it is now almost impossible to obtain capital 
for investment in gold mining. Only the richest and best 
mines in the State are now being operated; most of the 
others are lying idle awaiting more favorable conditions. 
In Ihis brief review no mention can he made of condi- 
tions or improvements at individual mines. A few 
dredging companies have worked out their ground and 
closed down, but the larger companies continue work as 
usual and have put into operation some large new 
dredges. The companies have suffered from lack of 
competent labor and from scarcity of hydro-electric 
power, both of which curtailed operations to some extent, 
but the output of gold from dredging has fallen off but 
slightly. Only in this branch of the gold-mining in- 
dustry is there any sign that the reduction in the output 
of gold is due to the exhaustion of the deposits. Two of 
the older large dredging fields and a few smaller outside 
ones show some such signs, but the largest field is show- 
ing a material increase in production. The deposits 
worked by dredges, however, must necessarily show, 
from year to year, some exhaustion, the extent of which 
will depend on the capacity of the dredges working them. 
The larger deep gold mines, however, show no signs of 
exhaustion thus far, and few of them have been closed 
down for lack of ore, the reduction in their output hav- 
ing been due to other reasons entirely. 

At present, 53% of the total gold produced in the 
State is being taken from the deep mines and 47% from 
the placers. The dredges are producing 95% of the 
placer gold and about 40% of the entire gold output of 
the State. The placer mines are from year to year gain- 
ing in output over the deep mines. Silicious ore from the 
deep quartz mines is yielding 95% of all deep-mine gold, 
and the dredges are producing exactly the same per- 
centage of the total output of placer gold. The leading 



January 17, 1920 

gold-producing county of the State, Yuba, is entirely a 
gravel-mining county, where more and larger dredges 
are operating than elsewhere. The gold output of this 
county is three-quarters of a million dollars more than 
that of the leading deep-mine county. 

It is somewhat anomalous, though noteworthy, that the 
number of mines reporting production during the last 
two years shows a large increase. Nearly all the new 
productive mines, however, are small, producing from a 
few hundred dollars to a few thousand dollars worth of 
gold yearly. These mines have been opened and worked 
by men who, being without steady occupation or in- 
capable of more profitable work, turned to nomadic pros- 
pecting and mining. Numerous mines that have been 
lying idle when assessment work was not compulsory and 
that had been left without caretakers have been gouged 
and gophered for small quantities of rich ore by these 
nomads. Much work has thus been done, not only in old 
shafts and tunnels but in small gulches and in the river 
beds and in banks along the rivers, creeks, and gulches, 
by 'crevicing' and by working small gravel bars here and 
there, some for the first and others for the second or third 

Silver. The output of silver from Californian mines 
in 1919 is estimated at 1,121,069 oz., valued at $1,244,- 
386, which is 306,642 oz. less in quantity and $193,325 
less in value than in 1918. The silver produced in Cali- 
fornia is derived mainly from copper and lead ores, al- 
though some is obtained with the gold mined at placers 
and in deep gold mines. The principal producers of sil- 
ver in California are the Mammoth, Mountain, Balaklala, 
Shasta King, Afterthought, and Bully Hill copper mines 
in Shasta county; the Engels Copper Co., in Plumas 
county; the Penn Copper Co., in Calaveras county; the 
Blue Ledge, in Siskiyou county; the Island, in Trinity 
county; and the Ivanpah, in San Bernardino county. 
These are all copper mines. The lead mines that produce 
silver in large quantity are the Darwin, Santa Rosa, 
Cerro Gordo, Tecopa, and Slate Range mines in Inyo 
county. These mines together produced 1,007,335 oz. of 
silver in 1918 and only 345,272 oz. in 1919, so the de- 
crease from these combined properties was 662,063 oz. of 
silver. The output of a new productive silver mine in 
1919, that of Rand Divide Mining Co., in Inyo county, 
served to overcome to some extent the large deficiency 
shown by the mines mentioned above; but this output, 
though comparatively large, was not sufficient to make 
up entirely for the loss mentioned. Of the copper and 
lead mines named above, some were closed entirely in 
1919, and the smelters in others were shut-down for the 
year in April and May. All we^e much less productive 
in 1919 than in 1918. Notwithstanding the high prices 
of silver during the year, comparatively few of the old 
and long-idle silver and lead mines in the southern part 
of the State became very productive, though a number 
have been and are being re-opened. 

Copper. The estimated mine output of copper in Cali- 
fornia in 1919 was 22,299,656 lb., valued at $4,236,934, 
as compared with 47,674,660 lb., valued at $11,775,641, 

in 1918, a decrease in quantity of 25,375,004 lb., and in 
value of $7,538,707. Plumas is the largest copper-pro- 
ducing county*of the State, but Shasta, Calaveras, Siski- 
you, and Trinity are also large producers, and small 
quantities are produced in most of the other metal-min- 
ing counties. The two largest copper smelters in the 
State, those of the Mammoth and Mountain Copper com- 
panies, of Shasta county, closed down in April and May, 
one because of labor troubles. The Balaklala mine, also 
in Shasta county, ceased operations in May also. Several 
other smaller mines also ceased or restricted their opera- 
tions. Most of the smaller copper mines of the State 
stopped shipping ore almost entirely in 1919 because of 
the low prices for the metal and the high cost of opera- 
tion, which together account for the large decrease in the 
copper output of the State in 1919 as compared with 

Lead. The mine output of lead in California in 1918 
was 13,372,049 lb., valued at $949,415, and the estimated 
output in 1919 was 4,455,161 lb., valued at $253,944, a 
reduction in quantity of 8,916,888 lb., and in value of 
$695,471. The output of lead in California was 8,496,- 
579 lb. less in 1918 than in 1917, and the figures for 1919 
show a decided and continued decrease. The lead is 
mined mainly in the southern counties of the State — - 
Inyo and San Bernardino — where a number of the mines 
in the lead and zinc districts have ceased or curtailed 
operations owing to the high cost of labor and material, 
high shipping charges, and the low price of the metal. 
The Darwin mine, Inyo county, was closed entirely dur- 
ing the year and the Cerro Gordo was worked only a few 
months. Other large mines produced a smaller output 
for the year and many small properties in the counties 
named remained idle. 

Zinc. The estimated output of zinc in the State in 
1919 was 965,259 lb., valued at $68,533, as compared 
with 5,561,393 lb., valued at $506,087, in 1918, a de- 
crease in quantity of 4,596,134 lb., and in value of $437,- 
554. Direct reports from the few zinc-producing com- 
panies of the State indicate an almost entire cessation of 
production at the larger plants. In Shasta county the 
Afterthought was idle throughout the year and the Mam- 
moth most of the time; in Inyo county the Cerro Gordo 
was virtually idle, and the "Western Metals Co. ma- 
terially reduced its output. 

The total petroleum production in California during 
the year 1919 amounted to about 100,000,000 bbl., ac- 
cording to preliminary estimates by R. P. McLaughlin, 
of the California State Mining Bureau. The final figure 
will probably show that the year's output was slightly 
more than that of the year 1918. The total value of 
crude. oil at the wells was about. $133,000,000, which is 
some five or six millions greater than the total value of 
the preceding year. Current statistics by private con- 
cerns disagree as to the actual amount of oil now stored, 
but do agree in indicating that stocks were somewhat 
less at the end of 1919 than at the beginning, which 
shows that the industry has not quite held its own. 

.luiuwirs IT. 1920 





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AKI/.i>\ X 

i OiXnUBi LRIZONA SHA] riON \t IDE.— ■ o>M- 


The Arizona Section of the A. I. M. & M. E. recently 
held a well attended two-day field session at Ajo, where 
are centred the operations of the New Cornelia Copper 
Co. At the business meeting held January 5, President 
Winohell and Secretary Stoughton Bpoke at length on the 
aims and activities of the Institute. The coal situation, 
'l stablishment of a Bureau of Puhlic Works, and in- 
creased co-operation among engineers were topics dis- 
cussed. John C. Greenway gave a brief outline of the 
history of the New Cornelia property. F. Eckman, mine 
superintendent, described the method of blasting used at 
the mine, illustrating his subject by lantern slides. At 
the technical meeting held on the following day, the re- 
sults of recent leaching experiments by the Inspiration 
Consolidated Copper Co., and the Arizona Copper Co., 
were presented. Recent leaching practice at Anaconda 
was also discussed. Five reels of moving pictures were 
shown, which illustrated the mine and plant operations at 
Ajo in every detail. The pictures illustrated particularly 
well two of the large blasts utilized in breaking the ore. 
It was estimated that 400.000 tons of ore was broken in 
the last and larger of the two. The meeting closed by a 
vote of thanks to the officials of the New Cornelia Copper 
Co. for the excellent program presented. 

Bisbee.— The Campbell shaft of the Calumet & Ari- 
zona Mining Co. 'holed through', December 31. Every 
calculation in connection with the shaft worked out with 
mathematical nicety. Juncture of the shaft with the 
raise from the 1400-ft. level was made at 575 ft. The 
raise met the shaft exactly making a complete shaft al- 
most 1400 ft. deep. This eventually will be used as one 
of the company's main hoisting-shafts. The new shaft is 
approximately 3300 ft. from the Briggs and 2700 ft. 
from the Junction. It is connected with the former by a 
cross-cut on the 1300-ft. level, and with the Junction on 
the 1400-ft. level. The underground surveys were car- 
ried out through these two shafts and checked by plumb- 
ing the raise. Work on the shaft was started August 
15, 1919. Working two shifts daily an average of 125 ft. 
per month was made in sinking and 140 ft. per month in 
the raise. W. H. Holcomb and J. B. Fox were responsi- 
ble for the underground surveys; A. J. Balmforth han- 
dled the surface survey, located by triangulation. 

Globe-Miami. — During 1919. Old Dominion company 
mined and treated 267,450 tons of ore which produced 

20.000.000 lb. of copper; 99,000 tons of custom ore was 
treated, yielding ,s..)(ui.iio(i ii,. f) f copper. Besides the cop 
per recovered the smelter reporl shows the recovery of 

5000 oz. of gold and 127,0(1(1 oz. of silver. Between 3,600,- 
000 and 7,000.000 gallons of water was pumped from the 
mine daily during the year. Although from 1000 to 1100 
men were employed, there were no fatal accidents. There 
have been none, in fact, for 23 months. This splendid 
showing is attributed by the management to the lively 
interest taken by the men in safety and first-aid work. 
Since 'safety-first' week, last October, there has been a 
marked decrease in accidents, even those of trivial nature. 
No effort was made to attain heavy production, because 
of the condition of the copper market, but instead of 
laying-off its men the company transferred them to devel- 
opment. During the year the shaft was sunk from the 
1800-ft. to the 2000-ft. level in spite of heavy water flow. 
The West winze was sunk from the 2000-ft. to the 2200- ft. 
level and the Kingdon shaft from the 1900-ft. to the 2100- 
ft. level. Very little construction was done during the 
year. A water-softening plant for the Diesel engine and 
a shaft boiler-plant were installed. Erection of a filtering- 
plant for the concentrator was started during the latter 
part of the year. Miami Copper had a very satisfactory 
year. Production last year amounted to 55.000.000 lb., 
operating at two-thirds capacity since March. Develop- 
ment totaled 14,509 ft. in drifts, raises, and shafts, while"' 
1250 men were employed. A steel head-frame was Con- 
structed at No. 5 shaft, 125 ft. in height and containing 
175 tons of steel. The concrete hoist-house is 90 by 61 ft. ' 
Two hoists have been installed, a man-hoist capable of 
raising 1200 lb. at the speed of 800 ft. per minute, driven 
by a 250-hp. motor. The other is a skip-hoist With rated 
capacity of 10 tons of ore per skip, operated by a 1400-hp. 
motor at 1500 ft. per minute. A new crusher plant, 
which will consist of two units, each capable of handling 
200 tons of ore per hour, or 10,000 per day, is under con- 
struction. A new change-house, three stories high, which 
will contain 1470 lockers, with showers and toilet facili- 
ties, is under construction. The company has adopted the 
policy of erecting houses for employees. Fourteen bunga- 
lows were built during the year. Twenty-seven acres of 
war-gardens, divided into 230 tracts, on which crops 
valued at $32,000 were raised last year, was a unique 
feature of outside activities of the company. A canning 
kitchen, operated in conjunction with the garden, was 
used by 190 persons. The total output of the kitchen 
was 2500 quarts of preserves, pickles, and jellies, valued 



January 17, 1920 

at $4800. This effected a saving of $2500 to the consum- 
ers. On November 1, the Miami commercial company's 
store was made co-operative and it was announced that 
every six months there would be a distribution of net 
profits to employees of more than three months service. 
Miami and Inspiration have opened a dispensary in 
Miami, conducted by the hospital force for the conven- 
ience of employees of the companies living in the town 
and adjacent valley. The International smelter pro- 
duced 161,000,000 lb. of bullion during 1919, despite cur- 
tailment of production at Inspiration and Miami, upon 
which International depends for its supply of concen- 
trate. Although operating at less than 70% capacity, 
Inspiration Consolidated was the largest producer of cop- 
per in Arizona. An interesting experiment during last 
year was the treatment of oxidized ores in a 30-ton ex- 
perimental plant placed in operation last July. The ex- 
periment has been quite successful, it is reported, indi- 
cating that satisfactory recovery from oxidized and sul- 
phide ores on a commercial scale will be possible. Super- 
ior & Boston experienced the most important year in its 
history. Following the change of management early in 
1919, a definite program of development was adopted, the 
known ore-reserves having been almost exhausted. At- 
tention was given to development not only of the Great 
Eastern vein, but to known and unknown veins lying 
between the Old Dominion and Great Eastern veins on 
the north, and the Black Oxide and Buckeye veins on the 
south. One of these cross-cuts has intercepted the Great 
Eastern on the 1200-ft. level but it has proved practically 
barren at this point. 



Mining operations on one of the oldest veins in the 
South-West will be resumed shortly when the B. & A. 
Mining Co. of Okmulgee, Oklahoma, starts its new mill- 
ing plant at the old Davis mine in the western part of 
Sevier county, 15 miles north of De Queen and six miles 
north-west of Gilham, Arkansas, the nearest railroad 
point. The B. & A. company took over the property 
more than two years ago and has already expended 
$150,000 on the property, building a mill and putting 
in modern machinery. The right-of-way for a branch 
line 4 miles long from the railroad to the mine has also 
been purchased and surveyed. 

The mine will produce zinc, lead, and copper ore. 
The. width of the ore-zone varies up to 40 ft., containing 
sphalerite, chalcopyrite, and galena. The zinc is in 
shoots following the foot-wall and the copper and lead 
are disseminated through the zone. The main shaft has 
been sunk to a depth of 170 ft. and several drifts have 
exposed the orebodies. The mill at the mine is equipped 
with jigs and Wilfley tables, and the company is con- 
sidering a flotation adjunct to handle the slime of the 
mill. C. L. Larson, formerly with the Bunker Hill & 
Sullivan company, of Idaho, is manager of the mine, 
Ernest W. Ellis is mill superintendent, and Joe J. San- 
ford is mine superintendent. The directors of the com- 

pany are John W. Hammond, O. F. Dickenson, W. M. 
Hodsdon, F. P fc Snider. Villiard Martin, Charles Popkin, 
W. J. Seekatz, N. Lambertson. and Milo Brown, all of 

The mineral vein at the B. & A. mine was discovered 
more than 40 years ago in an unusual manner. Levi 
Davis, of Gilham, while hunting near the present site 
of the mine shot a deer. "While he was bleeding the 
deer, a horse which Davis had been riding struck a piece 
of rock with its hoof and the peculiar glint from the 
rock attracted the attention of the hunter. Davis took 
the rock home and later sent it to a mining man who 
declared that it was ore. Prospecting led to the dis- 
covery of the present large vein. 



Houghton. — Neither the Calumet & Hecla nor any of 
its allied companies showed any increase in output in 
December. A number of difficulties combined to make 
the production smaller than in November. The Osceola 
Consolidated produced 55,420 tons of ore from all shafts 
in December. This is a decline of 4000 tons. The total 
output for the first 11 months of 1919 was 9,930,851 lb., 
so that the total for the year may reasonably be estimated 
at 10,730,000 lb. This means that the output of the 
Osceola Consolidated for 1919 was 50% below normal. 
In addition to the decline in the production the costs have 
been the highest in the history of the company and there 
has been no betterment in the quality of the ore. The 
South Kearsarge is about 'played out' and the richer 
territory to be tapped from No. 3 North Kearsarge has 
not as yet begun to show any appreciable effect on the 
total tonnage. The bulk of the ore comes from the North 
Kearsarge branch. 

Ahmeek produced 59,802 tons in December. This is a 
drop of 10,000 tons from November. The 1919 output 
will total 16,907,000 lb. Ahmeek, given good market con- 
ditions and a fair labor market, can produce 30,000,000 
lb. annually with costs as low as those of any mine in the 
district. Centennial produced 6660 tons in December, 
compared with 7000 in November. Centennial is one of 
the smaller allied companies of the Calumet & Hecla that 
suffers particularly from the difficulty that it is a prop- 
erty with ore on but one side of the shaft and with a com- 
paratively limited number of openings in good territory. 

Allouez is the only C. & H. company to make an ad- 
vance in the last month of the year. The production of 
ore increased from 18,000 tons to 19,575. Allouez 's out- 
put for the year 1919 may be estimated at 3,800,000 lb. 
Allouez is physically in shape to get back to a 10,000,000- 
lb. basis any time the metal market and the labor con- 
ditions warrant. Isle Royale output fell off in Decem- 
ber, the total output being under 60,000 tons. The pro- 
duction from Isle Royale for 1919 will be 13.100,000 lb. 
Considering the conditions during the year this showing 
is remarkable. It means that Isle Royale comes nearer 
to normal than any of the other C. & H. properties. 

Franklin's opening of the Pewabic amygdaloid from 

Januan I ; 1920 


.11 better ground than that opened above. 
VThen the Franklin was Coroed !■> suspend operation! last 
i'hII the manag inl wisely determined t" continue open- 
ings in the Pewabic with the idea of carrying forward 
this work al omparatively alight expense and thus pre 
paring for the future i>y getting as many advance open- 
ings ready as possible. The shaft was sunk below the 
39th level, a cross-cul run over into the formation and 
from that point drifting on the vein started in both di- 
reetiona. Bettor progress lias been made to the north 
than to the south. This is the same lode as opened in 
No. 1 shaft, that has furnished all of the eopper ore sent 

Lead or.' was strong throughout tin- month selling at 
(91 during tin- last week and averaging for tin- month, 
-■-siii Producti if lead ore also Burpsased all pre- 
vious records. 

Throughout tin- year there has I n a heavy stoek of 

ores held in the bins of the producers as surplus stork. 
This has acted as a brake upon any advance in ore-prices 
In addition from 20 to 50| . of the producing plants were 
idle pari of the year. 

Tables showing the monthly shipments, value, and 
average priee for zinc-blende and lead ore for the year 
Of 1919 follow: 


to the mill by the Franklin mine in recent years. The 
Franklin has no plans for resumption of general mining 
and milling operations until the market promises 22c. 
per pound. 



All records for ore-production were again broken in the 
district during 1919 in spite of the fact that the year's 
average prices have receded to the lowest level prevailing 
for a period of five years. The total of zinc-blende ore 
mined was 435,392 tons, and calamine 12,445 tons. This 
is an increase of 60,415 tons over the record of 1918 for 
blende ores, but calamine showed a decrease of 2200 tons 
from the record of 1918. There was a time when cala- 
mine ore-output had a ratio of one to ten with blende but 
the production is gradually becoming almost negligible. 

The last month of the year showed a price of $50 to 
$52.50 for zinc-blende ore while calamine sold generally 
at $35. The average for the month was $49.21 for blende 
ore and $34.43 for calamine ore. Shipments for the 
month aggregated 31,322 tons of blende ore and 382 tons 
of calamine. 


Tons Value Average price 

January 26.838 81.157.417 $43.45 

February 34.429 1.647,468 41.78 

March 48.972 2.034.621 41.55 

April 34,922 1.357,633 38.87 

May .'. 46.278 1.749.603 37.80 

June 34.001 1.437.823 42.28 

July 32.668 1.706.889 52.24 

August 34.148 1.672.968 49.00 

September 22.832 984.305 43.11 

October 35.346 1.568.473 44,37 

November 48.838 2,239.247 45.85 

December 31.322 1.541.494 49.21 

Year 435.392 818,997.521 843.63 

Surplus stock at end of year 32,000 tons unsold, and 
28,000 tons sold but not yet shipped. 

Lead Ore 

Tons Value Average price 

January 6.906 8414.650 860.04 

February 5.015 260.577 51.95 

March 7.187 442.483 61.56 

April 5.545 322.250 58.11 

Jlny 7.895 451,217 57.15 

June 4.765 282,692 59.32 

July 4,886 279.129 04.39 

August 0.150 394.535 64.15 

September 5.105 362.498 71.00 

October 5.085 452.859 79.66 

November 8.110 699.079 86.19 

December 6.372 560.992 88,04 

Tear 73.070 $4,922,961 $67.37 

Surplus stocks end of year 200 tons as against 150 tons 
in 1918. 



January 17, 1920 




Eureka. — In a report on the Croesus made for Sir 
Donald Mann, known for his connection with the Cana- 
dian Northern railway and interested in the Croesus and 
Eureka King mines, Ralph W. Foster, his engineer, esti- 
mates that there is 2,368,635 tons of ore and slag of a net 
value of $59,271,990 available for treatment by the 
Croesus company. He puts a value of $1,600,000 on the 
slag dump at the old smelter, which he estimates to con- 
tain 40,000 tons. The report is based on ore exposed by 
the work in recent years through the Catlin shaft and in 
surface dumps, and does not include material used as fill- 
ing for stopes in the early days. The gross value of the 
ore in the mine and surface dumps, and the slag pile, a 
total of 2,368,635 tons, is placed at $73,483,800, with the 
cost of mining and treatment estimated at $6 per ton, or 
a total for mining and treatment of $14,211,000. The 
engineer points to the possibilities in work at greater 
depth and to the increase in the value of the ore as depth 
is gained, as shown by lateral work on the 400-ft. level 
and in the 300-f t. winze from that level. 

Tonopah. — The Tonopah Extension has announced 
that sinking of the McKane shaft will be resumed and 
connection made with the 1540-ft. level of the Victor 
shaft. This will be done in an attempt to open the Mur- 
ray and other veins far west of where they have been 

Mina. — The 100-ton cyanide mill of the Olympic Mines 
Co., which was destroyed by fire on November 21, is to be 
re-built in the spring. The plant, built in 1916 at a cost 
of $75,000, was insured for $60,000. Development of the 
mine has continued since the mill was destroyed, the prin- 
cipal work being further exploration of a vein paralleling 
the main ore-channel which was opened shortl.y before the 
fire. The Olympic mine is at Omco, 25 miles from Mina 
in Mineral county. The Drew-Bugg mercury mine, 
owned by the Mina Quicksilver Co., has been taken over 
by H. G. Torrance of Oakland, California, a first pay- 
ment of $10,000 having been made on the purchase price 
of $75,000. The mine has produced over $200,000 to a 
depth of less than 200 ft. The equipment for reduction 
of the ore consists of two D-type retorts and 12 Joshua 
Hendy pipe furnaces. The ore is found in fissures in 
limestone and it contains in addition to the mercury, 
silver, lead, and gold, the value in the four metals mak- 
ing a high-grade product from which only the mercury is 
extracted. The dump at the treatment plant is esti- 
mated to be worth $200,000. In recent months the output 
has been from 100 to 150 flasks. 

Divide. — Small seams of ore giving high assay returns 
have been found on the surface of the Keller lease on the 
Beats All claim of the Pay, adjoining the Belcher Exten- 
sion on the south. The Treasure lease on the Polo claim 
of the Revert is reported to have opened two feet of ore 
assaying over $200 in silver and gold in the bottom of a 
45-ft. shaft. The south drift on the 200-ft. level of the 

Caldwell shaft of the Divide Extension is 40 ft. long and 
high assays continue to be secured, according to unoffi- 
cial reports. Vork on the 45 and 100-ft. levels of this 
shaft continues to expose ore of good grade, with a drift 
on the latter level in ore for 100 ft. A contract has been 
let for extending the north drift on the 425-ft. level of the 
main shaft to out the downward extension of the Cald- 
well ore-shoot. Prospecting of the outcrop of the main 
vein of the district continues in the Thomson, but a favor- 
able site for sinking a shaft has not been found. 

Gold Mountain. — Because of slow progress in hard 
lime on the hanging wall of the vein a cross-cut has been 
driven to the foot-wall from the 100-ft. point in the drift- 
tunnel of the Washington Gold Quartz. The tunnel will 
be continued in porphyry lying on the foot-wall. Assays 
of from $30 to $40 were secured at many places in the 
lime, but the first objective, a cross vein, has not been 
reached. The vein is from 40 to 45 ft. wide. 

Goldpield. — The Florence leases for this year have 
been signed, the principal blocks being given to the Flor- 
ence Divide, Cracker Jack, and Red Hill in the north- 
western part of the Red King claim. The Florence Divide 
secured a block covering the stope from which rich ore 
was mined last year, and territory north and west from 
the stope and extending from the surface to the 530-ft. 
level. The stope extends 60 ft. above the 380-ft. level. 
In addition to this the Florence Divide was granted a 
large block from the 530-ft. to the 650-ft. level containing 
the vein on the dip. The Cracker Jack was given what 
is considered the most valuable lease, extending from the 
surface to from 430 to 530 ft. and far into the practically 
undeveloped hanging wall of the vein from the Florence 
Divide stope. The Red Hill has the ground under the 
Cracker Jack block to a depth of 650 ft. There is little 
ore of shipping grade exposed in this part of the mine, 
the Florence Divide having stopped development work to 
extract all ore available in the closing days of the lease, 
but the entire territory held by the three companies is 
regarded as having exceptional possibilities. An unusual 
feature of the work started by the Cracker Jack is that 
an ore-shoot is being followed from the surface with a 
shaft. Surface prospecting with trenches also is being 
done by this company. Repairs to the shaft of the Great 
Bend have been completed, including re-timbering from 
the 300 to the 400-ft. level, and the east drift on the 
375-ft. level is now being put in shape for resuming work 
near the face. The Development company has shipped 
40 tons of ore from the rich shoot recently found in the 
Combination. No estimate of the value has been made. 

Ely. — The Consolidated Copper Mines Co. at Kim- 
berly, is working a small force, sinking the five-compart- 
ment shaft (known as the Giroux) below the 1400-ft. 
level to reach the sulphide zone. The water is caught on 
the 1200-ft. and 1400-ft. levels so the bottom of the shaft 
is comparatively dry and good progress is being made 
below the 1600-ft. level. The shaft is entirely in lime- 
stone thus far. but in the neighborhood of 1900 ft. it is 
expected that the mineralized zone will be penetrated. 

The Nevada Consolidated Copper Co. is running six of 


the eonoentrator at MoOUl Repair the early wventiei wfta much success, Thr ar* 

man are overhauling one Bastion of the mill, taking oul shipped in the early dajra averaged 90 - silver, !"•; 

""' rolls and <' ad inatalling a Bardingc mill, lead, and 39i copper, while il is stated thai daring one 

with Dorr oil Botation, and Wilfley tablea l< season Mr. Wegener realized (90,000 from the property. 

is probable that the entire mill will l>,- changed along Moel of the work done was comparatively close to the 

these linea surface, leaving the Cardiff overthrual contact pi 

U _. H tically untouched. The new owners have been pushing 

work along il ontaol and are ^t ii 1 aow to have very 

dividends di ring 1919.— tintic Prodi OTioN. promising indications, which, it is believed, will develop 

su.t Lake City.— During 1919, the metal mines of into a good body of ore. Fred W, Price, manager of the 

Utah distributed to their stockholders a total of $11,- P " M " lil "' "' ,llis llis,nrl - states that the company 

225,801 in dividends, Thr companies malring such dis- woently opened up a 15-ft. vein at a distance of 750 ft 

bursements, together with the amounts, are as follows: from ,lu ' tannel portal. 

Bingham Mines Co *1 12.500 EuREKA.-Officiala of the Eureka Lily company state 

Cardiff Mining Co 75.000 t,lut tlle ore lowing in the south drift on the 1600-ft. 

Chief Consolidated Mining Co 282.950 level is steadily improving. The vein is two feet wide at 

Daly Mining Co 97.500 the point just reached. This orebody averages 7% cop- 

!■*' >.•* 




Eagle & Blue Bell Mining Co. 
Grand Central Mining Co.... 

Iron Blossom Mining Co 

Judge Mining & Smelting Co. . 

Ontario Silver Mining Co 

Sacramento Mining Co 

South Hecla Mining Co 

Tintic Standard Mining Co . . . 









Utah Copper Co 9,746,940 

During 1918, the total amount of dividends paid by 
the metal mines of the State was $19,511,745, while in 
1917 — the banner year for such disbursements — the total 
was $29,339,451. The grand total of dividends to the 
close of 1919 is $212,851,759. 

Alta. — According to R. O. Dobbs, manager of the 
Louise Mining Co., purchase by his company of the 
Moltke claims in this district was completed recently 
when the final instalment of $40,000 was paid. The 
property, which consists of six patented claims, was 
originally owned by Henry Wagener and was worked in 

per, 11 oz. silver, and $4.60 in gold. Development of this 
promising vein wall be pushed, and at the same time, 
sinking on the main shaft, which is now 150 ft. below the 
1600-ft. level, will be continued. The estimated produc- 
tion from this district during 1919 is 265,000 tons, ex- 
clusive of iron ore, as compared with 362,494 tons in 
1918. Preliminary figures indicate an output of 25,000 
oz. gold, 6,800,000 oz. silver, 2,800,000 lb. copper, and 
24,000,000 lb. lead for the past year. The mines that 
produced more than 1000 tons during the year are the 
Dragon, Chief Consolidated, Iron Blossom, Eagle & Blue 
Bell, Tintic Standard, Centennial-Eureka, Grand Cen- 
tral. Swansea,' Mammoth. Colorado, Ridge & Valley. Em- 
pire, Bullion Beck, Gemini, and Victoria. After a brief 
holiday, all of the mines are again operating on a nor- 
mal basis. Labor conditions are good and local operators 
look forward with a great deal of optimism to metal- 
market conditions during the coming year. 

Directors of the Chief Consolidated have declared a 
dividend of 10c. per share, payable on February 2. Dur- 



January 17. 1920 

ing 1919, the company paid four dividends; the first 
being 12-§c. per share and the other three 6Jc. per share. 
"While this property is the largest producer of silver in 
Utah and one of the largest in the United States, con- 
struction expenditures last year were very heavy, which 
accounts for the moderate rate of dividend disburse- 
ments. One of the largest and most expensive pieces of 
work undertaken last year is still in progress. This is 
the sinking and concreting of No. 2 shaft, which is now 
down 950 ft. and within a short time will be down to the 
1000-ft. level, on which level a connecting drift has 
already been driven from the main workings. 

The Jesse Knight interests of Provo have added to 
their holdings by the acquisition of the Tintic Central 
property. The Knight people have for some time been 
heavy stockholders in this property, and quite recently 
'they secured enough stock to give them control. The 
holdings of the Tintic Central adjoins those of the Iron 
Blossom, through which the development of the former 
has been carried on during the past year. In recent 
years the Tintic Central has been carefully developed, 
first through its own shaft, down to a d^jp-th of 1075 ft., 
and later through the Iron Blossom. 

The south shaft of the Tintic Standard mine, being 
sunk under contract, has reached a depth of 1200 ft. and 
sinking will continue. One of the most important pieces 
of work outlined for the present year at this property is 
the development of the south end, which will incidentally 
bring about a better ventilation of the entire mine. 

Park City. — During the past week announcement was 
made by O. N. Friendly, superintendent of the Judge 
Mining & Milling Co. that the Judge smelter, which has 
been closed sincS May 1919 will resume operations about 
the middle of January, under the direct management of 
John Ellsworth.! Work will soon be commenced on the 
erection of new Dorr thickeners and filter-presses for an 
additional treatment of the lead-silver residues, which 
will also result in increased recovery of zinc. The Judge 
smelter handles zinc-lead ores from local mines exclu- 




, , Platteville. — The month of December brought added 
distress to mine operators of the "Wisconsin zinc region. 

i An acute shortage of coal compelled the Inter-State 
Power Co., which supplies power and light to all the min- 

, ing districts, to enter into an arrangement with mine 
operators whereby operations in all departments were to 
be conducted four days a week. On the remaining three 
days, pumps alone were to run. Such a program neces- 
sarily imposed considerable financial loss on operators as 
well as the power company and discussion for a time 
favored a complete shut-down. This was regarded as a 
disastrous procedure since it carried with it the scatter- 
ing of mining forces and the loss of experienced miners, 
of whom there are at the present time not less than 2000. 
Prices for zinc ore were good all month and a fair show- 

ing was made in spite of difficulties, not the least of which 
was a period of frigid weather unlike anything experi- 
enced in many years. The thermometer ranged from 20 
to 30° below zero. Especial effort was required to keep 
reservoirs and intakes open at mills and keep pipe con- 
nections from freezing. More coal than ordinarily re- 
quired became imperative to keep ore-bins, change quar- 
ters, and offices comfortably heated. Top grades of zinc 
ore reached $54.50 per ton, base, the second week of the 
month, which brought the premium price paid to $56. 
The remainder of the month found quotations from local 
exchanges unavailable. 

The zinc ore milled during December amounted to 
11,015 tons; net deliveries to smelters, including mine- 
run to smelters direct, 6982 tons. The Frontier Mining 
Co. disposed of 2500 tons of fair-grade concentrate to the 
Mineral Point Zinc Co., all of which was surplus stock, 
thereby reducing the reserve in the field to this extent. 
It is believed that other stock-piles long held unsold, will 
come in for similar treatment early in the new year. 

Producers of lead ore met with better satisfaction in 
the markets, the price of high-grade lead concentrate 
opening the month at a point in advance of $82 per ton. 
The price advanced to $85 per ton, about the middle of 
the month and the last week of the month found offerings 
of $90 per ton, with top going at $92 per ton, and some 
competition developing between the leading buying con- 
cerns. The reserve in the field, at all points, conserva- 
tively estimated, exceeded 1500 tons, at the close of the 

Producers of zinc-carbonate ore met indifferent offers 
during the month, the price running from $27.50 to $30 
per ton, base, 40% zinc, but the closing days of the month 
witnessed a spurt and the price reached high at $35. 
Independent operators, however, had withdrawn from 
the market and shipments did not show the volume ex- 
pected for the month. 

Offerings for iron-pyrite, the bulk of which has been 
coming from ore-refineries, have been of an unsatisfac- 
tory nature for a long time and shipments have dwindled 
for several months. The reserve closely estimated indi- 
cates that there is not less than 10,000 tons of unsold 
pyrite at separating-plants, alone. 

Shipments of zinc ore, lead ore, and pyrite, by dis- 
tricts, for 1919 were made as here shown : 




Benton ■ 83.050 

Galena 2*606 

Livingston 21,096 








Hazel Green 
Shullsburg • • 
Cuba City . . 


Dodgeville . . . 

Mineral Point B,auu 

Total 166.088 7.036 17.795 

The total net deliveries out of the field for the year to 
smelters comprise 100,703 tons zinc ore, 7036 tons lead 
ore, and 17,795 tons pyrite. The total production of 
lead ore is placed at 8600 tons; pyrite, 28,000 tons. 

January 17, 1920 



Deliveries of high-grade blende, from eleetra magnetic 
separating plants, were made by tlu- leading refiners: the 
Mineral Point Zinc Co., 29,087 tons; Wisconsin Zino 
Co 84,636 ions; National Zinc Ore Separating Co., -l. 
128 ions. Oliver Mining Co., 1930 tons; Linden Zinc Co., 
S276 ions; Block-House Mining Co., lTti;! tons; total, 
68430 ions. The average price paid for the year, per 
ton of ore, nil grades was $44.38. 

Bxpanaion of the industry is planned at nil points, and 
a s, of new power, mining, and milling plants will be 

1 • 

•V- L^Lfll * I 


III u 

1 . 

• 1 

ME^H 1*1 

1 • 

■ v Bktf 

, . 


erected within the next six months. Drills are operating 
extensively in the Benton, Shullsburg, Cuba City, and 
Platteville districts. Exceptionally rich strikes have 
been made at several points by the Wisconsin Zinc Co., 
Zinc Hill Mining Co., New Jersey Zinc Co., and the 
Vinegar Hill Zinc .Co. 

Wages are high at all mines, good shovelers earning 
from $6 to $8 per shift. ■ Men are in demand in all the 
active mining camps. 



Trail. — Nineteen Kootenay properties exported ore or 
concentrates for treatment in various American smelters. 
These exports were nearly all concentrates, although 
3143 tons of high-grade ore was shipped, which at $100 
per ton would be valued at $314,300. The concentrate 
amounted to 13,260 tons, which at $250 per ton would 
total $335,000. The total exports for the Kootenay- 
Boundary district are valued at $649,300. 

Referring to ore and concentrate the production of 
the district for 1919, inclusive of a few outside shippers, 
follows : 

Mines Tons ore Tons concentrate 

To Trail smelter 134 302.589 10.072 

To Granby smelter 3 156.821 

"To American smelters 19 3.143 13.260 

Total 158 462.553 . 23.332 

i Ik wo Porks. Since the closing down of the Phoenix 
minis of the Granby Consolidated, with the result that 
the formerly busy town of Phoenix now is deserted, there 

have been reports thai ti ompany l^s plans which will 

rehabilitate Phoenix to aoi stent. The assertion now 

made is that the company proposes the installation ol ;• 
concentrating plant ol or near Phoenix for the handling 
of the low-grade ores of the mines. The volume of water 
necessary is said to be available. Such action, it is point- 
ed out, might lead to the resumption of b Iting at the 

Grand Forks Bmelter, 

Nelson. — The British Columbia Prospectors' Pro- 
tective Association has been organized with a member- 
ship of So. with headquarters at Nelson. The officers 

are J. W. Mulholland, president; C. E. Crossley, vice- 
president; Fred A. Starkey, secretary; and Dr. K. H. 

Morrison, treasurer. The objects of the organization as 
outline, I are: to deal with the matter of grants from the 
Government for roads and trails to mining properties; 
to continue the agitation for a Government ore-testing 
plant in the Kootenay district ; to advocate the re-open- 
ing of dormant crown-granted mineral claims; to secure 
free sets of surface samples for purposes of study by 
prospectors; and to take the necessary action to have 
prospects examined by the district engineer, or by an 
engineer representing the association. 

Sandon. — The Soho mine, which adjoins the Rambler 
Cariboo, in the Slocan district, has been re-opened after 
18 months of idleness. There are four veins on the prop- 
erty, the two principal.beiug the Tom Moore, upon which 
over 3000 ft. of development has been done, and the Soho, 
on which are a 100-ft. shaft and two drifts. Two cars 
of ore was taken out during the sinking of the shaft. 
Some $60,000 worth of high-grade has been taken from 
the property, and there is a dump of milling ore, having 
an estimated value of $10,000. Eight inches of high- 
grade sulphide, unusually rich in silver, has been struck 
at the Ottawa mine, which is being, worked by Pat 
Maguire and A. L. McPhee on a lease from the Con- 
solidated M. & S. Company. 

Stewart. — The first shipment of ore under the new 
ownership has been sent from the Premier mine to 'the 
Tacoma smelter aboard the 'Prince Albert'. The ship- 
ment consisted of 225 tons, having an estimated value of 
$450 per ton, the total value amounting to more than the 
Neill syndicate paid for the property. 

Merritt. — On the last Saturday in the old year the 
miners of this district organized a union, to be known 
as the Nicola Valley Mine Workers' Association. David 
Coupland is president aud James Gaeter is secretary- 

Ainsworth. — The Florence mine. Princess creek, has 
resumed operations, after a shut-down made necessary 
by the recent cold weather. The intensity of the cold 
may be judged from the fact that running water in a 
pipe two feet in diameter froze solid. A new body of 
milling ore, eight feet wide, has been found in the No. 5 



January 17, 1920 



A statement by John McLeish, of the Division of Min- 
eral Resources and Statistics, Ottawa, estimates the value 
of the total mineral production of Canada during 1919 
at approximately $167,000,000, as compared with $211,- 
301,897 in 1918. During the past four years the mineral 
production increased from $128,863,075 in 1914 to the 
high-record figures of 1918, under the stimulus created 
by the War demand. With the close of hostilities came 
an almost immediate cessation of the demand for nickel, 
copper, lead, and zinc, with large stocks on hand. The 
result was a considerable falling off in production, espe- 
cially in nickel, the output of which dropped from 92,- 
507,293 lb. in 1918 to 43,000,000 lb., and copper, of which 
118,769,434 lb. was produced in 1918 as against 81,500,- 
000 lb. last year. Gold and zinc are the only metals 
showing an increase, the value of the gold output being 
estimated at $16,275,000, as against $14,463,689 in 1918. 
The output of silver dropped in volume from 21,283,979 
oz. to 13,500,000 oz., but the decrease in quantity will be 
to a large extent counter-balanced by the increase in 
price. Coal production amounted to 12,500,000 tons, as 
compared with 14,997,926 tons in 1918. 

Porcupine. — The Hollinger Consolidated had a record 
output for 1919. The total production is unofficially esti- 
mated as approximately $7,000,000, this estimate being 
based on official reports covering the first 36 weeks of the 
year. The output for 1918 was valued at $5,752,370. 
The aggregate production since the mill began operating 
in 1911 amounts to $32,430,753, and the dividend dis- 
bursements to $11,146,000. The company is now treating 
between 2700 and 2800 tons of ore per day. Among re- 
cent improvements undertaken in order to reduce op- 
erating costs is the change in the main haulage from the 
425-ft. to the 500-ft. level, which will centralize the work. 

Gowganda,— A complete mining plant has been in- 
stalledi at the Silverado, where excellent progress in de- 
velopment has been made. The shaft is down 60 ft., at 
whjch depth five calcite veins are in evidence. At the 
Kells claims, recently secured by Governor Smith of Ver- 
mont and associates, a steam plant is being put in. Con- 
siderable high-grade ore is in sight. It is expected that 
shipments of ore will be made from the Walsh claims in 
about a month. The Camburn has proved a disappoint- 
ment. Work has been discontinued and the plant re- 

Cobalt. — The McKinley-Darragh has issued a finan- 
cial statement as of December 15, in which a surplus of 
$493,995 is shown. This equals two year's dividend re- 
quirements at the current rate of 3% quarterly. In ad- 
dition, the present output is resulting in profits adequate 
to meet dividend requirements as well as adding a small 
amount to the surplus. The Northern Customs concen- 
trator has made a second payment on the purchase of 
the Chambers-Perland. The purchase price is $155,000. 
Of this, $50,000 has been paid. The Cobalt Miners' 
Union has voted in favor of breaking away from the In- 

ternational union. At present considerable controversy 
centres about the question of a future course or policy. 



Dos Cabezos. — The lessees of the Dos Cabezos mine, 
Alfred Paul, Millard Haymore, and Frank Whalen, are 
making regular shipments of concentrate by way of 
Douglas to the El Paso smelter, packing 132 miles from 
the mine, which is on the western slope of the Sierra 
Madre range. The old mill on the property has been re- 
built to combine flotation and water concentration. Ex- 
cellent recovery is being made. Thirty men are employed 
by the lessees in mine and mill. Mr. Whalen has active 
charge of the property. Dos Cabezos is the property of 
the Pearson Syndicate, a British corporation operating 
mines and lumber mills in the State of Chihuahua. It 
has been worked for many years and has large bodies of 
silver-lead-gold ore developed. The main shaft is 500 ft. 
deep with several thousand feet of drifts and cross-cuts 

Con. Virginia. — Roy R. Belknap and John Cleveland 
have reached here from Bisbee to take charge of mining 
and development work for L. C. Shattuck, of Bisbee, who 
recently bonded the Con. Virginia from Ygnacio Soto of 
Douglas. A force of 20 men will be employed at first. 
Mr. Soto accompanied Messrs. Belknap and Cleveland as 
far south as Moctezuma in order to have necessary legal 
details attended to before they took possession of the 
mine. Con. Virginia is a gold-silver prospect on which 
only shallow workings exist at the present time, but for 
which a great future is predicted by those in a position 
to know. 

Cananea. — The arrival of troops and the issuance of 
an injunction against the municipal government by the 
Federal Judge at Nogales, Sonora, to restrain it from 
putting into effect the order issued" last fall that all 
Chinese merchants must go out of business here with the 
close of 1919, has returned Cananea to normal conditions 
once more. The Chinese are doing business as usual and 
public sentiment against them appears to have died down 
considerably. A message from Governor Adolfo de la 
Huerta of Sonora, to Julian S. Gonzales, presidente mu- 
nicipal of Cananea, requested that the people be patient 
and await action of the Federal Congress before which a 
resolution cancelling the treaty with China is pending. 
The effects of the anti-Chinese campaign in Cananea are 
in evidence in every mining camp of the State where the 
Celestials occupy the position of principal merchants, 
restaurant keepers, and leaders in other lines having 
direct bearing on the cost of living. Mistreatment of 
Chinese is reported to be common. Although forced to 
pay higher taxes than natives they manage to undersell 
them as a general thing, and as a result the Chinese re- 
ceive the bulk of the native trade. The Cananea Consoli- 
dated Copper Co. now is employing only 3100 men. In 
order to relieve distress among men thrown out of em- 
ployment by this reduction, the municipality of Cananea 
is doing a considerable amount of street repairing. 

Jannar; 17. 1920 






PRODI < rio\ <>l (.oil) \M> Sll.VKK 1\ THE IVITKI) 

The Bureau of thp Mint and the Geological Survey have 
Issued the following preliminary estimate of the production 

of gold and sliver In the United States during the calendar 
year 1919. 

. Gold . silver . 

Stale or Territory Mas ounce* Value Fine ounce* Value - 

Alaaka 4:17.131 tS.OM.SO0 1 .072.1 SI 11.201.708 

Arliona . . 809.038 4.176.500 1.386.789 4.818.033 

17.380.000 1.204.004 1.349.608 

0.738.400 6.044.911 6.77S.438 

1.000 10 11 

710.400 6.042.010 6.772.194 

8.898 2.682 

100 4.142 4.043 

375.284 420.837 

100 59.460 86.648 

2.461.700 14.940.527 16.746.090 

4.754.600 7.318.464 8.196.164 

659 739 

595.700 718.791 708.932 

1.000 49 55 

1.071.800 223.578 250.597 

826.100 14.398 16.131 

78 87 

100 4 4 

5.267.600 122.164 138.928 

5.300 93.087 104.337 

1.100 540.239 605.527 

2.152.700 11.906.152 13.345.010 

200 1.819 2.039 

8 9 

309.800 316.028 354,220 

300 41 46 

California 840.758 

Colorado 470.998 

Oeonna 48 

Idaho 34.365 


Maine 5 


Missouri 5 

M. mi hi i 110.085 

Nevada 230.004 

New Hampshire 

New Mexico 28.817 

North Carolina 48 

Oresron 51.848 

Philippine Inlands .... 39.962 


South Carolina 5 

South Dakota 254.820 

Tennessee 256 

Texas 53 

Utah 104.137 

Vermont 10 


Washing-ton 14.987 

Wyoming 15 

2.829.395 958.488.800 55.285.196 961.966.413 
•Valued at the average New York price of fine silver. SI. 12085 per ounce. 

These figures, compared with those for 1918, show a re- 
duction in the output of gold of $10,157,900 and in that of 
silver cf 12,524,943 ounces; compared with those for 1917, 
they show a reduction in gold of $25,261,900, and in silver 
of 16,455,166 ounces. 


Chiricahua. — The Hill Tops Metals & Mining Co., of 
Chiricahua, Arizona, is considering the building of a reduc- 
tion plant at its mines and the construction of a railroad 
from its property to San Simon. 

Kingman. — The new shaft in the Green Quartz Mining 
•Co.'s vein has reached a depth of about 35 ft. and is in four 
feet of ore running about $15 per ton in gold. 

Phoenix. — Development at the United Arizona Copper 
Mining & Smelting Co.'s property, situated 35 miles north- 
east of Phoenix which has been delayed by washouts, is to be 
Tesumed upon the completion of repairs to the road and 
bridge. A double-compartment shaft is being sunk and is 
•now down 875 feet. 

Prescott. — The Silver Cycle Mining Co., of Prescott, Ari- 
zona, will build a mill and small smelter, and install an 
aerial tram at its Dunkirk mine, situated in the Senator dis- 
trict, south of Prescott, according to O. O. Smith, superin- 

Ray. — It is announced that the Arizona Hercules Copper 
Co. has temporarily suspended operations. In the meantime 
there are to be some changes in the mining and milling 
■methods. The company has announced that upon the re- 
sumption of operations the wages of miners will be accord- 
ing to the sliding-scale which at the present price of copper 

would yield a bonus of less than $1.70 per shift which the 
company has been paying. About 300 men wore affected by 
the shut-down. 


Alleghany. — Work has been resumed at the Tlghtner 
mine under the management of A. Hall. It is reported that 

the orebody has been recovered. Preparations are being 

made for more extensive work by the Mariposa, El Dorado, 
and several other local companies. 

Portola. — The Walker Mining Co. has arranged to in- 
crease the capacity of its flotation plant to 200 tons per day, 
and to build an aerial tramway from the mine to Spring 
Garden, eight miles distant. The tramway will eliminate 
the costly 25-mile haul to Portola. The main orebody is 
said to have been proved for a distance of 800 ft. by drifting, 
and for an additional 900 ft. by diamond-drilling. It has an 
average width of 16 ft., according to late reports. 


Mayday.- — Wynn and Marr have secured a contract from 
the Lewis Mountain M. & M. Co., and will extend the Ten 
Broeck tunnel 200 ft. farther on the vein. This tunnel Is 
3000 ft. long and was driven to cross-cut the vein at depth. 
The vein is said to be 2 ft. wide, assaying $70 to $126 per 

Ouray. — Luna and Eckman are getting out ore from the 

Silver-ton. — The snow on the ground is so deep that many 
prospects have been abandoned for the winter. Aside from 
the Southwestern company's operations on the Iowa Tiger, 
there is little production at the present time. Dora Con- 
solidated M. & M. Co., Anvil Leasing Co., and Reid leases on 

the Champion ship an occasional car of ore. The Little 

Nation Mining Co. is now operating on the Royal Charter 
getting out a large tonnage of ore. The Gold King Exten- 
sion Mines Co. has opened the road to Gladstone, and is 
running the mill. 

Telluride. — Production from the district is at a low ebb. 
The Tomboy Gold Mines Co. had a breakdown shortly after 
starting up the new mill, with the result that there was no 
production for a period of two weeks, but the mill is now 

running steadily. The Smuggler Union Mining Co. has 

purchased a saw-mill near Rico. 


Coeur d'Alene. — Frank M. Smith, assistant director of the 
Bunker Hill & Sullivan smelter, has been in the Coeur 
d'Alene district acquainting himself with ore production of 
the district. The Bunker Hill smelter has launched out into 
the custom smelting business and is looking for custom ores 
to treat at its Kellogg plant. 

A consolidation of the stock interests and holdings of the 
Black Bear Mining Co. and the Flynn group in the Coeur 
d'Alene is being negotiated. A consideration of $250,000 is 
said to be involved. 

Gem County. — The Zulu silver mine at Pearl, under de- 
velopment by Walter H. Hill of Boise since last April, has 
shipped some ore to Utah smelters. An operating company 
has now been incorporated under the name of the Zulu-Pearl 
Mining Co. and arrangements have been made for the build- 



January 17, 1920 

ing of a 5 0-ton mill. Some high-grade silver ore, running 
up to 600 oz. silver, has been opened in this mine during 
the last few months, according to Mr. Hill. 


Butte. — The Otesco and Heany shafts, being equipped 
by the Butte & Superior are about ready to start operations. 

The Anaconda company is building a Bradley fertilizer 
plant at Anaconda to utilize sulphuric acid manufactured at 
the smelter and phosphate rock shipped from Idaho, to 
make super-phosphate. 

The bond issue of the Tuolumne Copper Co. has been 
authorized at the stockholders' meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. 
The bonds amount to $50,000 convertible into stock at $2 
per share and bear 7 % interest. 

The Butte-Elk Park Extension Mining Co., which is de- 
veloping a group of claims one mile from Elk Park station 
on the Great Northern railroad, is re-timbering the 120-ft. 
shaft. The old 6 by 6-in. hewed-timber put in when the 
locators sank the shaft, is being replaced with 10 by 10-in. 
Oregon fir. As soon as a coal supply is assured the sinking 
of the shaft will be resumed. The shaft is 400 ft. deep at 
present and is to be sunk 800 to 1000 ft. deeper and the 
ground explored at depth. 

Hickey Brothers, pioneers of Butte, are to resume the de- 
velopment of the Honolulu claim in the extreme eastern 
section of the district. They are driving a tunnel to cross- 
cut the vein and then they purpose to drift east. 

Pat Keeney and associates have sunk the shaft on the 
Syndicate lode to the 150-ft. level and are cross-cutting 
north and south to the veins that traverse the ground. This 
claim is south and east of the Davis-Daly and west of the 
Anaconda company's Belmont mine. 

The Great Butte company has suspended operations and 
sold all supplies and equipments. This concern was de- 
veloping a group of claims about three miles north and east 
of Butte. They sank a shaft 2000 ft. and did extensive 
drifting, but did not develop any workable orebodies. 


Gold Circle. — On the 300-ft. level of Missing Link claim 
of Big Chief Consolidated a shoot of $200 ore is under de- 
velopment. The shaft is to be sunk to 400 ft. following the 
placing of new pumping equipment. Sinking is in progress 
from the 260-ft. level of General Grant claim on a vein 9 to 
11 ft. wide. 

Mijuu— H. G. Torrance, of Oakland, California, has pur- 
chased the Drew-Bugg cinnabar property 12 miles east of 
Mina. The purchase price is said to be $75,000, with $10,- 
000 as the first payment. In addition to quicksilver the ore 
carries gold and silver. It is the plan of the new owner to 
immediately install a 50-ton flotation plant. Later on a 
furnace for reduction of the cinnabar is planned. 

Sunshine. — J. B. Ratliff and associates are preparing a 
shipment of silver-gold ore from a lease on the Gem Five. 
The ore is said to assay $100 to $500 per ton with silver pre- 


Colville. — A mountain top consisting of 30,000 tons of 
dolomite was blown up at noon on New Year's day at the 
dolomite quarries east of Colville. For two months the 
Tulare Mining Company has been preparing for this ex- 
plosion. At 12:30 o'clock New Year's day the mountain 
top was 'dislocated' by the discharge of 7150 lb. of 10% 
giant-powder set off by firing 100 lb. of 40% powder. The 
explosion was divided into two charges placed 26 ft. apart 
in the mountain cliff, which was entered by a tunnel 41 ft. 
long, 3* ft. wide, and 5 ft. high. After the charges were 
placed the tunnel was completely blocked and the powder 
was exploded with a blasting-battery and electric caps. 

The Editor invites members of the profession to send particulars of thell 
work and appointments. The information is interesting to our readers 

Howard D. Smith has returned from New York. 
Oscar H. Hershey is spending this week at Kellogg, Idaho. 
Oscar Lachmund is at St. Louis, on his way to New York. 
H. D. Quimby has gone to Spokane, on his way to New 


Edwin O. Holter and Harold Kingmill are at Eureka, 

B. C. Gemmell has returned to Salt Lake City from San 

H. R. Hanley has gone to the New Cornelia and other 
mines in southern Arizona. 

E. L. Newhouse, son of Edgar New-house, of the A. S. & R. 
Co., was in San Francisco this week. 

Frank A. Moss, of Perth, Western Australia, is here, to 
visit his son, who is a mining student at Berkeley. 

W. H. Blackburn, general superintendent for the Tonopah 
Mining Co., has gone to the Eden mine, in Nicaragua. 

J. W. Richards has taken his son Percy J. Richards into 
partnership in his business as assayer at Denver, Colorado. 

J. Harvey Whiteman, president of the Tonopah Mining 
Co., has returned to Philadelphia after a short visit to San 

W. A. I/eddell has been appointed manager of the engi- 
neering department of the Mine & Smelter Supply Co., with 
headquarters at Denver. 

E. H. Finch has been appointed chairman of the Mineral 
Division, Land Classification Branch, U. S. Geological Sur- 
very, as successor to A. R. Schultz, resigned. 

Percival P. Butler, assistant superintendent of the Copper 
Queen smelter, has returned to Douglas from Los Angeles, 
having recovered from the effects of an operation. 

W. C. Humphrey, general manager of the Gueriguito mine 
in Sonora, has returned to Douglas, Arizona, to make his 
headquarters, after several years residence at Los Angeles. 

George Gmahling, for some time employed as brick-fore- 
man at the Calumet & Arizona smelter, sails this month for 
Peru to have charge of similar work at the new smelter of 
the Cerro de Pasco company. 

George Motz, mining superintendent of the Nacozari Con- 
solidated Copper Co., has returned from a visit in Texas and 
has gone to the company's property near Pilares de Nacozari 
to supervise the resumption of operations. 

F. M. Brown, for many years supply-agent for the Chino 
Copper Co., at Hurley, New Mexico, has been promoted to 
the position of assistant purchasing-agent for the Utah Cop- 
per Co. S. D. Akeroyd has succeeded him at the Chino. 

Walter Fitch, Sr., has retired as general manager for the 
Chief Consolidated Mining Co. at Eureka, but will continue 
to serve as president. Cecil Fitch has been appointed gen- 
eral manager of the property, and J. Fred Johnson will be 

William B. Gohring, for 14 years connected with the Calu- 
met & Arizona Mining Co., has resigned his position as min- 
ing superintendent, effective January 3, to engage in busi- 
ness for himself with headquarters at Tucson. Arizona. He 
was succeeded by E. E. Whiteley, the assistant superin- 

January IT. 1920 




s.m rrandsco, Jim. 

Aluminum dust. OBnU |kt pouod 85 

Antimony, onti imt pouiui .......,;, tOM 

Copper, iii'-mii.vtii oente per pound .'.'. lf>!26 

Lead, pik-. oojate par pound 8.&n 

Platinum, pure, per ounce 1160 

Platinum, 10' . indium, per ounce $180 

QnJckeilter. iht Bank ol t."i lb. fan 

Speller, cents per pouud 10.60 

Zinc dust, (.nils per pound 12.50 15.00 


I By wire from New York I 
January 1.3 — Copper is in good demand. Lead i- . 
i- .iiill but steady. 


Below are given official or ticker quotations, in cents per ounce of silver 
009 fine. From April 23. 1018. the United States government paid SI per 
Ounce for all silver purchased by it. fixing a maximum of $1.01 ^ on 
August 15. 1018. and will continue to pay $1 until the quantity specified 
under the Act is purchased, probably extending over several years. On 
May 5. 1010. all restrictions on the metal were removed, resulting in 
fluctuations. During the restricted period, the British government fixed the 
maximum price five times, the last being on March 25. 1010. on account of 
the low rate of sterling exchange, but removed all restrictions on May 10. 
The equivalent of dollar silver (1000 fine! in British currency Is 46.65 
pence per ounce (025 fine), calculated at the normal rate of exchange. 
New York London 

live and strong. Zinc 



7 131.25 

8 138.00 


10 134 .00 

11 Sunday 

12 135.00 

13 137.00 




Average week ending 

2 132.00 

9 131.29 

16 131.29 

23 133.66 

30 132.60 

6 130.80 

13 138.71 


Jan 75.14 

Feb 77.64 

Men 74.13 

Apr 72.51 

May 74.61 

June 76.44 


Monthly averages 

1919 ] 



July 78.92 

Aug 85.40 

Sept 100.73 

Oct 87.38 

Nov 85.07 

Dee 85.07 





Prices of electrolytic in New York, in cents per pound. 



7 10.50 Dec. 

8 19.50 


10 19.50 

11 Sunday 

12 10.50 Jan. 

13 10.50 

Monthly averages 
1918 1919 
23.60 20.43 
23.60 17.34 
23.50 15.05 
23.50 16.23 
23.50 16.01 
23.50 17.63 

Average week ending 








. .20.53 

Feb 34.67 

Men 36.00 

Apr 33.16 

May 31.60 

June 32.57 


July 20.67 

Aug 27.42 

Sept 25.11 

Oct 23.60 

Nov 23.50 

Dec 23.50 





Lead ifl quoted in cents per pound. New York delivery. 






11 Sunday 



Average week ending 





. . 7.64 
. . 9.10 

Mch 10 07 

Apr . 9.38 

May 10.29 

June 11.74 


Monthly averages 




Aug 10.76 




Prices in New York, in cents per pound: 

Monthly averages 
1918 1019 
85.13 71.50 
85.00 72.44 
85.00 72.50 
88.53 72.50 
100.01 72.50 
91.00 71.83 

lf.1 ' 

Jan 44. lu 

Feb 51.47 

Mch 54.27 

Apr 55.63 

Mav 63.21 

June 61.93 


July 62.60 

Aug 62.53 

Sept 61.54 

Oct- 62.24 

Nov 74 1 R 

Dec 85.00 


73 R7 



54 1" 

Zinc is quoted as spelter, 
in cents per pound: 

standard Western brands. New York delivery. 



11 Sunday 

l ■• 


:■ s:, 
!l 75 



Jan 9.76 

Feb 10.45 

Mch 10.78 

Apr 10.20 

May 9.41 

June 9 03 


. . 8.76 
Monthly averages 

Average week ending 








8 66 

II 75 



: B l 

li 11 

7 82 

The primary market for 
the largest producer. The 
quantity. Prices, in dollars 

Dei m 


r.44 July 
8.71 Aug. 
6.63 Sept. 
849 Oct. 
043 Nov. 
6.91 Dec. 
quicksilver is San Francisco. California being 
price is fixed in the open market, according to 
per flask of 76 pounds: 

I Dec. 30 85.00 

.100.00 Jan. 6 86.00 

. 95.00 I '• 13 00.00 

Monthly averages 

1017 1018 

Jan 81.00 128.06 

Feb 126.26 118.00 

Mch 113.75 112.00 

Apr 114.60 116.00 

May 104.00 110.00 

June 86.00 112 00 



July 102.00 

Aug 115.00 

Sept 112.00 

Oct 102.00 

Nov 102.50 

Dec 117.42 

120 00 







95 00 


Taking into consideration past experience in Liberty bonds and the 
vicissitudes of the bond market, it is believed the outstanding war issues 
have seen their worst prices and that within a few months a decided turn- 
ing point will be manifested In all classes of Liberty bonds and Victory 
notes. This conviction is strengthened by the steps being taken to free 
Liberty bonds from artificial support, by gradually decreasing their use as 
collateral for bank loans, leaving the bond market lo reflect legitimate in- 
vestment demands. Funds set free from speculation will inevitably seek 
lodgment in high-grade investments. 

The Treasury with its bond-purchase fund had purchased up to Novem- 
ber 15. from War Finance Corporation, which has operated to support the 
market for Liberty bonds. $953,080,500 of flrst, Becond, third, and fourth- 
loan 4% and 4Vi% bonds. These bonds have been retired and canceled. 
Similarly with funds returned to the Treasury in repayment of loans made 
to the Allies there have been purchased, retired, and canceled. $64,812,150 
"Liberty third and fourth-loan 4 L i% bonds. This bond-purchase fund will 
expire one year after the termination of the War. 

By act of Congress March 3. 1919, a more scientific plan for retirement 
of the War Debt will become operative beginning July 1920. For each fiscal 
year thereafter until the debt is discharged, an amount equal to. 2%% of 
the aggregate of bonds and notes outstanding, less the par amount of 
obligations of foreign governments held by the United States, on July 1. 
1920. will be appropriated and become available for such a sinking-fund. 
It is calculated that this sinking-fund will retire funded war debt of the 
United States in about 25 years, except with respect to an amount of 
Liberty bonds equal to loans, or cash advances to foreign governments out- 
standing July 1. 1920. When and as these foreign obligations, which on 
December 1.7. 1919. totaled $9,443,005,029. bearing 5% interest, are re- 
paid to the United States, an offsetting amount of Liberty bonds may be 
purchased and retired in advance of their maturity. Annual interest due 
the United States on these loans to the Allies will, when paid, considerably 
exceed our present prescribed sinking-fund. 

Estimated expenditure for the bond-purchase fund is $740,000,000 for 
the fiscal year ending June 30. 1020. and the estimated appropriation for 
sinking fund is $287,500,000 for the fiscal year ending June 30. 1921. 

Discussing respective valueB and yield of war issues at present. C. F. 
Childs & Co.. of New York, point out that the Victory notes and bonds of 
the Third Liberty Loan are today quoted at prices to net the investor 
more than 5%. The former have not been supported by Government pur- 
chases. These two issues virtually represent the present credit-level of the 
Government based upon a supply and demand market. It would, there- 
fore, seem reasonable that a similar parity yield may develop with respect 
to the market for Second and Fourth Liberty Loans. Should Federal Re- 
serve banks eventually advance their discount rate to 896 (which would 
not be likely to hamper trade) such a rate would tend temporarily to 
subject all non-mercantile loans to more careful scrutiny and the bonds of 
all Liberty loans would be adjusted to prices reflecting a more correct and 
equalized market level and showing more uniformity of income yields. 
However, until the Government's purchase of the different bonds is dia- 
.riniinatingly made, there will probably be a marked difference between 
the yields of the several issues. 

Foreign exchange quotations on January 13 are as follows: 

Sterling, dollars: Cable 8.74 '. 

Demand 3.73 ', 

Francs, cents: Cable 8.93 

Demand 8.91 

Lire, cents: Demand 7 4 

Marks, cents '- "" 



January 17, 1920 

Eastern Metal Market 

New York, January 7. 

Due largely to highly speculative markets in London, the 
metal markets here are in most cases bouyant. 

Copper is the least affected by foreign speculation, but is 
strong and higher. 

Buying of tin by consumers is light but prices are soar- 
ing, due to higher foreign quotations. 

The lead market is the strongest of all, with supply in- 
adequate and prices advancing. 

The zinc market has started the present week with wide 
advances, due to foreign demand and speculation on the 
other side. 

Antimony is quiet but stronger. 


Inquiry for both export and domestic consumption in the 
first week of the year has been heavy in all the principal 
markets. On much of it the mills have been unable to quote. 
Scarcity prevails in bars, pipe, sheets, rods, wire products, 
and semi-finished steel. More is heard of reduced operations 
at automobile plants because of a lack of steel. Car short- 
age is causing trouble also. 

Pig-iron output in December, according to 'The Iron Age', 
was 2,633,268 tons for 31 days, or 84,944 tons per day, in- 
dicating a further recovery from the effects of the coal 
strike. The November output was 2,392,350 tons or 79,745 
tons per day. Estimating charcoal pig-iron at 360,000 tons, 
the 1919 output was close to 31,000,000 tons as compared 
with 39,054,000 tons in 1918. 

Definite orders for 250,000 tons of rails have been placed 
in the Chicago district on which rolling will commence at 
once. In addition tentative orders call for 100,000 to 150,- 
000 tons more. 


Demand from both foreign and domestic consumers is re- 
ported as still excellent and likely to continue through Janu- 
ary at least. Buying in November and December is esti- 
mated to have totaled 450,000,000 lb. Stocks on hand are 
still large and demand is not equal to production, but, if the 
present rate of buying continues long, demand will at least 
approach supply. Whether this much desired condition will 
be attained is hard to predict. Electrolytic copper for first 
quarter delivery is quoted at 19.50c, New York, with Lake 
held at 19.75 to 20c, New York. In London electrolytic was 
quoted yesterday at £126 for spot, with futures at £128 per 
ton, which corresponds with 21.62c in our market for the 


The sensation of the week has been the continued specu- 
lative advance in the London market with a leap of £17 15 s. 
per ton on January 5 for spot Straits. This is probably a 
record advance for one day. The market there Monday was 
£365 15s. for spot Straits which eased off yesterday to £364 
10s. In sympathy with the British market prices have ad- 
vanced. Yesterday spot Straits, New York, was quoted at 
63.50c, having been 63.75c on Monday. These prices are 
largely nominal as the market presents very little activity. 
Dealers have been the buyers and they are reported to have 
bought up all cheap lots and thus to have brought the mar- 
ket up to the import cost. Importers who have sold have 
done so at figures considerably below the cost to import. 
As a result there are now scant offerings, the trading being 
between dealers with consumers holding off. A little busi- 
ness was done Monday on future shipment from the East at 
64 to 64.25c, but now most dealers are asking 64.50c. and 
higher. The amalgamation on January 1 of the American 
Metal Co. and L. Vogelstein is regarded as a formidable 

combination and as possibly an attempt to regain part of the 
trade lost during the War. Deliveries of tin into consump- 
tion during December were 6 965 tons, of which 1665 tons 
came in at Pacific ports. In stocks and landing on December 
31, there were 3438 tons. For 1919 the imports of tin were 
35,404 tons as compared with 58,027 tons in 1918. Of the 
1919 imports 26,225 tons came from the Straits, with 4700 
tons from England. The advance in tin in London from 
November 5 to January 5, has been £88 15s. per ton for spot 


'Supplies insufficient to meet the large demand' is the key- 
note of the situation in the lead market. Spot lead is almost 
impossible to obtain which renders it very difficult to quote 
the market. Few if any producers have any. On Friday 
and Saturday, January 2 and 3, the American Smelting & 
Refining Co. raised its price ic per lb. each day, bringing its 
quotation to 8c, New York, or 7.75c, St. Louis. But the 
outside market has continued to keep in advance. This mar- 
ket may be nominally quoted at 8.50 to 8.75c, New York, or 
S.25 to 8.50c, St. Louis, for prompt or early delivery with 
very little metal available. For February-March delivery 
8.87J to 9c is the quotation firmly held. The present tight 
condition is predicted to continue through January and 
February after which relief is expected, due to present 
arrangements to increase production. In the two months 
ending January 5, spot lead in the London market has ad- 
vanced £14 10s. and futures also £14 10s. per ton. There 
is some export inquiry in this market but how it is to be 
supplied is difficult to say. 


Foreign demand and market operations, particularly in 
London, continue to be the dominating influence in this mar- 
ket and prices continue to rise. Due to a sudden speculative 
advance in London on Monday and yesterday, prime Western 
became buoyant here and advanced from 9c, St. Louis, 
where it had held most of last week, to 9.50c, St. Louis, or 
9.85c, New York. Foreign demand, particularly British, is 
most important and heavy. In the last two months ending 
January 5, the London zinc market has advanced £14 10s. 
for spot delivery and £16 per ton for futures. Domestic de- 
mand is still light and the position of producers seems tech- 
nically excellent. Predictions are to the effect that Amer- 
ican users of zinc are likely to pay high because they did not 
purchase when prices were much lower a few months ago. 

The market is stronger but quiet at 9.75 to 9.87Jc, duty 
paid, for wholesale lots for early delivery. 

Virgin metal, 98 to 99% pure, is nominally quoted at 
31.50 to 32.50c, New York, for wholesale lots for early de- 
livery. The Aluminum Company of America is reported to 
have sold its entire 1920 output to regular customers at 32 
to 33c. for virgin ingots. Some British metal is said to be 
available at concessions from these prices. 

Tungsten: The market is quiet but cheerful over the pros- 
pects for the new year. Quotations are nominal at $7 to $15 
per unit in 60% concentrate, depending on the grade of ore, 
but business is very light. Quotations for ferro-tungsten 
are still a matter of negotiation, though some reports place 
them at $1 to $1.15 per lb. of contained tungsten. 

Manganese: Indian ore is offered at 6 5c per unit and it is 
stated that American producers of ferro-manganese are 
likely to meet this price. Good ore is scarce both here and 
in England. 



T. A. RiCKftRO. toiton 
L. A. Parsons. 4»iocuic idoo* 


Mrm'trt Audit Bumu ol Circulation* 
Mcmbn A.iociatid Buunru P«pri,, Inc. 


PMVWtrrl at ir.' ■ m Fraacti 

ov tAr /'fiery J*iiUitJtiivj i 

C. T. Hutchinson, man* 

E. H. LCSIIC. 600 PtSMCN loi 
" A WtlfiLI. 3314 WOOLWVONTM 

• In 

. ChiCASO 
■ OS.. N.V 


Issued Every Saturday 

San Francisco, January 24, 1920 *4 per year— is cents P erco Py 




. 105 


The importance of the office, nationally and inter- 
nationally. Candidates now before the public. Is- 
sues at stake. Party alignments. The main issue 
is the economic. Mr. Hoover's career and quali- 


The fateful day has come. Kicks against the dry 
law. The manner in which it was put into effect. 
The effectiveness of persistent propaganda. Rail- 
roading tactics and the objections to them. How 
the 18th Amendment was rushed through Con- 
gress. The rights of the citizen and the will of the 


Good practice by the North Butte Mining Co., in 
Montana. Economy due to systematization of 
effort. The incentive to work diligently. Time 
study and dispatch. The blasting of a round of 
holes and the saving of explosives. 


Wardner becomes promoter and operator. Con- 
centrator built. Property sold to Simeon G. Reed 
of Portland. The fate of the four locators. 


By E. G. Stowell and Will H. Coghill i]7 

The problem to be solved. Cinnabar ore contain- 
ing 0.15% mercury. Screen-analysis and conclu- 
sions. Table-concentration tests discouraging. 
Flotation tests. Detailed procedure. Methods of 
grinding and influence on flotation. Acidity in 
pulp neutralized by grinding in ball-mill. Effects 
of lime-water, tap water, and sulphuric acid on 
flotation results. Lime-water beneficial. Fine 
grinding also of benefit. 90% extraction obtained. 


By H. Livingstone Sulman 122 

The discussion of the physics of the process con- 
tinued. Surface-energy and surface-tension of 
solids. Dynamical aspect of surfaces. Modifica- 
tion of surface characteristics during ore-dressing 
processes. Interracial tension. 


■ Production of metal mines during 1919 in (a) 
Montana, (b) Nevada, and (c) New Mexico. 


By T. A. Rickard 109 

Facts extricated from romantic fiction regarding 
discovery and location of claims. Cooper & Peck 
grubstake Noah S. Kellogg in summer of 1885. 
Kellogg and Phil O'Rourke find the Bunker Hill 
lode. Variety of narratives giving various detailed 
versions of the episodes. The famous jackass 
owned by Ceoper & Peck. The Sullivan claim 
located by Con Sullivan and Jacob Goetz. Historic 
suit. Decision of Judge Norman Buck. Jim 








Established May 24. 1860. as The Scientific Press: name changed October 
20 of the same year to Mining and Scientific Press. 

Entered at the San Francisco post-office as second-class matter. Cable 
address: Pertusola. 

Branch Offices— Chicago. 600 Fisher Bdg.: New York. 3514 Woolworth 
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Price. 15 cents per copy. Annual subscription, payable In advance- 
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January 24, 1920 


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January 24. 1920 



DASE-METAL mining is prospering, thanks to the 
■'-' better prices for lead and zinc. The European de- 
mand tor lead is the cause of the r m rise in quota- 
tions, from 4.85 cents per pound last May to 8.75 in Jan- 
uary of this year. Zinc was 6.3] last May and stands at 
9 cents now. These are notable advances, and mean 
much to the miner. 

TX this issue we publish the third of a series of articles 

-*■ on the Bunker Hill Enterprise, by the Editor. There 
will be twelve of these articles, which will cover the his- 
tory of the Bunker Hill & Sullivan Mining & Concen- 
trating Company, and describe the mining, milling, and 
smelting operations, as well as the geological and socio- 
logical phases of this highly interesting and unusually 
successful enterprise. 

"DECENT reports from the Transvaal indicate that the 
-*-*- production of gold during 1019 amounted to $160.- 
000,000, a decrease from $173,500,000 in 1918, and from 
$192,200,000 in 1916. This compares with a production 
in the United States of $58,500,000 during 1919, and $68,- 
500.008 in 1918. Australia shows a similar reduction. 
The record year of gold production for the world was 
1915, in which period a total of $470,000,000 was pro- 
duced. Since 1915 the world output has steadily fallen ; 
in 1916 it was $454,000,000 ; in 1917, $423,000,000 ; in 
1918, $372,000,000; and in 1919, probably $350,000,000. 

SHARES in Rand Mines, Ltd., are being offered in 
New York by advertisement in the newspapers. It is 
stated that dividends during the ten years preceding De- 
cember 31, 1918, averaged $4.62, at $3.75 to the pound 
sterling, on each American share, which is equal to two 
and a half English shares. These so-called American 
shares are now offered at $40 per share. Rand Mines is 
quoted in London at £3f, which at $3.75 is equivalent to 
$13.96," so that 2J shares are worth $34.90. The offer 
seems unattractive. Moreover, the rate of dividend paid 
during 1918 represents a yield of less than 6% on the 
market quotation. This is far too little for a business 
that is decadent, even allowing for the assistance derived 
from the premium on gold. Those who read the 'Mining 
and Scientific Press ' do not need to be told that the mines 
of the Rand show impoverishment in depth ; therefore 
the purchase of shares in the companies operating them, 
especially a holding company like Rand Mines, Ltd., is 
not wise. The financial houses controlling the big min- 

im.' consolidations in South Africa have unloaded then- 
stocks on the British public, which in the course of seven 
years lost $203,931,610 by holding shares in the three 
principal consolidations, namely. Hand Mini's, Crown 
Mines, and East Hand Proprietary. See OUT issi I 

■F tine 8, 1918. We shall be surprised if the same people 

succeed in unloading their wasting assets upon the Amer 
ican public. 

LAST YEAR scored several records. Ship-building 
increased from 2,721.000 to 4.050.000 gross tons 
Sales of Liberty bonds advanced from $1,407,952,500 to 
$2,658,400,000. The National Debt grew from 21 to 26 
billion dollars. The population advanced to 107,600,000 
from 106,050,000, not including overseas possessions. 
Wheal production increased from 921,438,000 bushels in 
940.987,000. Wholesale prices rose from 207 to 222. 
Sales of stocks in New York increased from 144,118,469 
to 319.337,000. The Stock Exchange had 152 'million- 
share' days, as against the previous record of 114 in 
1906. Immigration increased from 110,618 to 249.000. 
but emigration kept pace, there having departed 258,- 
000 as against 109,253 in 1918. 

TMAGINATION is the very life of mining. The pros- 
■*■ pector, upon whom all mining depends, would make 
but a sorry success of his work without the power to 
visualize productive mines under the sand of the desert 
or under the brush of the wilderness. Many a famous 
mine would never have existed but for the vision of some 
man whose imagination led him far beyond his more 
stolid brethren. This fact has made mining a fruitful 
field for the 'confidence' man, by whose exuberant 
prophecies the proverbial widow and orphan have been 
trapped. Gold mines of such fabulous wealth as to sug- 
gest the use of a wheelbarrow ; copper mines that surely, 
as soon as a shaft or two has been sunk, and, possibly, a 
stope started, will rival the Anaconda; oilfields that con- 
tain subterranean lakes of oil ; these are all too familiar 
to the readers of prospectuses, in some of which new- 
mining districts of undoubted merit are so overdrawn, 
and facts and fantasy so intermingled, that it is indeed a 
canny speculator who can say that he has never been 
misled. We had thought that the vivid imaginations of 
these Munchausens of mining had probed every possible 
kind of ore deposit; yet in a reliable report that we have 
just received concerning a strange discovery in New- 
Zealand, we once again see the vindication of an old 



January 24, 1920 

proverb. Kauri gum, which at present has a market 
value of about $1000 per ton for use in varnishes, oils, 
and similar products, is formed from the sap of certain 
trees of the pine family that grow in New Zealand. The 
customary method of obtaining the gum has been by dis- 
tillation of the wood of the parent trees, a process that, 
as it destroys timber of industrial value, has yielded a 
restricted output at high cost. At the northern end of 
North Island, near Auckland, there are large swamps 
in the peaty soil of which kauri gum is found in loose 
lumps. In swamps covering an area of 2100 acres, the 
gum has been found to exist to a depth of six feet, and 
experiments made by treating the soil by wet methods 
of concentration have yielded a recovery of 10%. This 
deposit, although known locally for some time, is just be- 
ginning to attract attention ; in all probability therefore 
the methods of sampling have not been sufficiently re- 
liable to warrant accurate estimates. Nevertheless, mak- 
ing allowances for the fact that dependable figures are 
not forthcoming as yet, the possibilities indicated are 
interesting. In another part of the swamp the peaty 
soil is being excavated and retorted for crude oil, a 
process not sufficiently different from our own oil-shale 
operations to incite comment. But the strangest part of 
this chronicle is yet to come. The gum in the soil has 
resulted from the disintegration of some prehistoric 
forest of kauri trees ; indeed, excavations have established 
the fact that submerged under the surface of the swamp 
there are the remains of a forest of kauri trees, main- 
tained in perfect preservation by the water. As the 
oldest Maoris have no recollection of a forest ever having 
existed on this part of the island, the disturbance that 
resulted in the submergence of the trees, before they had 
time to decay, must have occurred at least several gen- 
erations ago. Prospectors have been removing these 
trees and working them into lumber, which has proved 
to be in good condition. So we have the extraordinary 
spectacle, even if only on a prospecting scale, of men 
mining useful timber from underground. "We recall 
reading, some years ago, one of Prank Stockton's delight- 
fully whimsical stories, in which the hero discovered the 
remnant of a glacier that had been buried and preserved 
for centuries, and so became possessed of an ice mine. 
Thus fact and fiction rub shoulders. 

Herbert Hoover for President 

The Presidency is the most important political office in 
the world, partly on account of the mere size and wealth 
of the United States, partly because this country is the 
acknowledged leader of the democratic idea in human 
government, but chiefly because no other potentate or 
president exercises so much personal influence upon the 
industrial progress of his own country. During recent 
years the executive branch of the Government, rightly or 
wrongly, has. exercised a preponderant influence as 
against the legislative and judicial branches, with which 
it was intended, by the Constitution, to be equal and co- 
ordinate. It is a fact that the welfare of the American 

people for the next four or five years depends more upon 
the choice of § President than upon the exercise of any 
other act of citizenship. We must select the right man. 
Who is he ? Already the political atmosphere vibrates to 
the calls of candidates and their supporters. It appears 
to be the fashion not to wait for an invitation, but to 
come forward with a claim to nomination ; several gentle- 
men have shied their hats into the ring and already are 
campaigning vociferously. Most of them can be ignored ; 
their confidence in their eligibility for the supreme office 
in the Republic is not shared by many outside their own 
cliques. So far the names put forward by the profes- 
sional politicians have evoked but little enthusiasm. A 
worn-out General, a backstairs diplomat, a Tory peda- 
gogue, a hardy quadrennial, even the sadly battered 
present incumbent of the Executive Chair are among the 
more prominent presumptive nominees, but none of these 
is the man of the hour. The Presidency requires physical, 
as well as mental, strength. It is dangerous to elect any 
man not physically fit for the arduous duties of the office, 
which is one that makes extraordinary demands upon the 
vital powers. It is dangerous to have an invalid in the 
White House, for that means either the delegation of 
authority to subordinates or the performance of duty 
under conditions prejudicial to efficiency. The choice 
should fall upon a man in the prime of life, and it should 
recognize the problems that are insistent at this time. 
National economics asserts itself today unmistakably ; the 
welfare of this country depends upon the effective and 
humane organization of industry; upon the far-sighted 
and sagacious adjustment of international economic re- 
lations. The issues inherited from the Civil War are 
dead ; the tariff is no longer a live question ; the old shib- 
boleths are unpronounceable; we are facing a new era, 
which is the aftermath of a great war, in the course of 
which the economic factor became supreme. The pre- 
eminent exponent of that factor, nationally and inter- 
nationally, is Herbert Hoover. First as the organizer of 
relief for American refugees, then as the savior of Bel- 
gium, then as the head of our Food Administration, and 
lastly as chief of the Relief Organization in Europe, he 
proved his intelligence, his sagacity, and his generosity to 
the utmost. Of the Government bureaus that played an 
important part in the national effort demanded by the 
War, one was conspicuously untouched by calumny and 
unscathed by criticism — that was the Food Administra- 
tion. Mr. Hoover's work in this department proved itself 
extraordinarily effective; it received not only popular 
approval but enthusiastic support. Mr. Hoover 'showed 
himself highly competent as an executive ; he won a firm 
hold upon the confidence of the people of this country, as 
of those in Europe, because he possessed the constructive 
imagination of an engineer. Talk about a business-man 
for President! The swivel-chairs of Washington were 
burdened with business-men, and a sad mess most of them 
made. The Presidency calls for something more than the 
qualities sufficient for success in business ; it demands the 
trained mind and the disciplined imagination of the pro- 
fessional man, not of the academic type, but of the kind 

January 24, i":'n 



that lias bad experience in leading and directing indus- 
trial energies. A knowledge ,, t - |, us i ni .ss, as such, i- us. 
t'lll. of course, hut it must In- the business of right living 
.is u.u ms the Imsin q money, The experience 

■ •I' commerce alone will not suffice. Mr. Hoover has tin- 
qualities required for the bighesl office, Be is not an 
orator, ami what a blessing it would !><• to have a Preai 
dent who was not Forever speechifying! Se lacks the 
tactile insincerities of the politician, hut he can express 
himself clearly whei caaiou arises, Democratic institu- 
tions are Buffering from an cx.tss of rhetorical confec- 
tionary; we are tired of the lawyer and his unending 
gab; it would be a relief to have an executive that would 
give less time to phrase-making and more to the business 
of government. That is a business of increasing difti- 
culty, because the expansion of the suffrage and the inter- 
dependence of industries is creating new problems. Dur- 
ing the term of the next President the relation of capital 
to labor, and of both of them to the public good, will ho 
the supreme subject; we shall have to face our responsi- 
bilities to the world at large, with which the War has 
brought us into new and complex connections; we shall 
have to establish economy in our national exchequer and 
thereby correct the extravagance stimulated by war; we 
shall have to recognize the heterogeneity of our popula- 
tion and devise means for assimilating and educating the 
alien elements. The United States stands on the threshold 
of a great era; to make the most of it there is needed for 
President a man of intellectual honesty, an experienced 
administrator, a wise leader. Such a man is Herbert 


At this time the compulsory abstention from spirituous 
liquors is a subject of daily conversation. A sudden 
change in the habits of the average citizen, particularly 
when enforced against his will, is hound to cause irrita- 
tion and evoke protest. In our last issue we published 
a 'kick' on the subject from one of our readers; it is the 
only 'kick', except the luxury tax. that he is permitted 
to enjoy in his now uninteresting potations. We are not 
without sympathy for him ; the difference between us 
is that we reconcile ourselves to facts rather more readily, 
and we accept some of the drawbacks of democratic rule 
for the sake of the many benefits arising from this form 
of popular government. One after another the efforts 

to block the enactment of the prohibition law have 1 □ 

checkmated, until at last the fateful 16th of January has 
arrived. The fight for liberty to drink alcoholic bever- 
ages is not ended. There remain other attempts to cir- 
cumvent the permanent establishment of prohibition. 
Some of them are foolish. For example, the 'New York 
Times' quotes a declaration that is being signed all over 
the country; it reads thus: "Believing that the Consti- 
tutional Amendment passed by Congress and ratified by 
a majority of the States is an infringement upon my 
personal liberties, I hereby pledge myself to vote against 
any candidate for public office, regardless of party affili- 

iiiions. who favors us enforcement" Our New York 
contemporary says: "The pledge is oertainly too sweep 
ing, anil in form ami language is of bad example." it 

is worse than that, it is childish. As grown men under 

a system of representative government, «■■ must accept 

quietly ami good toinperodly the decision of the majority, 

Thai it is a real majority, there is no doubt It remains, 

however, to take warning, first of all, of the insidious 
effectiveness of persistent propaganda, ami to In- on OUT 
guard in the future against such changes in our laws or 
in the Constitution as may be brought about in a similar 
way. It is better to be sure than sorry. Prohibition i> a 
standing example of the fact thai if you say the game 
thing often enough it will be believed by the average 
man. Not many think for themselves; if bombarded bj 
the thoughts of others, they surrender. Again, the man- 
ner in which prohibition was rushed into law calls for 
serious objection. The time required to elapse between 
the ratification of a Constitutional Amendment ami the 
date on which it goes into effect is supposed to provide 
an opportunity for adjustment to the new conditions im- 
posed by such a change in our fundamental law. In the 
case of national prohibition, this salutary provision was 
impaired by war-time prohibition, which, by coming into 
force during the period of grace, to all intents and pur- 
poses antedated the operation of the 18th amendment to 
the Constitution. The President, wisely and properly, 
vetoed war-time prohibition as soon as the Expeditionary 
Force had been demobilized; in doing so. he recognized 
the facts of the case. His veto was set aside by well- 
meaning fanatics. The enforcement of war-time prohi- 
bition nearly eight months after the signing of the Ar- 
mistice left no interval between the incidence of that 
enactment and the imposition of perpetual prohibition 
by means of the Constitutional Amendment. This savers 
too much of 'railroading' tactics, which are repugnant to 
those who, most properly, view with anxiety the over- 
• throw of such basic provisions in our law as are meant to 
protect the people from any curtailment of their liberties 
without deliberation and the rigid observance of the safe- 
guards created for that very purpose. The 18th amend- 
ment was 'rushed'; of that there is no doubt. For ex- 
ample, many States have a proviso in their own constitu- 
tion giving their people the right to a referendum. Ohio 
exercised that right, and reversed the vote of its legis- 
lature. Since the date. January 16, was determined by 
the day when the last of the 36 necessary States ratified 
the amendment, it would appear as if the defection 
of Ohio creates a flaw in the legality of the amend- 
ment. Moreover, the unseemly haste to bring national 
prohibition into force has had the effect of doing injury 
to persons engaged in an industry heretofore recognized 
as legitimate. The culture of the grape, the production 
of wine, the manufacture of spirituous liquorsgenerally 
constituted forms of industrial activity and financial in- 
vestment that the Federal government and many of the 
States had approved, and had even fostered. In common 
justice the men that had placed their money in this busi- 
ness and those that depended upon it for a livelihood 



January 24, 1920 

should have been given a fair chance to make the severe 
adjustments entailed by the new law. The time covered 
by war-time prohibition should have been treated as 
'time out', to use a sporting term, when determining the 
date at which perpetual prohibition should begin under 
the 18th amendment; and, of course, the preservation of 
the rights of the citizen, to conserve which this republic 
was founded, called for such a ratification by the neces- 
sary 36 States as left no suggestion of a flaw. The pros 
and cons of prohibition may be the subject of discussion, 
but there should be no room for debate concerning the 
observance of the basic principles upon which representa- 
tive government is founded. There are things more vital 
than either the permission or the forbiddance to drink. 
One of them is a strict regard for the constitutional 
rights of the citizen; another is the acceptance of the 
vote of the majority. "We think that although prohibi- 
tion was brought about by methods and means open to 
serious criticism, and although the history of the entire 
movement should serve as a warning against the repeti- 
tion of such a performance, yet it does express the will 
of the majority of the people in our State and in the 
United States, and therefore it should be accepted good- 
temperedly. We are sorry for our elder brethern whose 
habits of a lifetime — habits by no means bad — have suf- 
fered a ruthless break ; we envy the undemocratic ad- 
vantage of the rich in being able to store large stocks of 
liquor in their own cellars, while the rest of us must go 
'dry'; we are glad to have had our share of good bur- 
gundy before the question of abstinence from wine be- 
came irretrievably involved with that of drinking bad 
whiskey in saloons ; we congratulate the wives of men 
who formerly spent their wages in getting drunk ; and, 
most of all, we shake the hand of the mothers who now 
can thank Heaven that their sons will escape the tempta- 
tion that has ruined many promising careers. Selah. 

System in Mining 

The latest report of the North Butte Mining Com- 
pany ascribes a remarkable reduction in the cost of pro- 
ducing copper during the past year to the development 
of systematized methods for handling labor, for distrib- 
uting supplies, and for performing each phase of under- 
ground operations in accordance with standard plans. 
Other companies likewise have effected economies by a 
similar systematization of effort. Broadly speaking, the 
efficiency of mining operations, like that of any other in- 
dustry, depends upon two factors, namely, skilful man- 
agement and willing employees. To be precise, the main- 
tenance of an efficient personnel is a function of admini- 
stration, but as a result of unprecedented conditions 
brought, about by the War, and the accompanying unrest 
among working-men, the labor question has become a 
highly important and complex problem in itself. Assum- 
ing that this has been solved as well as may be under a 
particular set of conditions, there is still an immense 
field for betterment in the scheme of organization ; in the 
selection of material and equipment; in the system for 

distributing this material and equipment; and in the 
method of performing each detail of the mine- work; all 
of which can bl considered separately from the supply of 
men to carry on the work as planned. If there is no in- 
centive sufficiently strong to induce the miner to work 
with at least some diligence, comparatively little will be 
accomplished under any circumstances; on the other 
hand, if the employees are inclined to be fair and work 
reasonably hard during the full period of their shift, a 
remarkable improvement in results can be obtained in 
most mines by the application of a system suited to the 
special conditions. When the manager of a mine con- 
siders the fact that the output of such a comparatively 
simple plant as a machine-shop in an automobile factory 
has been increased as much as tenfold by the introduc- 
tion of plans, schedules, and standard practice, he must 
see possibilities in the adaptation of the same ideas to 
his own business. The objection has been raised that 
conditions characteristic of mine operations make the 
adoption of 'time study' and 'dispatch' methods im- 
practicable, but is seems rather as if these peculiarities 
have simply served to conceal extraordinary waste of 
material, of effort, and of time, which are preventable to 
a large extent. It is true unfortunately that so-called 
'efficiency' work generally arouses opposition among 
miners and even foremen, who are inclined to resent the 
idea of having 'pencil-men' plan their work for them. 
For example, consider the ordinary round of holes 
drilled in advancing a drift. The experienced miner 
confidently believes that he can go into the heading, and. 
by sizing-up the various seams and cracks in the face, 
determine the number, direction, and position of the 
holes required to break the next round most effectually. 
As a matter of fact, it is highly probable that his round 
will not meet the requirements more than 60% as well 
as a standard round that has been devised intelligently 
by an engineer specially qualified for such work. One 
large mining company calculated an actual yearly saving 
of $240,000 in its powder bill, as a result of the scientific 
use of clay tamping. It was necessary, of course, to de- 
termine just what amount of tamping could be advan- 
tageously used in each hole of a standard round, with- 
out in any degree lessening the effectiveness of the blast, 
for there is no economy in saving powder at the expense 
of the proper breaking of the ground. The average 
miner if left alone is prone to gauge the quantity of 
powder simply by the capacity of the drill-hole. In 
some mines careful investigation showed that from 25 to 
50% of the average miner's time was devoted to assem- 
bling or waiting for tools, equipment, timber, pipe, and 
the like. A large proportion of this waste of time has 
been avoided by substituting systematic distribution for 
haphazard ways. These are but a few of dozens of illus- 
trations that might be given of the improvements that 
actually have been brought about by the application of 
efficiency, which, when shorn of its obscuring nomencla- 
ture, is nothing more than an organized and painstaking 
use of common sense in getting a given result with a 
minimum expenditure of time, money, and effort. 

Januarj 94, 1920 


The Bunker Hill Enterprise- -III 

Discover) <>f the Lode and the First Operations at the Mine 


The tacts concerning the discovery "t' a great mine are 
usually obscured by a glowing tissue of fiction, which is 
readily accepted because it appeals to the love of the 
romantic and the fabulous. Not uncommonly the truth 
is stranger than the fiction and a real romance is 
smothered by sublimated gossip. The story of the 
Bunker Hill is no exception; but, fortunately, in this 
case the facts ran be extricated by a careful reading of 
the various statements of those who participated in the 

We have seen how mining in Idaho began with the 

tions thai Kellogg might make in the course of his proa 

pntiiig trip, for which they provided him with a 'burro', 
or donkey, and $18.75 worth of provisions. These con- 
sisted of 15 lb. of flour. 7 lb. of bacon, 2 lb. of coffee, 8 lb. 
of beans, 1 lb. of dried apples, $1 worth of sugar, one 
pair of $2.75 shoes, and a half-dozen of printed location 
n..t ins. He was to prospect on the south fork of the 
Coeur d'Alene river for gold, because it was in gold min- 
ing that they were interested and that Kellogg had the 
i essary experience. By the 27th day of the month Kel- 
logg had consumed the supplies furnished by Cooper and 

J^£ ^ 


successful digging for gold in the gravel of the moun- 
tain valleys. Murray was one of the centres of such 
productive operations. The firm of Cooper & Peck op- 
erated a store of general merchandise in that town. 
During the summer of 1885, John T. Cooper and Origin 
O. Peck grubstaked a prospector named Noah S. Kellogg. 
In frontier communities 'grubstaking' is a recognized 
form of mining speculation ; it consists in supplying a 
prospector with food and tools, in return for which he 
undertakes to give his backer a half-interest in any min- 
eral discovery he may make. Such was the deal that 
Kellogg made with Cooper and Peck on August 1, 1885. 
They were to receive a quarter interest each in any loca- 

Peck, lusides other provisions lie had purchased elsewhere 
on his own account. So he testified in court at a later 
date. His prospecting had been almost a failure. Eor 
during the month he bad only located the 'Mary A.' and 
'Kellogg' claims on Elk creek, 1 and neither of these 
proved to have any value at that time. He returned to 
Murray.with a few samples of what appeared to be iron- 
stone, of which Cooper and Peck thought less than noth- 
ing. On August 29 he returned, at the request of his back- 
ers, to search for a vein showing free gold, such as the 
veins that had made men rich in the hills around Murray. 
He was told not to bother about "iron rock", but to go 
iThis is the first creek east of Milo gulch; see map. 



January 24, 1920 

again to Big creek, where he had previously picked up 
some pieces of quartz that looked promising. For this 
trip Cooper and Peck provided him with 19 lb. of flour, 
8 lb. of bacon, 8 lb. of beans, 4 lb. of sugar, 4 lb. of coffee, 
one coffee-pot, one camp-kettle, one pair of shoes, and two 
location notices. This time he remained in the hills un- 
til the 12th of September, by which date he had exhausted 
his stock of food. Evidently he had neither time nor 
inclination to supplement his 'grub' with fish or game. 
On this second return to Murray he told Cooper and 
Peck that he had failed to discover any gold-bearing 
quartz ; he gave them copies of the location notices of the 
'Mary A.' and 'Kellogg' claims, to which he had added 
their names as owners. He returned the donkey, which, 
as we shall see, played a prominent part In the subse- 
quent story. Kellogg claimed that he then and there 
terminated his 'grubstake', or prospecting agreement, 
which meant that Cooper and Peck had no further inter- 
est in his actions or in any discoveries he might make 

This explanation of his actions as a prospector was dis- 
puted when subsequently the grubstake became the sub- 
ject of an important lawsuit. 

Now we come to other actors in this frontier drama. 
Philip O'Rourke was a miner of considerably wider ex- 
perience. He had been to Leadville, in Colorado, aud 
knew something about the mining of silver-lead ores. 
Jacob Goetz. commonly known as 'Dutch Jake', was a 
mining adventurer, of genial nature and many resources ; 
he and his partner Harry Baer had a grubstake agree- 
ment with O'Rourke. To O'Rourke and Goetz came 
Kellogg soon after his second* prospecting trip in the hills 
above the south fork of the Coeur d'Alene river. He 
showed them the pieces of "iron rock". Goetz testifies 
that Cooper and Peek had taken similar samples to John 
M. Burke, a man with a local reputation for knowing 
ores, and he had said that it was 'smelting ore', which 
had disgusted Kellogg 's backers, who, as recorded al- 
ready, only wanted 'free-milling' gold ore. When, how- 
ever, Kellogg's samples were shown to Phil O'Rourke, he 
recognized them as coming from the cap of a lead lode. 
The samples reminded him of the oxidized ore he had 
mined at Leadville; the "iron rock" excited his interest; 
therefore he suggested to Goetz that they join Kellogg 
in staking the ground. Goetz had horses and provisions, 
both of which he turned over to O'Rourke and Kellogg, 
who started forthwith down the valley. Mr. Goetz says 2 
that Kellogg notified Cooper and Peck at this time, which 
he does not specify, that he had ' ' quit the grubstake deal 
with them", but the evidence laid before the jury showed 
+hat the notification to Cooper and Peck was given on 
oeptember 13. 

Kellogg took O'Rourke first to Big creek, east of Elk 

•Whether it was the first or the second trip is a critical 
question; I am giving the story now as told by Goetz and 
others, and as generally accepted. Later, I shall revise it in 
the light of further evidence. 

^'Dutch Jake's Account', Spokane's Home Builders, No- 
vember, 1910. 

creek, where he showed him the ironstone outcrops, some 
of which later became identified with the Yankee Boy, 
Southern Cross*, and other productive silver-lead mines. 
Then the two prospectors proceeded a short distance 
farther down the south fork of the Coeur d'Alene river 
until they came to Milo creek, which is next to Elk creek. 
Turning up Milo creek, they went to the Bunker Hill 
outcrop, which crosses the gulch from side to side, as 
can be seen to this day. Who found the lode and how he 
found it are questions that cannot be answered confi- 
dently despite a study of the testimony given in the sub- 
sequent lawsuit. 

Mr. Goetz, whom I interviewed at Spokane, told me 
that O'Rourke was the discoverer. He found 'float', or 
loose fragments of oxidized ore, at the bottom of the 
mountain-side near the place where the first mill was built 
later. At a point 400 to 500 ft. above the creek on the 
west side he struck his pick into an irony outcrop and 
broke away pieces that showed the glint of galena. He 
traced this ore for a distance of 500 ft. up the slope. 
Having done this, he sat down on the outcrop dumb- 
founded by the realization of his discovery, which seemed 
to him "the biggest thing in the world". It must be re- 
membered that O'Rourke 's experience at Leadville had 
given wings to his imagination. He was too excited to 
make a location, but he did insert a stake in the ground 
before he descended the hillside in search of Kellogg. 
The day was September 9, 1885. Next day O'Rourke 
located the 'Bunker Hill' claim with Kellogg as witness. 
Goetz tells the story thus : 

"Kellogg took O'Rourke down to Big creek, on the 
South Fork, and pointed out the big iron capping that 
covered the ledges. Moving down the river, they came to 
Milo creek, where Kellogg now stands. There they lost 
a pack-horse, and while old man Kellogg went in search 
of it up Elk gulch, Phil started the hunt up Milo gulch. 
At the head of the creek he found some galena float, and 
though it was dreadful hard work to get through the 
brush and fallen timber he climbed up the hill about 500 
feet and there he stumbled upon the great Bunker Hill 
ledge, sticking right up out of the ground. There was 
nothing in sight but glittering galena, and O'Rourke 
knew he had found the greatest thing ever discovered in 
the Northwest. He was so excited that he sat down half 
an hour before he knew what to do. Finally he rushed 
back to Kellogg, who was in camp at the mouth of the 
gulch, and after supper they spent the time planning 
how to locate their find. Phil was so excited that he had 
forgotten to put up any posts. That night he wrote out 
the location notice, and called the claim the 'Bunker Hill', 
after the battle of the Revolution. But he decided it 
would be best to have Kellogg sign the notice as locator, 
for Phil had a lot of friends who loaned him money, and 
they might try to claim an interest if it was staked in his 

"Next morning they started up the gulch about two 
miles to make the location, but their cayuses had strayed 
away. As luck would have it, they found the old white 
burro that Cooper & Peck had turned over to Kellogg as 

Januan 24, 1920 



11 |uiri hi" Ins grubstake. The bam bad wandered away 
when Kellogg waa there Brat They oaughl the beast, 
and loading their picks and grub on it. they went up the 
gulch in tlif Bunker Hill lode. Then Kellogg happened 
to think that limy be he'd better not appear aa locator, 
for Cooper & Peek might claim an interest on account of 
Ins flrsl grubstake. So they threw away the location 
notice, with Kellogg aa locator, and wrote a new one with 
t I'Rourke aa the locator and Kellogg aa witness. " 

On their return to Murray they reported to Goete, and 
a consultation ensued. O'Rourke waa burdened bj gam- 
bling debts; among others to whom be owed money was 
Cornelius Sullivan, another Irishman, known to his 

arrived, be and Sullivan re located the extension, Bailing 
it the •Sullivan' claim. Thai wai on October 2 

Another account of the discover} appear* In an auto- 
biographical sketch by James P. Wardncr, a frontier! 
man and mining adventurer. Be says that "to K.I 
logg'a jack's trick of losing himself when must aeeded, 
however, and to his alleged sagacity in knowing a pay- 
shoot when he saw it. is due the discovery of the great 
mine; and in Dutch Jake's famous resort in Spokane 
there is a lifelike oil painting of the jackass standing 



friends as 'Con'. So it was decided to take him into the 
deal. That night Goetz and Sullivan started for the 
scene of the discovery, but they missed their way and lost 
time. Meanwhile Peek heard about it and found his way 
thither; by chance he picked up the location notice that 
Kellogg had discarded and learned through the talk of 
the others that his burro had been used by Kellogg and 
O'Rourke. Whereupon Peck, on his return to Murray, 
on September 26, started to bring suit for Cooper & Peck 
against the locators, claiming a half-interest on the basis 
of the grubstake agreement with Kellogg. Peck failed to 
locate the extension of the 'Bunker Hill', besause 
"O'Rourke had put up some fictitious posts to hold the 
ground", so says Goetz. Therefore, as soon as Goetz 

upon the apex of the Bunker Hill and gazing abstractedly 
across the canyon to the glimmering outeroppings of the 

It will be noted that to the poor donkey, like Balaam's 
ass, is attributed more sagacity than to his master. 
Sullivan is reported, by Wardner, as having said to him : 

" 'Well, Jim, we don't know how you come to strike 
our trail, but we've got something here worth a long 
journey to see. Look up there ! ' And, as he spoke, 
Sullivan pointed to the right-hand slope of the canyon 
from the camp, just as the sun had risen to a point where 
its morning rays fell full upon the side of the mountain. 

3'Jim Wardner o£ Wardner, Idaho', by Himself, 1900 



January 24, 1920 

"What seemed to be a vast sheet of new tin dazzled the 
eyes. I had never seen such a sight before — nor since. 

' Galena, ' I said. . 

'That's what,' replied O'Rourke." 

m his may be picturesque, but it is pure fiction. Ward- 
ner proceeds to record Kellogg's statement: 

" 'It was this a- way,' began Mr. Kellogg; 'the damned 
jack shook us one night at the mouth of the creek, and the 
next morning we started out to find him. His tracks 
were plain, and now and then we found great wads of his 
hair where he had climbed over the down, timber and 
scraped his sides against the logs. How under the 
heavens the little devil managed to get through that place 
I can't tell; but after we got into the canyon proper his 
trail was easy. Looking across the creek we saw the jack 
standing upon the side of the hill, and apparently gazing 
intently across the canyon at some object which attracted 
his attention. We went up the slope after him, expecting 
that, as usual, he would give us a hard chase; but he 
never moved as we approached. His ears were set for- 
ward, his eyes were fixed \ipon some object, and he seemed 
wholly absorbed. Reaching his side, we were astounded 
to find the jackass standing upon a great outcropping of 
mineralized vein-matter and looking in apparent amaze- 
ment at the marvelous ore-shoot across the canyon, which 
then, as you now see it, was reflecting the sun's rays like 
a mirror. Jack fairly heaved a sigh of relief as he heard 
our vigorous comments. We lost no time in making our 
locations, and where the jack stood we called it the 
Bunker Hill, and the big shoot we named the Sullivan in 
honor of Con. ' ' '* 

This also is a cheerful fabrication. Kellogg is not likely 
to have said anything of the kind at the time recorded, 
for it was not true ; later he may have started to adorn his 
tale, or, what is more likely, Wardner may have em- 
bellished it with the mention of the glittering galena and 
the donkey's rhapsody. In the first place, neither Ward- 
ner nor Kellogg nor the gentle jackass ever saw a glisten- 
ing mass of galena outcropping there or anywhere else in 
nature. Galena oxidizes when exposed to the weather 
and loses its bright lustre, becoming the dull sulphate or 
the equally dull carbonate, which usually is colored red 
by the oxidation of a small proportion of associated iron 
pyrite. The outcrops of lead lodes consist commonly of 
dark-red ironstone with gray spots of anglesite (the sul- 
phate) or cerrusite (the carbonate) in the midst of which 
small unoxidized remnants of galena may survive. Por- 
tions of the Bunker Hill outcrop can still be seen near 
the place of discovery ; they consist of iron-stained . 
quartzite with specks of galena. The talk of a glittering 
mass of silvery mineral sticking out of the mountain-side 
so brilliantly as to mesmerize the ass, and others not 
much wiser, is pure moonshine. What did happen prob- 
ably is that the donkey, intelligent enough to find fodder 
for himself, strayed through the pine forest above the 
creek toward the outcrop, because near it there was a 

4 Goetz says that this claim was named "in honor of John 
L. Sullivan, the pugilist". It will be noted that he mentions 
"a pack-horse" and "cayuses", as well as the donkey. 

bit of open space covered with bunch-grass, as can be 
seen to this dav. 

However, the story of the burro is now fixed in local 
history and even in the local concert-halls jingles of an 
earlier day: 

"When you talk about the Coeur d'Alenes 
And all their wealth untold, 
Don't fail to mention Kellogg's jack, 
Who did the wealth unfold." 

Jim Wardner, in his autobiography, says that Judge 
Norman Buck, of the District Court of Idaho, who de- 
cided the celebrated case between Cooper & Peck and 
the prospectors who located the Bunker Hill, recognized 
the agency of the ass, and that his decision was as fol- 

"From the evidence of the witnesses, this Court is of 
the opinion that the Bunker Hill mine was discovered by 
the jackass, Phil O'Rourke, and N. S. Kellogg; and as 
the jackass is the property of the plaintiffs, Copper & 
Peek, they are entitled to a half-interest in the Bunker 
Hill and a quarter interest in tht Sullivan claims. ' ' 

By courtesy of the Clerk of the Supreme Court at 
Boise, I have been enabled to read a copy of the pro- 
ceedings in this case. This is what Judge Buck, on June 
12, 1886, gave as his opinion: "That the plaintiffs are 
entitled to a decree as against N. S. Kellogg and Phil 
O'Rourke for an undivided fourth interest of in and to 
the Bunker Hill mining claim, as described in the com- 
plaint as they held the same September 10, 1885, and all 
interest acquired since said date in and to said claim and 
judgment for costs against defendants." 

The plaintiffs were John T. Cooper and Origin O. 
Peck. The defendants were N. S. Kellogg, Phil 
O'Rourke, Cornelius Sullivan, and Jacob Goetz. The 
questions submitted to the jury by the defence were an- 
swered in favor of the defendants, sustaining their con- 
tentions, whereupon the defendants asked the Court for 
a decree stating that the plaintiffs had no cause for 
action and assessing the costs of the suit against them. 
The judge, however, denied the motion and set aside the 
findings of the jury. Instead, he rendered the decree as 
quoted above. 

It is evident that Jim Wardner made free with the 
Court's "conclusions of law" in order to give a touch of 
verisimilitude to his picturesque yarn. Judge Buck did 
not mention the donkey in his findings ; he found that on 
September 10, when Kellogg and O'Rourke jointly lo- 
cated the 'Bunker Hill' claim, Kellogg was still "under a 
contract with the plaintiffs whereby and under which 
the said plaintiffs were entitled to the undivided one half 
interest in and to all mining property located or acquired 
by said Kellogg during the term of said contract," which 
did not expire until September 13, the day on which 
Kellogg gave notice to that effect. 

This disposes of the main question, namely, that of 
discovery; but the lawsuit involved the title to other 
claims, located subsequently to the 'Bunker Hill'. 
Cooper and Peck alleged that Kellogg discovered the 
lode prior to August 29 and located five claims called the 

January 24, 1920 



■Banker ll.ll No. r. 'Banker Bill No. 2', 'Fraction', 
lent', and 'Biohmond'i and that, in order to evade 

his liability under the grubstake, he took O'Rourke with 
him to Mil" creek on September 10, upon which date they 
took down these location notices and substituted new 
onea First they located the 'Bunker Hill' claim in their 
joint nam.s and then on the same day they re-located it 
in the name of O'Rourke alone. The rest of the locating, 
it was alleged, was postponed until September 15, that 
is. until after the grubstake had been terminated form- 


ally by Kellogg. On that day the 'Accident' location 
notice was pulled down and a new one, in which 
O'Rourke 's name replaced Kellogg 's, was substituted. 
Next day the same was done to the 'Richmond', and on 
September 20 the 'Fraction' likewise was credited to 
O'Rourke. This did not end the changes; on October 2 
the 'Accident' location notice, it is alleged by plaintiffs, 
was torn down and the claim re-located as the 'Sullivan' 
in the names of Sullivan and Goetz. 

The defendants entered a formal denial to these allega- 
tions; they stated that "on the 13th day of September, 
1885, the defendant Kellogg returned said jackass to the 
plaintiffs and notified them that he would no longer pros- 
pect for or in behalf of the plaintiffs, or for the benefit of 
himself and plaintiffs, and thereupon terminated the said 
prospecting co-partnership". 

In regard to the locating, they denied the supposed 
earlier locations by Kellogg, but they admitted that he 

"posted a untie.- claiming certain grounds at the 
dent lode in bis own name, but allege the troth b> be that 
sai.l notice was posted on the 16th day of September, 
L88S, and long after the termination of said agreement 

between plaintiffs ami said Kellogg". 

The issues of fad were submitted to a jury, which, 
inter alia, decided as folio wb; 

1. That the grubstake terminated on September 18. 

2. That the supplies furnished by Cooper & Peek were 
exhausted by Kellogg on September 9. 

:!. That Kellogg diil not 
discover "any rock in 
place bearing gold, sil- ' 
ver. en- other mineral 
upon any of the hides 
described in the com- 

4. That Kellogg as- 
sisted O'Rourke in lo- 
eating the 'Accident' 
claim and in measuring 
the 'Bunker Hill'. 

5. That O'Rourke lo- 
cated the 'Bunker Hill' 
on September 10, the 
'Richmond' on Septem- 
ber 18, and the 'Acci- 
dent' on or about Sep- 
tember 19. 

6. That O'Rourke re- 
ceived no information 
from Kellogg ' ' which 
led him to such loca- 

7. That O'Rourke took 
down the 'Accident' no- 
tice posted by Kellogg 
on September 16, and 
that he requested Sulli- 
van and Goetz to re- 
locate it on October 2. 

8. That a "consideration for assisting in discovering 
and developing this claim" was paid by Sullivan and 
Goetz to O'Rourke. 

As to the 'Accident' location, the Court decided: 
"That the defendant N. S. Kellogg knew of the existence 
of the Accident or Sullivan lode claim and the lode there- 
in prior to the 13th day of September, A.D. 1885, and 
having such knowledge withheld the same from the 
plaintiffs at the time he claims to have given notice of 
the termination of the grubstake contract, and immedi- 
ately thereafter, to wit, on the 16th day of September, 
1885, he went upon the ground and posted a notice of 
location thereof, in his own name, and under and by 
virtue of posting said notice he then and ever since has 
been the owner of an interest in such location, and that 
the claim upon which said notice was posted was fully 
and legally perfected and title acquired thereto by de- 
fendant Kellogg." 



January 24, 1920 

The dates of location as given in the various accounts 
of the discovery are discrepant ; for instance, Mr. Goetz 
says that the 'Sullivan claim' "was staked September 10, 
1885. just ten days after the Bunker Hill was staked". 
The 'Bunker Hill' was located on September 10 and the 
' Sullivan ' on October 2. The correct dates of the surviv- 
ing locations, as recorded in the county office, appear on 
the accompanying map. 

It remains to disentangle the truth from these contra- 
dictory versions. Wardner gives no dates. He was a 
friend of the locators and became interested with them 
in the Bunker Hill discovery, so, of course, he repeated 
their version of the affair, plus his own embellishments. 
Goetz had grubstaked O'Rourke and participated in the 
venture, besides being himself a locator of one of the 
later claims ; therefore he told a story that would defeat 
the demands made by Cooper & Peck on the basis of their 
grubstake agreement with Kellogg. 

I have studied the statements made by Cooper, Kellogg, 
O'Rourke, and other witnesses in the course of the trial. 
Their testimony is full of contradictions, and obviously 
contains many falsehoods. On inquiry among those who 
knew the actors in this frontier drama, I find that all the 
prospectors were 'broke', chronically. Kellogg was slow- 
witted and lazy. O 'Rourke was not a man of much min- 
ing experience, although he had been to Leadville ; he was 
fonder of whiskey than of work. Con. Sullivan was "a 
good sort", but. no miner. 'Dutch Jake' and his partner 
Harry Baer were "the knowing ones of the bunch", 
meaning not that they were wise in mining, but shrewd 
in business. Cooper and Peck were respectable store- 
keepers; the senior partner was addressed as "Dr." 
Cooper. His testimony is that of a fairly educated man ; 
it is not rambling, like that of the others. The jury's 
findings need not be taken too seriously as against the 
judge's decision, for the twelve 'peers' would be in sym- 
pathy with the 'boys' and would regard discrepancies of 
statement as of no great moment ; according to their code, 
it would be as proper for a miner to forswear himself in 
order to help a 'pal' as for a 'real' gentleman to perjure 
himself in an effort to protect a lady's reputation. I have 
not the slightest doubt that Judge Buck's decision was 
just ; in short, it appears to me that the evidence can only 
be harmonized by concluding that Kellogg and 'Rourke 
'put up a game' to circumvent the grubstake as soon as 
they knew a valuable discovery had been made. 

In the account written by Mr. Goetz, it will be noted, 
he says that "the burro had wandered away when Kel- 
logg was there first", although just before he has been 
explaining how O'Rourke alone had discovered the lode 
and was then taking Kellogg with him, for the first time, 
to show him the outcrop and help him in making a loca- 
tion. Early in August, Cooper provided Kellogg with six 
location blanks ; he used two of them on the 'Kellogg' and 
'Mary A.' claims; what did he do with the other four? 
Did he use them to make locations in Milo gulch and did 
he pull them down afterward, when he decided, with 
O 'Rourke 's aid, to avoid his obligations to Cooper & 

Peck, by re-locating the claims after he had given notice 
of the termination of the grubstake ? 

It is difficult to disentangle the talk about "iron rock" 
and Cooper's alleged disclaimer of interest in anything 
but gold-bearing quartz. I venture to interpret the 
evidence as follows: Kellogg, when he returned to Mur- 
ray, on August 28, showed Cooper some pieces of iron- 
stone broken from an outcrop on Elk creek. These prob- 
ably came from what is now known as the Iuka outcrop 
on the Alhambra property. He appeared to have brought 
back with him some other samples of ironstone (from 
Milo gulch?) that contained a little galena; he may have 
shown these to Cooper, and Cooper may have disdained 
them also; but when he showed them to* O'Rourke, that 
son of Erin knew enough — thanks to his sojourn at Lead- 
ville — to recognize the lead ore. He asked Kellogg where 
he had found it and arranged to go back with him. 
Cooper testified that he suggested sending Peck with 
Kellogg to see his locations, but Kellogg replied that 
there was no necessity for doing so. Kellogg himself 
testified that when he reached Myrtle on his way out from 
Murray, on August 29, he was hailed by O'Rourke, who 
offered to go with him. O'Rourke said that Kellogg 
showed him some "iron rock" from the South Fork coun- 
try and asked him what he thought about it. He learned 
that Kellogg was "going back" next day, so he proceeded 
to collect sundry necessary supplies and "waited" at 
Myrtle "until Kellogg eame along". They proceeded to 
the South Fork. Kellogg went to Big creek and he 
(O'Rourke) went to Milo gulch, where, on the fourth of 
September, not the ninth as Mr. Goetz says, he discovered 
the Bunker Hill outcrop. He "got a piece of galena that 
day; it was coated with iron, broke it open and found 
galena inside" ; later he found some more similar float by 
ascending the hillside. At the end of the day he went to 
the mouth of the gulch — he says — slept there, and next 
day "went back to camp on Elk creek, and wrote a note 
to Kellogg", who turned up four days later, on Septem- 
ber 9, by which time 'Rourke had broken the outcrop in 
several places and determined the strike of the lode. "He 
[Kellogg] had got back from Big creek," testifies 
O'Rourke, who says that he located the 'Bunker Hill' on 
the 10th, adding that Kellogg was not present when he 
wrote the notice, on which his name appeared as 'wit- 
ness'. That seems unlikely. Together they returned to 
Murray next day and showed specimens of the ore to 
their friends, but not to either Cooper or Peek. 

The stories told by Kellogg and O'Rourke are fishy. 
Under cross-examination the latter acknowledged that 
"the first notice" he posted on the 'Bunker Hill' was 
"probably blown off the post in the first instance". He 
testified: "Don't know the exact date when it was done, 
for was not very particular about it until I found it was 
in the hands of plaintiffs, wrote another notice describing 
the ground exactly the same to the best of my opinion, 
posted and recorded it." 

It is not worth while to go into further detail. The 
Judge that tried the ease had all the evidence before him, 

Januan 24, 1920 



"'"I' 1 the witnesses as well ; he docided that the 

discovery was made bj Kellogg while >u\\ bound by his 
grubstake agreemenl with Cooper A Peck. U appears to 
me most probable that the Bunker Bill lode was discov- 
ered by Noah Kellogg on '>r about August 26, 1885, and 
thai In was led to it by Ins search for the donkey, who, 
more energetic than Mis master, climbed the hillside in 
Bearch of fodder, and found a patch of bunch-grass in a 
small clearing close to the outcrop, where, on account of 
the m inera l i sation, the ground was comparatively free 
from trees. That much of the story may have been true. 
In the subsequent quarrel, 1 1».- burro served as a herring 

drawn across the trail of the pros] tors. Perhaps 

"herring" is inappropriate; then let us say that be 

and there raise the Deoeasar; capital, if they would give 
him an option. The talk began with one bottle of 

whiskey and »as clinched with a ■ nd As Wardner 

records, "pledges over the last of the whiskej were 
made", and be went then to the nun.' t.. collect the sam- 
ples. Before starting he posted a notice locating 10,000 
inches of water in the Coeur d'Alene river. These 
rights, he says, he sold later for $50,000. By the way, 
apropos uoi of tin- water bul the whiskey, whal a differ- 
ence there would have been in the stories of Western 
mining discovery if prohibition had been antedated 50 
years! <>n reaching Spokane, Wardner liad his samples 
assayed and was delighted to find thai they ran high in 
silver, as well as lead. He proceeded to San Francisco 

The star marks the position of the mine 

served as the aniseed bag for the hunt that followed. 
Certainly his alleged part in the actual discovery of the 
lode is mostly fiction ; yet it is amusing to see how he re- 
mained for 35 years the hero of the tale, or a hero with 
a tail. As to the "glittering galena" by which he was 
hypnotized, that resembles the "red" lobsters that an 
eater rather than a fisher of lobsters said that he had seen 
deep down in the sea-water. The outcrop of silver-white 
galena recalls the proverb which says that there may be 
such things as volant non-ruminating artiodactyles, but 
at the same time declares them to be very unlikely birds. 
The case of Cooper & Peck against the locators was 
appealed, but, in the meantime, Jim Wardner joined 
hands with the locators and started to raise the working 
capital necessary to develop a mine. According to his 
own description of his doings at that time, he explained 
to Kellogg, O'Rourke, Sullivan, and Goetz that their 
lead ore was no good unless it was worked on a big scale, 
which involved the building of roads and a mill. He 
offered to take samples of the ore with him to Spokane 

in order to see the Selby Smelting Co. This company 
was only too glad to buy the ore at a price that left a 
good margin of profit to the owners of the Bunker Hill. 
Wardner returned to the mine and contracted to buy 
25,000 tons of ore, he to advance the owners $5 per ton 
and they to produce not less than 20 tons daily. About 
800 tons of ore was taken out of the orebody in the 
Sullivan claim ; when this was exhausted it became ap- 
parent that, although the lode was wide, only stringers of 
galena continued in depth. Wardner received $115 gross 
per ton on the 800 tons and felt confident that more ore 
could be found. Then followed an anxious time while a 
tunnel, or adit, was run into the lode at a lower level. 
Wardner had abandoned hope and was on his way to 
Spokane when he was recalled by the foreman, Brady, 
who came down the trail shouting excitedly to him that 
they had "struck it big in the main tunnel". He had 
just met Tom Erwin and was having a drink of whiskey 
(again whiskey at the critical moment!), so he took an- 
other stiff drink before going to the mine, where he 



January 24, 1920 

found that "the hoys had broken into a solid shoot [he 
spells it 'chute'] of galena for the full size of the drift". 
"It was a wonderful sight," he says. "After going in 
on it for a little way, I started a cross-cut, and the shoot 
proved to be 36 ft. wide. Then we drove the drift night 
and day. I had 40 men at work, and after mining 100 ft. 
on the vein we cross-cut again. It was still 36 ft. strong. ' ' 
He sampled the ore and found that "while the orebody 
'was marvelous in its dimensions, the values were cut 
down to a concentrating proposition". If it was "solid 
galena", it would not need to be, nor could it be, concen- 
trated. Of course, this stuff of Wardner's makes inter- 
esting reading, but it is quite evident that he does not 
allow himself to be hampered by facts. However, if what 
he says did not actually happen, it might have happened 
and something like it did happen. To the reader it will 
give something of the atmosphere of whiskey, resource, 
and adventure that surrounded these pioneers of in- 

Wardner, so he himself says, went to Spokane, Port- 
land, and San Francisco to raise money, presumably to 
build a concentrating mill. He says that he made an 
attempt to induce capital to take hold of what he believed 
to be "one of the most desirable investments ever 
offered". As if a lode containing masses of silver-lead 
ore of uncertain persistence in the mountains at a dis- 
tance of 60 miles from the nearest railway could be 
called "one of the most desirable investments ever of- 
fered". However, that was a miner's optimism, and in 
this case it happened to prove true in the end ! 

At a loss what to do, "Wardner remembered ' ' an active 
young fellow named Austin, since then inventor of the 
pyritic smelting process". This refers to my friend 
William Lawrence Austin, an accomplished metallurgist 
and the introducer, as Wardner says, of the pyritic smelt- 
ing process— in 1892, if I remember correctly. "Ward- 
ner went to Toston, in Montana, where Austin was then, 
in 1886, running a smelter. Austin examined the sam- 
ples of ore from the Bunker Hill and made some assays, 
after which he assured "Wardner that if his statements 
were true (a wise proviso), he had "the biggest concen- 
trating proposition in the country". Austin advised 
Wardner to go to Helena and see Governor Sam Hauser. 

Mr. Austin tells me that he recalls the visit from 
Wardner. He appeared unexpectedly one day, dragging 
a bag containing lumps of fine-grained galena. He 
wanted to know what was the best way to treat an ore of 
that character. "It was a clear case of smelting and I 
told him so," writes Mr. Austin. "I also told him that 
Governor Hauser was the man for him to see, as the 
Governor was running a smelter at Wickes on lead ore. 
I did not assay Jim's ore, nor did I say anything about 
concentrating, for the ore brought to Toston was solid 
galena." In further notes, Mr. Austin says that Jim 
Wardner was original and entertaining. He was gen- 
erally liked. There is a story that while at Rossland, in 
later years, he persuaded the Canadian Pacific Railway 
agent to telegraph to headquarters for a pass to Toronto. 
The reply read: "Don't let Jim walk." The operator 

was something of a joker and handed the telegram to 
Wardner thus: "Don't. Let Jim walk." 'Jim' was 
optimism personified; he would tackle anything. Mr. 
Austin concludes by saying: "He was one of those orig- 
inal characters, products of Western life when doors 
didn't have locks on them and one was sure of a welcome 
wherever one went. I don't think Jim was a paragon, 
but if I had to choose between him and the fanatics that 
are 'reforming' the world, I'd take Jim." Same here. 

Wardner told his story to the Governor, who sent an 
'expert' to examine the mine, the result being that 
Hauser agreed to provide the machinery for a 100-ton 
concentrator. Wardner's proposal was that he was to 
secure "a contract to concentrate 50,000 tons at $5 per 
ton and also a share in the net profits". Things went 
well. The mill helped the mine to make money. It 
attracted the attention of capitalists and was sold to 
Simeon G. Reed, of Portland, for $650,000. 

Of the four locators, Mr. Goetz is now living at 
Spokane, where he is the proprietor of the Coeur d'Alene 
hotel, a rendezvous for the people of the mining districts 
and an attractive hostelry. He seems to have prospered 
not only in wealth, but in friends and reputation. Kel- 
logg died a pauper 20 years ago. O 'Rourke is a broken- 
down man in a Catholic institution at Vancouver, Wash- 
ington. Sullivan went to Butte and engaged in mining, 
using the money he made out of the Bunker Hill ; but he 
did not succeed. In 1901 he joined a party that went to 
Alaska. While they were engaged in prospecting, two 
pirates broke into their camp and murdered all except a 
man named Rooney, who was found under a canoe by 
some friendly Indians. He was unconscious and nearly 
dead, but survived to tell the ghastly story. The party 
had $3000 in cash with them and supplies enough to last 
for a year, all of which were stolen. So the Bunker Hill 
did no good to its immediate discoverers, for Mr. Goetz, 
luckily, it would seem, escaped from that category. 

The burro fared best of them all. When superannu- 
ated he was pensioned off by Kellogg and placed on a 
farm at Cottage Grove, Oregon, where he died full of 
years and honors, even his burial being made an occasion 
for the expression of lofty sentiments in accord with the 
myth that had been built to his memory. In his book, 
under the photograph of the donkey, Wardner writes: 
"The $4,000,000 donkey in the foreground." Yes, he 
remained in the foreground a long time, and I am almost 
sorry to relegate him to the background. 

The Bunker Hill story, as twisted and elaborated by 
the gossip of the campfire, has always centred around the 
donkey. It seems a pity to spoil a story so well estab- 
lished. Miners are not unlike other men in their fac- 
ulty for evolving myths, which "represent the protest of 
romance against the commonplace of life". As Sir 
Walter Raleigh is better remembered for the tale of the 
cloak and Queen Elizabeth than for the founding of 
Virginia, so the legend of the donkey has done more for 
the fame of Noah Kellogg than the desultory prospecting 
that ended in the finding of the Bunker Hill lode. 
(To he continued) 

January J I I 



Experimental Flotation of Low-Grade Quicksilver Ore 


rodcction. A co-operative agreemenl between the 
I - Bureau of Mines and tin- Oregon Bureau "t' Mines 
ami Qeology provides for joint experimental work to en- 
courage tin- application of improved methods of mineral 
concentration to the low-grade ores of Oregon, in cases 
where the problems involved are of such a character as to 
make the information thus gained useful in solving 
similar problems in other states. This paper gives the 
rvsnhs of on.- of these investigations. It deals with the 
experimental flotation ami table concentration of a cinna- 
bar or.'. Tin' work was done in tin' laboratories of the 
Seattle Station of tin' V. S. Bureau of Mines, and of the 
Collet:,, of Mines. University of Washington, Mr. Stowell 
being detailed from the staff of the Oregon Bureau of 
Mines, and Mr. Coghill from the U. S. Bureau of 

The ore from the Black Butte mine, at Black Butte. 
Oregon, was selected because, first, the nature of the ore 
was such as to make its treatment a problem of general 
interest, and, second, the company had made an earnest 
effort to solve its problem, but had met with indifferent 
results. The sample was prepared by E. D. Crane, super- 
intendent of the Black Butte mine. 

Titf, mine, smelter, and mill are at Black Butte, 17 
miles south-east of Cottage Grove, Oregon. It is our 
understanding that there is a large tonnage of ore avail- 
able carrying 0.15% mercury, and that a long life of the 
mine would be ensured if an economic extraction could 
be effected. The soft nature of the ore and the location . 
of the deposit are favorable to low operating costs. 
Water-power is available during a part of the year, and 
the company has recently completed an auxiliary steam- 
plant utilizing the wood fuel abundant in the region. 

On the property is a 40-ton Scott furnace, which has 
operated on a feed assaying between 0.25 and 0.50% 
mercury. Ore of this grade, however, makes up but a 
minor portion of the reserves, the remainder being too 
low-grade to be treated by present methods. 

The Mill. During the past two years the operators 
have maintained an experimental mill, which, at various 
stages, has combined gravity and flotation methods. One 
of the ore-circuits used in this mill is shown in Fig. 1. 
The essentials of the equipment are : jaw-crusher, Marcy 

•The writers wish to thank C. M. Bouton for assaying the 
ore samples; his work has proved that the method which he 
has devised for the assay of mercury ores is remarkably ac- 
curate for both low-grade and high-grade ores. Acknowl- 
edgment of assistance is also due to Milnor Roberts, Dean of 
the College of Mines, University of Washington, H. M. Parks, 
Director of the Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology, F. K. 
Ovita and C. O. Anderson of the Bureau of Mines: 

mill. Dorr classifier, a small rougher ami a cleaner flota- 
tion machine of the Minerals Separation type, I Ion 
eiier. ami drying-vat. 

It is reported by Mr. Bray, mill superintendent, that 
the insi recovery by flotation was 80% in a concentrate 
assaying 1.6', . This grade of concentrate ami percent- 


J — 






12-CELL 12-IN. M. S. ROUGHER • 












— r^ 


1 J" 


— EZZ 






age of recovery were not satisfactory; the improvement 
of these two factors constitutes the problem treated in 
this paper. 

Occurrence and Character of the Ore. The quick- 
silver occurs as the sulphides, cinnabar and metacinna- 
barite. both of which have the chemical formula HgS. 
The cinnabar is bright red and the metacinnabarite is 



- 24, 1920 

The orebody is in a broken shear-zone in andesite. 1 
The higher-grade ore occupies a width averaging 16 ft. 
across the main fault-zone and several hundred feet along 
the strike. Mineralization, however, has extended 
through both the so-called foot- wall and hanging wall, 
but the limits of mining are determined rather by assay 
than by the appearance of distinct lode-walls. 

Plowage and brecciation of the original rock are ap- 
parent in hand specimens. The ore is soft and pinkish 
gray. Cinnabar is seldom discernible without magnifica- 
tion. Pyrite and mareasite may be easily identified, and 
they amount to about 1% of the mass. 

The andesite is altered so that its former character is 
obscured. Ferro-magnesian silicate minerals have almost 
entirely disappeared, and in their place some chlorite and 
limonite in abundance have been produced. Feldspars 
have altered to kaolin and sericite. No evidence was 
found that the mineralization took place at different 
periods, unless the occasional occurrence of mareasite 
coated with cinnabar may be taken as such. 

The mercury sulphide invariably occurs in the softer 
kaolinized portion of the rock, with other sulphides ; sul- 
phides are absent in the less altered' portions. Accessory 
minerals are pyrite, mareasite, stibnite, sphalerite, and 

chalcopyrite ; the last three are present in very small 
amount. Some quartz, apparently secondary, was ob- 
served, also magnetite, which was probably a constituent 
mineral of the original rock. 

The micro-section, Plate A, makes a splendid dis- 
tinction between what has been referred to as the softer 
kaolinized portion and the less altered fragments; the 
dark portion of the field shows the kaolinized portion 
will specks of cinnabar (retouched with india ink) 
disseminated through it, and the large, nearly rectangu- 
lar, portion is a fragment of the original rock. The lath- 
like pieces of feldspar in this fragment should be noted. 
The spaces between them are filled with limonite result- 
ing from the alteration of ferro-magnesian silicates. The 
square light-colored portion at the right consists of in- 

i Parks, H. M., and Swartley, A. M., 'Mineral Resources of 
Oregon'; Oregon Bureau of Mines and Geology, Vol. 2, No. 
4, p. 33. 

terlocked calcite and sericite. It also contains cinnabar. 

Plate B, shows the kaolinized portion, photographed 
in natural light. It contains pyrite, chalcopyrite, stib- 
nite (?), calcite, sericite, metacinnabarite, and cinnabar. 
The unlettered dark grains are cinnabar; the others 
may be identified by means of the legend. 

Many sections were made, and all of them showed that 
the cinnabar occurs in the softer portions of altered 
andesite ; it is generally wholly imbedded in this softer 
material, but occasionally it occurs at the contact with 
the harder fragments. 

An important fact to be borne in mind is that the 
harder material is soft in terms of the hardness of av- 
erage ores; the results of screen and chemical analysis 
shown in Table I will then be readily understood. 

Table I — Screen* and Chemical Analysis of Black Butte Cinnabar Ore 

(Assay of composite sample. 0.159b mercury) 

Proportion of 

total weight Assay in 

Mesh % % Hg 

Minus 20. plus 35 31 6.15 

35. " 65 25 0.15 

65. " 100 8 0.19 

" 100. " 200 12 0.18 

" 200 34 0.13 

•Tyler standard screens were used throughout the work. 

The sample for screen-analysis w r as crushed in rolls to 
pass 20-mesh and then screened. The chem- 
ical analysis shows a remarkably uniform 
distribution of the mercury on the succes- 
sive meshes — a slight enrichment in the in- 
termediate products and some impoverish- 
ment in the fine. A microscopic examina- 
tion of the separate products showed that 
each contained locked cinnabar. The con- 
elusions, therefore, are : 

(1) The cinnabar is very finely dissemi- 
nated. **2) The more altered and softer 
portions contain the cinnabar, and the brec- 
ciated fragments are barren. (3) The cin- 
nabar resists crushing equally as well as the 
gangue. (4) Pine crushing will be required 
to release the mineral. 
Preparation op Sample. The lot of dry 
ore weighing about 250 lb. was crushed with a Blake 
crusher to pass 1-in. ring and further reduced by rolls to 
pass 10-mesh. After thorough mixing, a 10-lb. sample 
was reduced to 40-mesh in a disc-pulverizer. It assayed 
0.145% mercury. 

It will appear later in the report that though the head 
assay is 0.145%, assays are shown carrying as much as 
0.19%. This variation is explained as follows: The 
material reserved for testing was stored in a tub that 
was subject to vibration in the laboratory. The vibration 
caused the heavy minerals to be concentrated in the 
lower .stratum and thus gave the effect of 'salting'. 
When this was discovered, the lot was re-mixed and 
feed-samples of each test were assayed. 

Table concentration was tried before beginning flota- 
tion. Three tests were made on a 12 by 24-in. Wilfley 
table. The results are given in Table II. 

The first test was of a preliminary nature to determine 



ilir deportmenl of the material Tin- recover} was low, 

and 1 1 1 •- middling assayed tin- Bame .is tin 
'l'li.> tailing was divided into sand and slim.'. The latter 
■in' higher assay, but probably not as high .is it 
would it' ill,, gangne were of ■ more resistant material. 

1" I'"- a 'ii.i gm. i«r ilii' ore was ground in 

mils to pass ' Five products were made by 
mti'i'mm. hilt. These were treated separately, and con- 
centrates, middling, and tailing were made. 'I'll.' in- 
termediate screen-product showed the best recovery, and 
tin- combined products gave a recovery of less than 50< . . 
Tin- middlings were a little richer than the reed. 

In the third test a larger quantity of ore was pre- 
pared. 'I'lii- results are as in test No. :! except that flota- 
tion oi' tin- finest product gave an added recovery of 
'I'll.- flotation concentrate was of about the Bame 
»rra.l. • as the average of the table concentrates, but the 
method of flotation was inferior to that reported below. 

futile II — .,.!,.. -in r, I i. in Ir.1, oil .. IS hy M-ln. Hilllry Table 


mad in 

Grade of 

Number 1. -I 




u jTend 

of I- -i Gm. 


■ itralion 


1 l.i.i 

— 100 


: 1 

2 117 

41 a 



- as 


: 1 


IN :. 


— 35 

- 65 


: 1 


:,!i ;, 


— .1.-. 
+ 100 


: 1 

11 7 

sa .". 


— inn 


: 1 



_ -j,„. 


: 1 

1 •• S 




: 1 

7 :i 

III 1 


+ 48 


: 1 


.'" 1 


— 4H 

- I!.". 


: 1 




+ 100 


: 1 

S 2 

7 1 2 


— 100 


: 1 


43 4 





in « 

Added recovery by 

flotation of minus 



Further survey of Table II shows that the coarse gave 
a low recovi ry ; the loss was probably in the Locked grains. 
Smaller sizes — from 65 to 100 mesh — gave a fair re- 
eovery. But the smaller sizes are not at all suitable to 
table-treatment. Probably a vanner could he sulisti- 
tuted. However, the results did not warrant further 
work by gravity concentration, so flotation was tried. 

Flotation. It was stated above that the mill-concen- 
trate obtained by flotation assayed 4.6%. Further, it 
was learned by conference with the operators that their 
work had been with heavy oils. Since the heavy oils 
had given such an undesirable grade of concentrate, and 
since qualitative tests showed their undesirability, it 
was decided to disregard them in the experimental work 
and give preference to the light oils. 

A series of qualitative tests was made to determine the 
deportment of a few of the oils in neutral, acid, and 
alkaline solutions. In general, it was found that the 
heavier and more insoluble oils produced voluminous 
persistent froths, floating both cinnabar and pyrite, and 
entraining such great quantities of gangue that they 
precluded the cleaning of the concentrate to a desirable 
grade. On the other hand, a light soluble oil gave a 
light friable froth well armored with cinnabar and car- 
rying only a small amount of gangue. The concentrate 

could I..- cleaned t" make ,i surprisingly rich product 
Caustic soda an. I sulphuric acid solutions seemed to 

[ualities i" justify their use. Ii nsequence, light 

(partly lecularly soluble) steam-distilled pine-oil was 


The ball mill was a more desirable grinding device 
than oither the porcelain jar or tin- disc pulverizer, The 

reason for this preferei an, I tin- acidity of tii 

will be discussed later. 

In tin' tists that follow no effort was made i" alter 
the natural ohemical condition of the charge after ball- 
mi]] grinding, thai is. no chemicals were added. How- 
ever, this does not mean that, soluble inoigani m 

pounds were absent. 

Procedure. A series of three tests was run to deter- 
inin.' the desirable degree of grinding. Tin' flotation 
charge of 3000 gm. was prepared by grinding minus 10- 
mesh materia] in the ball-mill. The pulp-ratio during 
grinding was 2: 1 (water to solid), and during flotation, 
4: 1. 'I'll.' mechanical type of agitator was used, and the 
period of roughing treatment was 30 minutes. 

Following the roughing operation, the concentrate was 
I ransfi'i-ri'il to a smaller machine for cleaning. This treat- 
ment was continued as long as there were colors in the 
froth — 20 to 40 minutes. 

Table HI — A Series of Tests to Determine tbe Desirable Degree of Grinding 

No. 1 

Percentage Percentage 

Grinding Weight of total Assay .of total 

period Prodacte om weight ' ii- mercury 

15min. Feed 30001m 1,0 0.18 100 

Concentrate .... 12 0.214 44.70 .".lis 

Middling 17 4H 0.58 0.64 1.8 

Tailing 2820,00 07.83 0.07 42.5 

Error or loss ...+ 56.18 + 1.88 ... — 4.1 

No. 2 

30 min. Peed 3000.00 100 0.16 100 

Concentrate .... 7.70 0.256 43. on 70.2 

Middling 28.00 0.87 0.64 3.3 

Tailing '.'HI.", mi IIK17 0.04 24.5 

Error or loss. . . 4- 18.30 4- 0.61 ... 4-2.0 

No. 3 

4.", nun. Feed 3000.00 100 0.18 100 

Concentrate .... 0.04 0.231 55.40 71.1 

Middling 199.00 0.63 0.43 15.0 

Tailing 2755.00 91.83 0.025 12.7 

Error or loss. . . 4- 39.08 4- 1.31 ... 4- 0.3 

Table III gives the results of these tests. The period 
of grinding in the ball-mill is the only variable in the pro- 
cedure. The recovery is 59.8, 70.2, and 71.1% for the re- 
spective 15, 30, and 45-minute periods of grinding. The 
ratio of concentration in the roughing is about 100 : 1 and 
the final ratio in the cleaning is about 400 : 1. The richest 
concentrate assays 55.4% mercury — a remarkably rich 
product for a two-treatment system handling sucli low- 
grade material. The consumption of oil is 0.7 lb. per ton 
of ore ; it was added at intervals to the impeller compart- 
ment of the flotation machine. 

The screen-analysis of the respective tailings is shown 
in Table IV. The increased fineness due to prolonging 
the period of grinding is here shown by the percentage 
passing 200-mesh, namely, 52.3, 71.2, and 82.5. The con- 
sistent increase of recovery as stated above and the more 
striking order of extraction values, namely, 61.6. 73.5. 
and 87, respectively, with increased fineness indicated 
that fine grinding was desirable. 



January 24, 1920 

Since the recovery and extraction showed a continued 
rise with increased fineness of the ore, it was determined 
to carry the fine grinding one step further. Therefore, 
3000 gm. of the 10-mesh ore was ground wet in the ball- 
mill for 30 minutes, then screened on 100-mesh and the 
oversize returned for further grinding. The combined 
products were then treated nearly as before. The dura- 
tion of the roughing treatment was only 20 minutes. 

Table IV — Screen-Analysis of Tailings from Tests to Determine Desirable 
Degree of Grinding 

. No. 1 No. 2 . No. 3 . 

Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage 

Plus 65. 

" 80. 

" 100. 

" 115. 

" 150. 

" 170. 

" 200. 

■' 300. 

of total 
. 7.0 
. 2.1 
. 6.7 
. 7.2 
. 2.9 
. 4.4 
. 4.6 


Minus 300. 47.7 

of total 













of total 







The rougher overflow was cleaned in the same machine, 
making concentrate and middling. The duration of the 
cleaning treatment was 20 minutes, the pulp density was 
20: 1, and the oil (steam-distilled pine-oil) used amount- 
ed to two pounds per ton of original ore. 

The results are shown in Table V. There it will be 
seen that the ratio of concentration in roughing was 
about 8:1, and that the final ratio of concentration was 
220 : 1. The concentrate assays 35.6% and contains 
86.1% of the mercury. The middling is remarkably low- 
grade — even lower than the feed — and contains only 
7.3%. of the mercury. If it is assumed that 60% of this 
middling is recoverable in a concentrate of the same 
grade as the one shown, a 35.6% concentrate and 90% 
recovery from an ore assaying only 0.19% mercury is 
obtainable. A much richer product could be obtained if 
desirable, as shown by Table III, where one of the con- 
centrates assays 55.4% mercury. 

The screen-analysis of the stage-crushed material is 
shown in Table VI. At first thought it seems that crush- 
ing 88% through 200-mesh is excessive, but when the 
softness of the ore is taken into account, it is probable 
that the cost would not be prohibitive. 

The oil was quick in making a froth and only when 
used in excess was there difficulty on account of free oil 
getting into the spitzkasten and killing the froth. A test 
was made in which a portion of the oil was ground with 
ore. Apparently no advantage was gained by this pro- 
cedure, except that frothing started at once with agita- 
tion in the roughing-cell. 

Comparative tests were made to determine the effect 
of different pulp-ratios. The ratios used varied from 
4 : 1 to 12 : 1. In the same interyal of time the recovery 
was greater in the more dilute pulps and the concentrates 
could be cleaned to better grade. Although the pulp- 
ratio in the main tests was 4:1, it may develop in prac- 
tice that the ratio of 6 : 1 would be more desirable. 

A series of tests was made to compare the pneumatic 
and mechanical agitation types of machines. Fineness 
of grinding, amount of oil, and other factors were main- 
tained as nearly the same as possible. The results were 
distinctly in favor of the mechanical type. Extractions 

from the pneumatic cell ranged from 37% on the coarsest 
pulps to 70% jn the finest, while the other gave extrac- 
tions ranging from 60 to 80% on pulps of the same char- 
acter. The coarser particles of cinnabar showed a ten- 
dency to bed down on the canvas bottom of the pneu- 
matic machine and floated with reluctance. This work, 
however, was not carried far enough to condemn the 
use of the pneumatic cell. 

Table V — Flotation After Stnge-Grlnding 

Percentage Percentage 

Weight of total Assay of total 

Gm. weight e , H^ mercury 

Feed 3000 100.00 0.19 100 

Concentrate 13.82 0.461 35.6 86.1 

Middling 350.00 11.66 0.12 7.3 

Tailing 2575.00 85.83 , 0.01 4.3 

Error or loss + 61.18 + 2.05 . . . 2.3 

Table VI — Screen-Analysis of Tailing After Stage-Grinding 
Mesh Weight. % 

Plus 100 00.0 

Minus 100. plus 200 12.0 

200. " 300 6.5 

300 81.5 

Grinding and Acidity. Reference has been made 
above to the dependence of the results upon the method 
and degree of grinding; the best results were obtained 
after fine grinding in the ball-mill. No effort was made 
to alter the natural chemical condition of the pulp after 
ball-mill grinding, whereas a similar procedure with a 
porcelain jar gave adverse results. 

The chemical effects of the water-soluble salts of the 
ore must surely be considered unless we regard flotation 
as such a mysterious process that it defies the applica- 
tion of chemistry. It would be strange indeed if this 
ore did not contain water-soluble salts, for, as stated 
above, the gangue consisted of altered andesite ; iron, 
magnesium, sodium, aluminum, and potassium salts, were 
therefore formed. If these salts have not been washed 
away by natural agencies they will appear as water- 
soluble constituents of the ore. 

The water-soluble acidity (by the method of titrating 
employed in cyaniding) of the ore when washed with 
two parts of water was equivalent to 0.2 lb. of lime per 
ton of ore, but this 'acidity' could not be detected with 
methyl orange as indicator except by boiling down to a 
concentrated solution. The water-washed ore when 
treated with lime-water for five minutes gave a latent 
acidity equivalent to 2.3 lb. lime per ton of ore ; the total 
acidity, therefore, was 2.5 pounds. 

The first assumption was that this latent acidity was 
an adsorption effect and would thus depend upon the 
amount of solid surface. But tests showed that it was 
independent of the degree of crushing. It is then a 
chemical reaction ; also it is progressive in its action, so 
that in a five-minute treatment 2.5 lb. of lime was con- 
sumed as compared with 4 lb. in one hour. 

The addition of lime to the wash-water gave a precipi- 
tate that looked like a ferric salt; exposure to the air 
caused a reddish turbidity, also suggesting an iron salt. 
Iron was then identified. Analysis of the wash-water 
showed the presence of iron, magnesium, calcium, alu- 
minum, and the sulphate radical. Further water-analysis 
showed that the ore, after wet-grinding in the ball-mill, 
gave much more soluble iron than when other methods of 

January 24, 1920 



washing including grinding in a porcelain jar were 
applied; some of iliis iron was in a ferrous si;ni-. as in- 
dicated by a green precipitate with ammonia. Any 
method of washing where met a Mir iron was absent showed 
the presence of ferric iron, l>ui no, or wry little, ferrous 

The above chemical deportment may now I"- eaairj ex 

plained: Ferric Baits hydrolize in water, and a rd- 

inglj give an acid reaction. The acid dissolves iron trom 
the steel parts of the mill. Prom the standpoint of flota- 
tion, the facl thai iron - ferrous is taken into solution is 
idary to the facl that the acidity of the solution is 
ill us neutralised, whereas in cyaniding the reverse is true. 

The above reaction of ferric sulphate upon iron has 
been considered once before. Then a stamp-mil] tailing 
was being: cyanided. The cyanide consumption was low 
until the tailing was re-ground in a disc-pulverizer, and 
then it was excessive. Investigation proved that the 
ferric sulphate in the ore reacted with the steel surfaces 
of the pulverizer, forming ferrous iron, which is a vicious 

Aluminum sulphate and potassium aluminum sulphate, 
respectively, in dilute solutions, react on steel in a man- 
ner similar to ferric sulphate, that is. with the produc- 
tion of ferrous iron. This was proved by agitating the 
solutions respectively in a clean hall-mill and determin- 
ing the iron in solution. 

Let us now go back to the problem in hand ; the re- 
covery of cinnabar was much better after neutralizing 
the acid by grinding in the ball-mill than it was when the 
acid persisted, as it did after grinding in the porcelain 
jar. The consideration of the deportment of ferrous 
sulphate in the flotation machine must not be overlooked. 
If it instantly oxidizes to ferric sulphate, the aforesaid 
acid condition will have recurred and the good effects of 
grinding in the ball-mill will be lost. If it oxidizes 
slowly, some advantage will be derived. It is likely that 
this oxidation would progress slowly, if at all, in the 
presence of the reducing conditions imposed upon it by 
the organic and inorganic reducing agents present. Un- 
fortunately this cannot be stated accurately because it 
was difficult to titrate the solution for ferrous iron at 
the end of the flotation period. The consideration of the 
chemistry of the process did, however, lead to the solu- 
tion of a mystery. It served as a guide for outlining the 
next flotation test, for it suggested neutralizing the acid 
in some other manner. 

A preliminary flotation test was made, therefore, in a 
dilute lime-water solution and it indicated that the lime 
had a beneficial effect. Next, a series of tests was ar- 
ranged to show the relative effects of lime-water, tap- 
water, and sulphuric acid solutions. The results are 
shown in Table VII. Note how in passing from left to 
right — from alkaline through neutral to acid solutions — 
the mercury extracted amounts to 90.2, 77.6, 61.8, 39.4, 
an d 35.4%. 

^Natural basic ferric sulphate is known to occur in two 
forms, jarosite and utahite. 

sCoghill, Will H., 'Ferrous and ferric iron in cyaniding'; 
M. & S. P., Oct. 16, 1915, p. 598. 

1.1.1. \ |I Krlull 

.■ > ii,. 

■ llf 1 llllf 

i tp ** il. r 

• mi Bulpharii \- ■■! 

■olatloM mi 

III 1 i Ml 1 

1 lllll 

lit 1 lot tlltlll 

Lime m 






T t ioll 

n. .i tUon 



.. .... 


Number of i. it 






Par "lit mercury 

77 11 

:i<< I 

Grammes pyi ■ 

] :i 


8 16 

a -'7 

Grammee solid In 

overflow 10 62 

in in 

The ore was ground in a porcelain jar and the in- 
organic reagents were added at the beginning of the 
grinding period. The Bcreen-analysis of the tailings 
showed thai the degree of grinding was practically the 

same as tliat in test No. 3, Table III, where the OPB was 

ground for 45 minutes in the ball-mill. The extraction, 
ii will be recalled, was 87.0% when the ore was ground 
for 45 minutes in the ball-mil! and no inorganic reagents 
were used, whereas, the extraction, after grinding in the 
porcelain jar in the presence of lime-water, is 90.2','. 
The question now arises: was it the tine grinding that 
gave the good results shown in test No. 3, Table III, and 
again in Table V, or was the progressive neutralization 
of the acid by the steel mill a factor? 

Doubtless Ihe advantageous effect of long grinding in 
the ball-mill was twofold; 

(1) The size of the ore particles was progressively and 
advantageously decreased. 

(2) The acidity was progressively neutralized. 

Readers who wish to use these notes as a guide to com- 
mercial flotation of cinnabar ores will do well to make 
reference to a paper by C. A. Heberlein on 'Mining and 
Reduction of Quicksilver Ores at the Oceanic Mine, 
Cambria, California', in the Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. 51 (1915) ; also 
Bulletin 78 of the California State Mining Bureau, en- 
titled 'Quicksilver Resources of California'. 

Mercury Assay. All assays included in this investiga- 
tion were made by C. M. Bouton at the Berkeley station 
of the U. S. Bureau of Mines. 4 The method was de- 
veloped at the Berkeley station and has given general 
satisfaction. The difficulties of assaying these products, 
in which an qrror as small as 0.01% seriously affects the 
interpretation of results, will be appreciated. The 
method consists essentially of subliming the mercury in a 
glass tube contained in a heated iron block, then dis- 
solving the quicksilver in nitric acid and titrating with 
a standard solution of ammonium thiocyanate; ferric 
salt is used as indicator. 

Mining in Texas during 1919 was confined largely to 
the production of silver. The Presidio mine, at Shafter, 
Texas, was in continuous operation during the year and 
small shipments of copper, lead, and zinc ores were made 
from the Van Horn and Sierra Blanca districts. The 
production for the State for the year was 540,000 oz. of 
silver and nominal quantities of gold, lead, copper, and 

<Duuchak, L. H., 'The Determination of Mercury', Tech. 
Paper 227, Bureau of Mines (in press). 



January 24, 1920 

A Contribution to the Study o'f Flotation —III 


Surface-Energy and Surface-Tension of Solids 

The molecular hypothesis renders the conception of 
surface-energy equally necessary for solids, whose sur- 
faces must therefore be regarded as being under a ten- 
sional strain similar to that existing for liquids. 

We are however at a complete loss for any method to 
quantify or even to estimate the surface-energy of a 
solid; all such measurements for liquids depend, in one 
form or another, upon quantifying the force required to 
extend their surfaces, an operation which is precluded 
in the case of a solid. In the present state of our knowl- 
edge, the order of surface-energy and tension is unknown 
for solids, though several attempts have been made to 
estimate its range ; that it exists however, and is usually 
of a high value, is certain. Since the surface-energy of 
liquids increases with diminishing temperature, it is 
highly improbable that it will, or can, disappear when 
the liquid solidifies or freezes; although the heat liber- 
ated on solidification (latent heat of fusion) must some- 
what diminish the total energy of the solid and will pos- 
sibly influence the unbalanced forces at its surface. 
Mercury, having a surface-tension of about 441 dynes/ 
em. at 0°C, and a temperature coefficient of 0.379 
dynes/cm. for one degree C, solidifies at -40. Hence its 
surface-tension on approaching the freezing-point will be 
441 4- (0.379 X 40) =456.16 dynes; after making a de- 
duction for the latent heat of fusion it is evident that 
solid mercury must yet retain high surface-energy. 

Widely divergent views exist as to the probable order 
of solid surface-tensions. By employing a method based 
upon the heats of solution of large and small particles, 
Hulett deduced a value of 1100 dynes/cm. for calcium 
sulphate and 4000 dynes/cm. for barium sulphate. Al- 
though these values have been accepted by some physi- 
cists, they seem improbably high when regarded from 
the point of view of flotation experience. The sum of the 
interfacial tensions of water and barium sulphate would 
"be 4075 ; but on the addition to the water of 0.02% of 
sodium silicate (a concentration of 1 in 5000) the barium 
sulphate is only so far wetted that the contact-angle be- 
tween solid and liquid is practically reduced to 0° ; that 
is, as will be shown later, the energy of the liquid/solid 
interface has only fallen to 4000-75 = 3925 ergs per 
sq. cm. ; an altogether inconsiderable reduction of the 
total assumed energy of the barium sulphate unit sur- 
face. Further, on increasing the concentration of sodium 
silicate to two or three times the former figure, the 
barium sulphate is entirely deflocculated and put into 
the condition of a true suspension, which implies its com- 
plete wetting, and therefore the reduction of the inter- 
facial energy to zero. If a very small addition of sodium 

silicate at first reduces the surface-energy of the solid 
by merely a few ergs per square centimetre, it appears 
unlikely that merely doubling or trebling the amount 
would diminish a remaining interfacial tension of several 
thousand ergs per square centimetre to zero ; from this 
point of view the estimate of 4000 dynes as the surface- 
energy of barium sulphate appears excessive, nor does it 
seem to be in line with that of calcium sulphate, nor 
comparable with the much lower probable value for solid 
mercury. Such considerations indicate the unsatisfac- 
tory state of our present knowledge of surface-energy for 

Dynamical Aspect of Surfaces. At the actual sur- 
face of a liquid the molecules are in violent motion in all 
directions. Some are therefore continually projected 
outward ; most are pulled back into the liquid by the at- 
tractions of their neighbors in the surface-layer, but 
those whose velocity is greater than the average (esti- 
mated for water at three times the average velocity) will 
escape into the air; such molecular escapes constitute 
evaporation. If the liquid be contained in a closed vessel 
the escaped molecules after numerous collisions with 
each other and the walls of the vessel tend ultimately to 
be re-captured at the liquid surface. When the rate of 
molecular escape is equal to that of return, equilibrium 
for the liquid at the particular temperature is estab- 
lished. The escaped molecules exercise a definite pres- 
sure ('vapor pressure' of the liquid) on the containing 
walls, and the vapor so produced approximates in con- 
stitution to a gas. The surface of a quiescent liquid, 
though to the eye the smoothest plane, is in reality a 
seething mass of molecules. Even at a sufficiently low- 
ered temperature where few or none of the molecules 
finally escape, the surface-layer must still exhibit in- 
cessant molecular projections, affording a further reason 
for the decreased density of the surface-layer. Similar 
conditions must also obtain at every interface, whether 
of liquid/liquid or liquid/solid. 

Though in a solid the molecular amplitude is smaller, 
the surface molecules are yet in extremely rapid lateral 
and vertical oscillation. Very few will escape unless 
their velocities are sufficiently increased by heat, in 
which case 'sublimation' results. By reason of such 
molecular movements the surface of a solid also must be 
less dense than the interior. 

The comparatively loose molecular texture of many 
surfaces, hitherto unsuspected, has been demonstrated 
by Beilby, 1 who found that by lightly rubbing copper, 
caleite, etc., with the finger-tip covered with chamois 

i'The Hard and Soft States in Metals'. G. T. Beilby, In- 
stitute of Metals, May 12, 1911. 

January 24, 1920 



leather, a surface-layer estimated at lnn MM in depth, and 
therefore many hundreds of molecules in thickness, will 
Bow under the friction like a fluid. The fluid layer re- 
tains its mobility for bul a short period and re-solidifies 
into a vitreous amorphous form, differing from the orig- 
inal surface structure whence it was derived. The new 
layer is imrilr-r than the original crystalline surface and 
is also more soluble in anils. When completely dissolved 
away, fnrrowing effects resulting from the initial f rii-- 
tion become visible under a high-power objective upon 
the exposed and unaltered layer, at a computed depth of 
probably more than a thousand molecules. 

Lord Bayleigh 9 has also recorded experiments that 
show a similar flowage in glass surfaces during final light 
polishing operations. It also appears possible to ruh 
water into glass surfaces by the pressure of the lingers; 
two surfaces bo treated and pressed together will unite 

5 °n°0 « O ° °0° O ° OO O O °0 O O , 

O «°oo°o o o°°°° ° °°o 

'°o!°0°kOOO OO O OqO 

o°°o b .o ooo 00 °° 

o° o «°-° OO.OOo - °0°0 

*°o° t .«o.o«« # o.«, 

•••••°«0t)0-t> # 0»o« 

*° • • «, o •••••••••, 

* • ° o ••••••o« o 


with such firmness that efforts to detach them by shear- 
ing result in the disruption of the substance of the glass 
on one or other side of the contact. 3 The similar effect of 
wet gelatine allowed to dry upon glass is well known. 

Quartz, porcelain, and other hard surfaces are easily 
stained by rust to considerable depths; if a piece of iron 
or a ferrous salt be left for some time in contact with 
porcelain in presence of air and moisture, the resulting 
stain will penetrate so deeply as to become impossible of 
removal by hot acids. Roberts- Austen showed that if the 
accurately faced surfaces of two slabs, one of east-iron 
and the other of pure iron, be left together under pres- 
sure for a long period carbon will ultimately be found 
through the mass of the originally pure metal. 

These and other facts to be noticed later indicate that 
the surfaces of both sulphide minerals and gangue may 
undergo profound surface modification during crushing, 
attrition, water-treatment, etc. Taken in connection 
with many other facts such as the 'sweating' of oil 
through iron, of 'cementation', 'case-hardening', 'solid- 
solution', etc., and with the wide accumulation of knowl- 
edge as to the 'sorption' of gases by solids (occlusion, ab- 
sorption, diffusion, and permeability), the view is 
strengthened that the surfaces of solids must often be 

=Trans. Optical Society, Vol. xiv, October, 1917. 
3W. B. Hardy, Jour. Soc. Chem. Ind., p. 7 T, January 

not only granular bul often plastic also, and thui 
quently capable of penetration by the moleculi 
liquids, and even of other solids. Selective-wetting ef- 
fects obtainable in differential flotation also indicate 
some degree of surface penetration to !><• probable. M"st 
solid Liquid interfaces instead of being represented by a 
mere plane have more probably the constitution sug- 
gested in Pig. '2. where the molecules of the liquid are 
shown as becoming interlocked with or 'rooted' into 
those of the solid at the plain' of contact 

An accumulation of facts shows thai most minerals, 
even when possessing no water of crystallization, have 
water molecules dispersed throughout their masses; it 
appears probable thai such act as nuclei for the condensa- 
tion of other like molecules. "While they remain, the 
mineral will be readily wetted by water; but if they are 
expelled by long heating in vacuum, or by high temper- 
ature, the substance is no longer capable of being wet- 
ted, for example, fused quartz. The experiments of 
Trouton (confirmed for quartz, blende, and galena by 
Edser), of Mellor, Holderoft, and many others appear 
capable of no other explanation. 

When an apparently dry crystal of galena is freshly 
crushed, and the powder carefully scattered on the sur- 
face of distilled water, a large proportion of the particles 
sinks. After drying the powder in vacuum over P-O^, or 
by heat, all the particles float ; if, however, galena par- 
ticles be left submerged in pure distilled water for some 
time, they partly lose their power of flotation. Freshly 
crushed quartz particles sink, but when dried in vacuum 
at high temperature they float perfectly on water, and 
absorb no moisture from an atmosphere saturated with 
water-vapor. Fused silica behaves in the same way, 
water standing upon its surface like drops of mercury 
upon glass. 

Edser says, "the slowness with which this water is 
given off and its persistent evolution even when the min- 
eral has been heated to 250-300°C. for several hours indi- 
cates that the water was originally distributed through- 
out the substance of the mineral. When once the min- 
erals have been dried in vacuum at high temperature, 
moisture does not condense on their surfaces from an 
atmosphere saturated with aqueous vapor." In line with 
this, Beilby's work and Hardy's experiments with glass 
indicate that rubbing the solid surface with the liquid 
will accelerate penetration of the former by the latter. 

This view of the granular and porous nature of solid 
surfaces now offers a rational explanation for the 'hy- 
steresis of contact-angle' between solid and liquid sur- 
faces, to be considered later. Also of the fact that a drop 
of liquid placed upon a solid surface does not 'slip' over 
it as a whole when the surface is tilted ; the molecules of 
the fluid appear more or less strongly anchored in the 
solid, and all movement of the liquid is due to the mobil- 
ity of its molecules above the plane of contact. This is 
confirmed by observations as to the 'skin-friction' of a 
ship which occurs between the film of water carried by 
the ship's surface and that passed through, and in the 
phenomena of lubrication, where the oil-film does not slip 



January 24, 1920 

over the surfaces it lubricates but is sheared at an inter- 
mediate layer of its own substance. 

Interfacial, Tension. As the degree of adhesion be- 
tween a solid and liquid determines the interfacial ten- 
sion at their contact plane, a clear understanding of the 
term is necessary so far as the recondite nature of the 
occurrences permits. 

Let two dissimilar substances, A and B, be in contact 
at a common interface, and let the molecules of A attract 
each other more than they attract those of B; then the 
molecules in a layer of A at the interface will possess 
more energy than the molecules in the interior of A. 
Similarly if the molecules of B attract each other more 
than they attract those of A, there will be an energized 
layer of B molecules at the interface. The excess energy 
of the joint layer at the interface will produce an inter- 
facial tension, which among other effects resists lateral 
extension. The interfacial tension between two liquids 
can be measured in various ways; by drop-forming, by 
the oscillation of drops, 4 by the method of ripples, but 
more satisfactorily, where possible, by weighing. Inter- 
facial tension between solid and liquid is therefore due 
to the energy stored in the solid and liquid on both sides 
of the contact; within limits it is quantifiable by the 
angle of contact made between the liquid/air and solid/ 
air surfaces. 

If o-! be used to represent the surface-tension of the 
liquid phase and <r, that of the solid phase, <r 12 is the ac- 
cepted method for expressing the tension of the interface 
between them when they are in contact. 
Then a x = the work done in creating 1 sq. cm. of the free 
liquid surface 
cr, = the work done in creating 1 sq. cm. of the solid 

<t 12 = the work done in creating 1 sq. cm. of the solid 
liquid interface. 
Also let "W 12 be the work done in separating 1 sq. cm. of 
the interface into two fresh surfaces of 1 
sq. em. each, having energies respectively 
of o-! and er 2 . 
Let "W 1 be the work done in similarly separating 
the liquid at a 'plane of unit area into two 
fresh liquid surfaces of energy a x . 
Let W 2 be the work done similarly per unit area of 
solid in separating it into two surfaces of 
energy <r 2 . 
Imagine the solid and liquid surfaces to be brought 
together. If no work is done in again separating them 
the total energy of the interface (interfacial tension) 
will be the sum of the energies of the two surfaces : 
012 — <»i + °2 when *W 12 = 
This would mean that the molecules of the. liquid 
exert no attraction whatever across the interface upon 
the molecules of the solid, and vice versa, so that no 

*If drops of an oil, lighter than water, are allowed to rise 
through water", they will be observed to oscillate, becoming 
alternately oblate and prolate spheroids; the higher the 
interfacial tension the more rapid the oscillation, whence by 
comparative methods the value may be deduced. 

adhesion exists between the substances ; the strain in the 
system is unrejjeved and the interface will exhibit maxi- 
mum tension. 

This state is hypothetical, and no instance of complete 
'non- wetting' is known; this would involve a contact- 
angle (written Q) of 180°, whereas the highest known 
angular value for a solid/liquid contact (mercury/glass) 
is about 148°, though higher contact-angles occur be- 

Fig. 3 

tween several immiscible liquids; in every case there- 
fore some degree of wetting, that is, adhesion, oqcurs. 

Next let us consider the interfacial tension in regard 
to the equilibrium, of a bubble attached to a surface: 

The 'contact-angle' is that made between the air/ 
water and the water/solid interface. A point P will 
there be held in equilibrium by the algebraic sum of the 
three tensions : the tension of the solid, a 2 ; the component 
of the tension of the liquid, a v resolved parallel to the 
surface, = <r x Cos 0; and the interfacial tension c 12 . 

Then c 2 = o^ Cos + o- 12 , . • . 

= Cos 0. 

If this condition is complied with the bubble (neg- 
lecting gravity as may be done when the bubble is small) 
will be in equilibrium and will not alter in configuration. 

The above is the general expression connecting inter- 

Fig. 4 

facial tension with the magnitude of the contact-angle, 
and expresses the fact that, within certain limits con- 
sidered later, the extent to which the surface tension of 
any given solid is reduced, by contact with the liquid at 
the interface between them, will determine the angle of 
contact between the air/liquid and liquid/solid inter- 
faces. The amount by which the original total tensional 
energies of the two phases is reduced depends upon the 
degree of adhesion established between them. When no 
reduction takes place interfacial tension is maximum and 
adhesion nil; when the reduction is complete adhesion 
reaches the maximum and interfacial tension becomes 

January 24, 1920 


Statistical Review 

Production of Metal Mines for 1919 


The value of the gold, silver, copper, lead, and bum 
mined in Montana in 1919, according to tli" estimate of 
C. N. Qerry, was more than (66,307,000, a decrease of 
about (55,098,000 from the value for 1918. All the 
metals bul lead showed a decided decrease. On account 
of the low prices for cupper, lead, and ono, the mines at 
Butte, soon after the tirsi of the year, reduced their out- 
put to about 609{ of normal. Production from the mines 
was nut seriously affected by strikes, although there was 
some labor trouble in February. 

Gold. The value of the gold outpul fell from $3,104,- 
764 in 1918 to aboul $2,272,000 in 1919, a decrease of 
nearly 27%. The main decrease was the output of gold 
derived from copper ores: there were slight decreases of 
■in iron ore, silicious ore. and from dredg- 

Silver. The mine output of silver decreased from 16,- 
797,479 oz. in 1918 to about 13.281.000 oz. in 1910. and 
the value of the output decreased from $16,797,479 to 
about $14,768,000. In 1018 and 1919 Montana was the 
leading silver producer of the United States. In 1919. as 
in past years, most of this silver came from copper ores, 
but a large part was obtained from residues from zinc 
ores, both those smelted in the East and those treated in 
the electrolytic plant at Great Falls, Montana. The prin- 
• cipal producers of silver were the Anaconda Copper Min- 
ing Co.. Butte & Superior. Elm Orlu, North Butte, East 
Butte. Davis Daly, Butte Reduction Works tailing dump, 
and the Granite-Bimetallic mine, at Philipsburg. 

Copper. The output of copper decreased from 323,- 
174,850 lb. in 1918 to about 180.246.000 lb. in 1919. This 
represents a decrease of 142,928,000 lb. in quantity and 
$45,8S4,000 in value. The average monthly production 
of the smelting plants of the Anaconda Copper Co., at 
Great Falls and Anaconda, according to published state- 
ments, was nearly 13,000.000 lb. of copper, as against 
24.500.000 lb. in 1918. The Pittsmont plant of the East 
Butte Co. produced more than 1.500.000 lb. per month, 
instead of 2,000,000 lb., as in 1918. In addition to the 
mines of the Anaconda and East Butte companies, the 
North Butte. Davis Daly. Butte Reduction Works dump, 
Butte Ramsdall, Elm Orlu, Butte Duluth, Butte & Su- 
perior, Tuolumne, and Bullwhacker produced consider- 
able copper. 

Lead. The mine production of lead increased from 
37,135.875 lb. in 1918 to about 42,163,000 lb. in 1919, but 
the value of the output decreased from $2,636,647 to 
about $2,411,737. A large part of the lead was obtained 
from the lead-zinc ores of the Butte district. The Snow 

♦From preliminary reports of the U. S. Geological Survey. 

Storm mine, al Troy. Lincoln county, and the Angelica 

mine, in Jefferson county, were also notable contribu- 
tors. By-products from the electrolytic zinc plant at 
Greal Palls have added greatly to the totals of both ailver 
and lead. The lead smelter of the American Smelting & 

Refining Co., at East Helena, was active on ores and con- 
centrates, most of them shipped from Idaho and .Mon- 

/inc. The output of recoverable zinc in Montana de- 
creased from 209.258.148 lb. in 1918 to about 176,432,1 

lb. in 1919. The value of the output decreased from 
$19,042,491 to about $12,915,000. The principal zinc 
producers of Montana were the Butte & Superior, Ana- 
conda, Elm Orlu. and Butte Copper & Zinc mines. 
Smaller producers were the Snow Storm mine, in Lincoln 
county : the Davis Daly, at Butte; and the Montana Con- 
solidated, in Jefferson county. Most of the zinc concen- 
trates were smelted in the East, but zinc ore from the 
minis of the Anaconda Copper Mining Co. was concen- 
trated at Anaconda and the concentrates were leached at 
Greal Falls. The electrolytic plant was active during 
1919, but the output, was less than that of 1918, when 
much custom material was treated. 

The dividends paid by Montana companies for the first 
eleven months of 1919 amounted to about $10,590,600. 
The principal dividend payers were the Anaconda Cop- 
per Mining Co. and the Barnes King Mining Company. 


The value of the gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc 
mined in Nevada in 1919 was about $23,634,000, accord- 
ing to preliminary figures compiled by Victor C. Heikes. 
This is a decrease of over $24,894,124, or more than 501 . 
from the output of 1918, when the mines produced $48,- 
528,124. The decrease was general, but in point of value 
the largest decrease was that in copper, which amounted 
to more than $19,114,000. 

Gold. The gold output decreased from $6,619,937 
in 1918 to $4,718,000 in 1919, a decrease of 29%. The 
Goldfield Consolidated has for several years held the 
record of being the largest gold producer in Nevada, but 
in 1919 the company ceased operations and the property 
was turned over to a developing company. The output 
of gold from the Tonopah district also decreased notably, 
amounting to only $759,000, against $1,287,745 in 1918. 
The Elkoro mine, at Jarbidge, was the largest producer 
of gold in the State. Other gold mines that had an out- 
put of more than $200,000 each were the Nevada Consoli- 
dated, Fairview Round Mountain, Florence Goldfield, 
and Consolidated Virginia. 

Silver. The mine production of silver decreased in 



January 24, 1920 

quantity from 10,000,599 oz. in 1918 to 7,177,000 oz. in 
1919 and in value from $10,000,599 to $7,982,000. About 
3.535,000 oz. of silver was produced in the Tonopah dis- 
trict, where the principal contributors were the Tonopah 
Belmont, Tonopah Extension, Tonopah Mining, and 
West End mines. Large quantities of silver also were 
produced by the Nevada Wonder, in Churchill county, 
and the Rochester and Nevada Packard properties, in 
Pershing county. Smaller outputs were made by the 
Yellow Pine, Prince Consolidated, Elko Prince, and sev- 
eral properties at Virginia City. The Comstock district 
produced about 240,000 oz., and several properties at 
Rochester produced about 575,000 ounces. 

Copper. The mine output of copper decreased in quan- 
tity from 116,316,441 lb. in 1918 to 51,000,000 lb. in 
1919, and in value from $28,730,161 to $9,616,000. The 
Nevada Consolidated, at Ely, in White Pine county, was 
the largest producer and contributed more than 3.500,- 
000 lb. of copper per month ; and the Consolidated Cop- 
permines, in the same county, made a notable though 
greatly reduced production. The Mason Valley smelter, 
at Thompson, in Lyon county, was operated for only two 
months, and the shut-down there resulted in a decrease 
of more than 1,000,000 lb. of copper per month. 

Lead. The mine output of lead decreased in quantity 
from 23,316,534 lb. in 1918 to 12,558,000 lb. in 1919, and 
in value from $1,655,474 to $718,000. The Prince Con- 
solidated mine, at Pioche, remained the largest lead pro- 
ducer of the State, and the Virginia Louise, Combined 
Metals, and Black Metals mines, in the same district, 
shipped considerable ore containing lead. In Clark 
county the Yellow Pine mine made a lead production 
second only to that of the Prince Consolidated, and the 
Goodsprings Anchor Mining Co. shipped a rich lead con- 
centrate. At Eureka the Eureka Croesus and Eureka 
Holly companies shipped much lead ore. 

Zinc. The mine output of recoverable zinc decreased 
in quantity from 16,724,753 lb. in 1918 to 8,182,000 lb. in 
1919, and in value from $1,521,953 to $598,973. A large 
part of the output came from the Yellowpine district, in 
Clark county, though there was a distinct decrease from 
this region. The Consolidated Coppermines, in White 
Pine county, made large shipments of zinc ore, resulting 
in a production considerably greater than that of 1918. 

Incomplete dividends, declared by Nevada mining 
companies for the first eleven months of 1919 amounted 
to $3,327,188. The principal contributors were the 
Nevada Consolidated, Tonopah Extension, Tonopah Bel- 
mont, Tonopah Mining. West End, Nevada Wonder, 
Nevada Packard, and Fairview Round Mountain com- 

New Mexico 

The output, of the mines of New Mexico for 11 months 
of 1919 and the estimated output for December, as re- 
ported by Charles W. Henderson, amounted to $568,000 
in gold, 709,000 oz. of silver, 2,800,000 lb. of lead, 52,- 
200,000 lb. of copper, and 8,000,000 lb. of zinc, as com- 
pared with $682,791 in gold, 782,421 oz. of silver, 8,398,- 

239 lb. of lead, 98,264,563 lb. of copper, and 24,050,324 
lb. of zinc in 19J.8. These preliminary figures show de- 
creases of $115,000 in gold, 73,000 oz. of silver, 5,600,000 
lb. of lead, 46,000,000 lb. of copper, and 16,000,000 lb. 
of zinc. All the mines except silver mines suffered from 
low prices of metal, and increased prices of labor and 

The decrease in the output of all metals except gold 
and silver is startling. Mills of the Mogollon district, 
Socorro county, produced $129,000 in gold and 310,000 
oz. of silver as compared with $119,710 in gold and 302,- 
902 oz. of silver in 1918. In 1919 the Mogollon Mines 
Co. 's mill was operated steadily, but the Socorro Mining 
& Milling Co.'s mill was closed April 1, and operations 
were not resumed during the year. The output of gold 
from the Aztec mine, at Baldy, Colfax county, was not 
so large in 1919 as in 1918. The shipments of gold-bear- 
ing silicious copper ores from Lordsburg increased 
heavily, but there was a decrease in the shipments of 
gold-bearing iron-copper ores from Orogrande. 

Copper. Copper has long been an important metal 
product of New Mexico, and since operations were begun 
by the Chino Copper Co. at Santa Rita at the beginning 
of 1910, the State's output of this metal has been large. 
The large decrease in the output of copper in 1919 is 
therefore particularly impressive, for the total output is 
only a little more than half that in 1918. In 1919 the 
Chino Copper Co.'s output was 43,992,000 lb., as com- 
pared with 79,340,372 lb. in 1918. Beginning in Janu- 
ary 1919 with an output less than the average monthly 
output in 1918, this company curtailed operations to 
about 50% of its capacity during the rest of the year. 
The Burro Mountain Branch of the Phelps Dodge Co., 
which in 1918 produced 53,146 tons of concentrate aver- 
aging 14.9% copper, was even more seriously affected by 
the drop in the price of copper and suspended nulling 
operations early in the year and did not resume. The 
copper-matting plant at San Pedro was not in operation 
in 1919 and was dismantled. The 85 Mining Co.. at 
Lordsburg, made a large increase in shipments in 1919, 
but shipped crude ore entirely that year, as compared 
with concentrate and crude ore in 1918. The copper ore 
shipments from Orogrande decreased heavily. 

Lead. The shipments of lead ore from New Mexico de- 
creased, heavily. Hardly any lead ore was shipped from 
the Organ Mountains district, and the shipments from 
the Central district, Grant county, and the Magdalena 
district, Socorro county, were less than in 1918, as were 
also the shipments from the less productive Cooks Peak 
and Victorio district, Luna county. 

Zinc. The output of zinc sulphide and zinc-carbonate 
ores likewise decreased seriously. The Ozark mill, at 
Kelly, was operated only in an experimental way, and 
the Cleveland mill, at Pinos Altos, was operated for only 
a short time. The Hanover mill was not operated to its 
full capacity. Much less carbonate zinc ores were ship- 
ped from Hanover, Kelly, and Cooks Peak than in 1918. 
The Republic Co., at Hanover, gripped a considerable 
quantity of high-grade zinc svilphide ores. 

Jauuao '-'• 1920 





&£&:-&- >* 


" lli,1M I ■ iiiimiimimiiimiiiiii linn urn imiiii I imiiiimi t I I mi iiiiiiiiiiui iimmiii mul 


II \ i'KK. The little but bustling mining town of Eyder, 
situated near the Canadian border on the upper reaches 
of Portland canal, which has the distinction of being the 
gateway to the newly discovered and promising mining 
section of the Si.lnion river, is to have new dorks and 
other facilities for the handling of freight and general 




Douglas. Approximately $80,000 in bonus-money was 
distributed among employees of the Phelps Dodge Cor- 
poration and Calumet & Arizona smelting plant on the 
lirst pay day in January. At the Copper Queen brain li- 
smelter 4-to men received approximately $52,000. During 


business, according to a report from Juneau. John 
Sutherland, a business man of Hyder, it is announced, 
has filed at Juneau articles of incorporation of the Hyder 
Dock Co., organized to construct a $30,000 pier. At 
present most of the freight billed for Hyder is handled 
on barges over the tide flats. The new pier will be ready 
for use, it is hoped, before the commencement of the 
rush which is expected to begin just as soon as the 
weather opens in the spring. Inquiry from all parts, of 
the United States indicates that there may be a repetition 
on a smaller scale of the historic stampede to the Klon- 
dike in 1898. The most important mine in the Salmon 
River district is the Premier (or Bush) mine, developed 
by R. K. Neill of Spokane. At the present time ore from 
the Premier is being shipped through Hyder to Seattle. 

1919 this smelter paid out approximately $90,000 to a 
total of 760 employees. The Calumet & Arizona smelter's 
January bonus-payment was $28,620 to 250 men. This 
smelter paid out approximately $16,000 additional during 
1919 to 150 other men. These sums were, of course, in 
addition to regular wages, and are in recognition of faith- 
ful continuous service. The first year's bonus for em- 
ployees is $100 and each succeeding year of service brings 
an increase of $10 until the maximum payment reaches 
$250. It is claimed that no smelter of similar size in the 
world has a greater number of men who have been con- 
tinuously employed. The bonus system was adopted as a 
profit-sharing measure and to increase the force of per- 
manent satisfied employees by giving a definite reward 
for continuity of service. That the men appreciate it 



January 24, 1920 

is shown by the larger number who share in its benefits 
each year. 

A luncheon was given in honor of A. T. Thomson, as- 
sistant to the president of the Phelps Dodge Corporation, 
who left here during the first week in January for New 
York. This was made the occasion of presenting Mr. 
Thomson with a handsome watch and chain as a token of 
the esteem in which he is held by his associates. 

Flags were flown at half-mast for three days on all 
buildings of the Phelps Dodge Corporation out of respect 
for James MeClean, vice-president of the concern, who 
died on the morning of January 7. Mr. MeClean first 
associated himself with D. Willis James and William 
Dodge in importing tin before the company became en- 
gaged in mining. When the old firm of Phelps, Dodge 
& Co. became the Phelps Dodge Corporation in 1912 he 
became vice-president. His property interests brought 
him frequently to the South-West and he was well liked 
and highly respected by those in this section who knew 
him personally. 

Humboldt. — The Consolidated Arizona Smelting Co. 
reports having produced during December from the Blue 
Bell and De Soto mines 13.100 tons of ore which was 
shipped to the reduction-plant. The concentrator han- 
dled 9200 tons of material while the smelter treated 7400 
tons of new ores and concentrates. Shipments of fine 
copper bullion to the Eastern refinery amounted to 615,- 
000 lb., of which 500,000 lb. was derived from company 

Bisbee. — The Boras lease, adjoining the White Tail 
Deer and the Night Hawk, near Don Luis, was reported 
on January 11 still to be in oxide ore averaging from 7 
to 8%, in the drift it has been running from the 90-ft. 
winze sunk from the 400-ft. level. The drift after being 
advanced 34 ft. was still in ore. The main shaft of the 
Boras is 400 ft. deep. A drift on this level encountered 
a fault at the point where the winze was started. Ship- 
ments to the smelter at Douglas are being made as rapid- 
ly as the equipment of the property will allow. A new 
hoist of larger capacity has been ordered and should 
arrive from Denver before the end of the month. The 
Lowell Gold Mining-Go:, composed of a group of Warren 
operators, has leased its property in the Quijotoa moun- 
tains in Pima county, 80 miles from Tucson. The lease 
covers a period of five years with option to buy at the 
end of that time. Considerable development work is 
planned. A stamp-mill will be installed. The owning 
company is composed of J. L. Winters, president ; Fred 
Henderson, vice-president ; John P. Williamson and M. 
E. Kawn, directors. 

Hill Top. — The Hill Top Metals Mining Co, is work- 
ing a force of 40 men at its silver-lead mine. Driving 
of the lower tunnel has given way temporarily to cross- 
cutting, and in the upper tunnels drifts are following 
the ore in several places, according to R. O. Fife, man- 
aging director. J. O. Fife, president of the company, 
arrived from liis headquarters in Kansas City, January 
15, to inspect recent work. C. O. Botsford and W. G. 
Rice, who control the Manhattan, a copper property. 

situated near Hill Top, recently inspected it and it is 
anticipated that they will install machinery soon and 
re-open the property. 

Miami. — F. W. MacLennan, general manager for the 
Miami Commercial Co., has rendered a report to all em- 
ployees of the Miami Copper Co., Miami Commercial Co., 
and Miami-Inspiration hospital that as a result of operat- 
ing the store of the Commercial company on a co-oper- 
ative basis during November and December a net profit of 
$7492 was realized to be distributed in the form of re- 
bates to the employees of the companies named. This 
amounts to a rebate of 13.9%. 

Tombstone. — A new profitable venture, the working of 
old mine dumps for the silver and lead content, discarded 
in the 'boom' days of the district, has been started and 
before long it is believed that several operations of this 
character will be under way. Al Godfrey and Bert Hol- 
land were the pioneers in the field, having recently com- 
pleted a small concentrator near the Emerald mine, pur- 
posing to treat the large dump. The first runs gave ex- 
cellent recovery and a good profit for the lessees. The 
concentrator has been built at the foot of the dump and 
an automatic feed provided to carry the screenings onto 
the table. This does away with handling from the time 
it enters the car to be dumped on the screens until the 
concentrate is sacked for shipment. A gasoline engine 
runs the whole plant. There are thousands of tons of 
workable material on the dump which will require a con- 
siderable period to treat. Several other dumps in the 
district await similar handling. There are approximately 
100 leases being operated in the district at present and 
from 75 to 80 carloads of ore are shipped monthly. 



Cripple Creek. — Dividends for January to be paid by 
mining and milling companies in Cripple Creek total 
$160,000 as follows : Portland Gold Mining Co. 2c, $60,- 
000 ; Golden Cycle Mining & Reduction Co. 3c, $45,000 ; 
United Gold Mines Co. lc, $40,000; Vindicator Consoli- 
dated Gold Mining Co., lc, $15,000. The rich sulphide 
ore opened up at the twenty-third level of the Portland 
No. 2 shaft, is said by the mine officials to be the richest 
discovery made in years at this Battle Mountain prop- 
erty. Precautions have been taken to prevent high-grad- 
ing, as quartz from the core of the vein, containing crys- 
tals of calaverite, is worth many dollars per pound. 
Miners are required to use the change room and change 
even their shoes before leaving the property for their 

Ore assaying about 1| oz. gold and 12 to 15 oz. silver 
per ton has been opened up on the 1200-ft. level of the 
Blue Flag by the War Eagle Consolidated company. The 
Blue Flag company is driving to connect with the Moffat 
or Ophelia tunnel, and thence through the War Eagle 
property to a point under the Scott or main shaft. Work 
in the Blue Flag lateral is done under air-pressure on ac- 
count of the presence of mine-gases, and except for the 

Januan Ji 1920 



ore taken out in drifting no attention trill be paid to nun 
ing until the oonneotiona are completed. Tulley Scott, 
judge of the Colorado Supreme Court, is president of the 

War Bag! mpany. Operationa have been suspended 

in th<- Gold Coin workings of the Granite Gold Mining 

Co. in Victor, and the t ipany and aome 15 seta of 

- are operating through tin- Dillon abaft on Battle 
mountain. Production for January will approximate 
Iihhi tun* of ore, ranging in value from J10 to $60 per 

ton. The Granit< tpany is also operating the Bonauaa 

fraction of the United * » « >1 < I Mines i !o. through the Dillon. 
and is shipping about 1 1 m » tuns per month of ore contain- 
big from two to three ounces of gold. 

Daily shipments of g 1 ore are leaving the Modoc < !on- 

aolidated company's No. 2 or Last Dollar shaft on Hull 
lull at tin- rate of 50 tons daily. The Cresaon continues 

ilj and shi| -uts are going to the smelter al the rate of 

15 tons per day. The same people are alao operating the 
Griffin property in the SI K i in district where ailvei ore 
aasaying between 80 and 50 or. is being shipped. 

The Northern mine al the bead of Ninth street is to 
resume operationa. The mine, when closed down about 
three months ago, was producing a rich Bilver-chloride 
ore. Leasees on the Dinero in the Sugar I. oaf locality are 
mining high grade silver ore and shipping a fair tonnage 
of smelting ore. < Iperations have been resumed on the old 
Matchless mine by A. B. Bailey, representing an Eastern 
syndicate. It is planned i<> sink the shaft and '-any on 
deep development. Two sets of lessees at the DunMn No, 
3 and I shafts are shipping iron ore to the smelter at the 
rate of BeveraJ hundred tons per mouth. 

Consolidations of mining properties situated in the 


heavy production and with the grade holding up the 
treasury reserve is again gaining. No dividend was do 
clared for January, but a payment is expected before the 

first quarter of 1920 closes. 

Leadviu.e. — The metal out put of the Leadville district 
for the past year totaled $6,543,077, with zinc, the chief 

product, amounting to $2,466,931. silver produ I was 

valued at $2,042,226 ; lead. $812,005; gold, $719,999; cop- 
per, $249,416; manganese, $245,000; and bismuth. $7500. 

The Fanny Rawlins Gold Mining Co., owning the 
Fanny Rawlins mine on Breece hill, operated under lease, 
has resumed payment of dividends with the distribution 
on February 16 of $5000. The dividend of Je. per share 
is made payable to stockholders of record on January 31. 
J. A. Himebaugh, president, in his report showed $13,307 
on hand in addition to ore in transit or at the smelter. 
Recent shipments totaling 391 tons have averaged better 
than $40 per ton. The last previous dividend was paid 
in December 1908. The Long and Derry mine in Iowa 
gulch, under lease to H. Schraeder, is producing stead- 

Graham Park section west of the Iron fault and extend- 
ing to the [ron-Silver properties are said to be pending. 
Experimental work is in progress at the plant of the 
Colorado Concentrating Co., with a new process for con- 
cenl rating t he sulphide ores of low grade. I E the experi- 
ments are successful a magnetic-separating plant will be 
roust ructed. 



Houghton. — Seneca has completed the south drift on 

the second level while- the north drift has 115 ft. to go 
before reai hing the limits. The third-level laterals will 
be under way this week. The third-level drift on the 
vein will run 250 ft. to reach the south limits of the prop- 
erty, but the north drift will run without regard to prop- 
erty limitations. From a mining standpoint the next im- 
portant thing is to sink the Gratiot shaft to greater depth 
and then connect up with a lower level of the Seneca. 
This will have to be done sooner or later to provide the 



January 24, 1920 

Seneca with proper ventilation to make mining conditions 
efficient. The Seneca has to have a permanent hoisting 
and compressor-plant and ore-house before it can pro- 
duce on a large scale. The present hoist, which was in 
use in this district 35 years ago, is doing efficient service 
but it was designed to use for hoisting-operations down 
to the sixth level only. 

The Seneca stockpile contains 7000 tons of good Kear- 
sarge amygdaloid ore which is being shipped in train- 
loads of 700 tons. This is enough ore to keep one section 
at the Baltic mill operating two shifts. The ore-bins and 
chutes at the shaft have been arranged to dump the ore 
that is hoisted directly into railway cars. 

The Champion mine of the Copper Range company, 
owned jointly by the St. Mary's Mineral Land Co. and 
the Copper Range, has the best record of any of the 
copper mines of the Lake Superior district for the month 
of December. The production of refined copper totals 
1,840,000 lb. This compares with 1,480,000 lb. in No- 
vember and 1,640,000 ib. in October. The mine continues 
to maintain its standing as the highest-grade producer, 
the ore averaging 40 lb. of copper per ton for the month 
of December. The production of the Champion mine 
for the year 1919, when officially given out, will show 
a higher total than generally believed on account of 
the high copper content which will average 42 lb. for the 
year. The Baltic mine produced 14,000 tons of ore in 
December, a decrease of 3400 tons from the month be- 
fore. The refined output of the mine for December will 
therefore show 490,000 lb. compared with 626,400 lb. in 
November, and 697,000 lb. in October. 



Butte. — The Butte & Superior, acting for Hayden, 
Stone & Co., is pushing the development work in the 
south section of the Butte district. The Mary Louise 
shaft is being repaired and equipped with machinery 
preparatory to an extensive exploration. This shaft is 
south-east of the Emma mine of the Butte Copper & Zinc, 
which is being prospected by the Anaconda Copper com- 
pany. The latter will develop some of the veins that pass 
through the Emma into the Mary Louise claim. A body 
of ore has been struck on the east side of the Emma prop- 
erty which assays 8 oz. in silver, 15% zinc, and 7% lead. 
It is stated that the orebody is 12 ft. wide on the 1200-ft. 
level, but has not been opened to any extent as yet. The 
Emma is south and west of the Davis-Daly company's 
Colorado shaft and north-west gf the ground being 
opened by the Hayden-Stone interests. 

The Anaconda Copper Co. is now hiring all available 
experienced men at the Belmont, High Ore. Mt. View, 
Moonlight, and Poulin mines preparatory to the resump- 
tion of active mining in these properties. At least two 
thousand men will be required when working at full ca- 
pacity. This will mean that the Anaconda company's 
operations will be at approximately 80% of normal. 

The Butte & Superior produced in December 14,000,- 
000 lb. of zinc and 215,000 oz. of silver as compared with 
11,500,000 lb. ot zinc and 200.000 oz. of silver in Novem- 
ber. The East Butte Copper Co. in December produced 
1,845,540 lb. of copper and 71,421 oz. of silver as com- 
pared with 1,902,580 lb. of copper and 56,834 oz. of silver 
during the previous month, a decrease of 57,040 lb. of 
copper and an increase of 14,587 oz. of silver. The 
North Butte has been compelled to lay off two of the 
three shifts at its Birtha mine because the leaching plant 
at Anaconda can handle the output of one shift only for 
the present. 

The Argyle Silver Mining Co. will be operating in the 
Vipond district in Beaverhead county soon, as J. Benton 
Leggat has arrived at Butte from Salt Lake, and will at 
once prepare to open the property, which has not been 
worked since the early 'eighties. These claims are situ- 
ated twelve miles south-west of Divide on the Oregon 
Short Line railroad. 

General conditions are picking up in Butte, but are 
far from normal. This is the hardest winter ever experi- 
enced in Butte, because of the curtailed operation of the 
mines, which, with the severe weather and the coal strike, 
left at least 3000 families practically destitute ; but indi- 
cations are good for a prosperous year in 1920. 



Tule Canyon. — The Ingalls mine and the adjoining 
Jaeggers group of six claims have been optioned to East- 
ern capitalists for $145,000, the first payment of $13,000 
to be made on February 12, with the others extending 
over a period of two years. The price for the Ingalls is 
$125,000 and $20,000 for the Jaeggers. The Ingalls has 
been worked for over 30 years and has a production rec- 
ord conservatively estimated at $200,000. Lessees have 
produced $30,000 gross during the past three years and 
the output from April 1 to October 1 of last year was 
$15,000 gross. The average content of several lots was 
from 10 to 15% lead, $5 in gold, and 30 oz. in silver. 
The Jaeggers claims are on the strike of the Ingalls vein. 
The option stipulates that 100 shifts per month shall be 
worked in the Ingalls and 60 in the Jaeggers. In 1914 
the Ingalls was open for location, but Sheriff Ingalls of 
Esmeralda county did not consider it worth while to do 
the assessment work because of the low price of silver. 
"W. B. Mercer of Goldfield re-located the claims for In- 
galls and in this way received a half interest. The work 
proposed by the holders of the option will be the first on 
a large scale ever done in the district. 

Divide. — One foot of ore assaying $57 has been opened 
in the west drift on the 200-ft. level of the Victory. This 
is the best width of good-grade ore that has been found in 
the Victory, which is east of the Belcher and on the same 
vein-system. The west drift is 214 ft. long. A report 
submitted by A. I. D'Arcy, general manager, at the an- 
nual stockholders' meeting, held in Goldfield on January 

Januarj 24, I 


1 ;l 

iwi that 742 it. of lateral work baa been done on the 
800-ft level of the 220 ft shaft All lateral work baa 
[one al this depth The weal drifl ia being driven 
in tin- main vein of tin' district and a drift also baa been 
extended a short diatanoe east in this vein. The company 
baa (45,097 cash in bank. A station is being cut at the 
bottom «'t' tlii- 100-ft shaft nf the Pay and cross cuts are 
tu be driven north and south to out veins entering tin- Pay 
from tin- Belcher Ex. and Revert Sinking of a shaft baa 
been started by lesaeea on tin- Beats All claim at a point 
where rich silver-gold ore was found, Control of the 
Butte, smith nf tin' Belcher, has passed to New York ami 
Boston interests ami work is to be resumed through the 
l.'iOt't shaft. No work lias boon done for several months 
in a niimhrr of prospeets in the district. 

West Divide. — Zeb Kendall, known for his connection 

Arrowhead, A raise from the 175-ft level of the 
Arrowhead has broken through to the l<io ft. level 
continuing in ore from a point 45 ft above the lower 

level. The south east .111 It oil the 100-ft leVel lias I...I1 

eo ted with the raise aaaaya taken in the raise give 

average returns of from $65 to $70 

I T.\ll 


I'.im;h im. — During 191!l the mines in this district pro- 
dueed a total of 5.913,000 tons of ore. as compared with 
13,607,650 tons in 1918. The metal output for the period 
is estimated at 56,000 oz. of gold, 1,600,000 oz. of silver, 

117.(1(10.0(10 11.. of copper. 54, (1(10.000 11,. „f lead, and 


with Divide companies and other mining enterprises in 
Nevada, is reported to have taken over a large block of 
stock in the West Divide. This will furnish funds for the 
purchase of machinery and for development work on a 
larger scale than heretofore. Julius Goldsmith, president 
of the Dividend in the Divide district, has become inter- 
ested in the Silverado, east of the West Divide and on a 
different vein-system, and it is reported that work is to 
be started by this company. 

Goldpield. — The south-east cross-cut on the seventh 
level of the Florence is 450 ft. long and the west cross-cut 
is 650 ft. long. Recent progress to the south-east has been 
slow because of the necessity for timbering. The west 
cross-cut is nearing the Columbia Mountain fault and a 
change in formation is expected soon. The Red Hill has 
levied assessment No. 5 at the rate of l^c. per share, pay- 
able immediately. The delinquent date is February 10. 
Little work has been done in the Cracker Jack recently 
because of trouble with the compressor. 

Pioneer. — Assessment No. 4 at the rate of lc. per share 
has been levied by the Consolidated Mayflower Mines Co. 
The assessment is payable immediately and the delin- 
quent date is February 1. The report states that the 
mill has been unable to operate at capacity because of a 
water shortage. The spring now in use is to be further 
developed, according to the report. 

2,674,00 lb. of recoverable zinc. The heavy decrease in 
shipments was due to the drastic curtailment in opera- 
tions at the Utah Copper mine, which was in force 
■throughout the year; the production from this property 
averaging 9,000,000 lb. of copper per month, as compared 
with an average of 16,500,000 lb. per month for 1918. 
The Ohio Copper Co. suspended operations at its mine 
and mill about April 1, and did not resume during the 

Park City. — Remarkably rich silver-chloride ore was 
recently found on the Union Tunnel level of the old por- 
tion of the Ontario mine, according to Richard Pelton, 
superintendent. This vein, which was cut at a depth of 
500 ft. below the surface, is from 12 to 18 in. wide. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Pelton, the ore assayed from 200 to 400 
oz. silver per ton. Recently a shipment of 75 tons was 
sent to a Salt Lake valley smelter, which averages about 
40% lead and 300 oz. silver per ton. This ore is of higher 
grade than any shipment made from Park City in years. 
An attempt to recover the rich and extensive ore-shoots, 
which were found in the Ontario vein, will be made on 
the east side, where the veins were lost because of the 
great Ontario fault. All searches on the other side of 
this fault hitherto have been unsuccessful. 

Preliminary operations have succeeded so satisfactorily 
at the Keystone mine that breaking of ore in three or 



January 24, 1920 

four known faces should be started about February 1. 
By an agreement with the Judge M. & S. company, the 
Keystone has acquired the right to open up its property 
through the Anchor tunnel, which had been extended to 
within 168 ft. of the south side-line of the Keystone at 
the time work was stopped. It is probable that this en- 
trance into the Keystone property, which gives a depth of 
1600 ft., will be used later, when the various veins have 
been developed and their trend determined by explora- 
tion work from the Hanauer tunnel-level above. 

Shipments of ore for the week ending January 10 
totaled 2292 tons, of which Ontario shipped 850 ; Silver 
King Coalition, 549 ; Judge M. & S., 575 ; Daly West, 
213; and Daly Mining, 105. During 1919. the mines 
produced a total of 81,457 tons of ore, of which amount 
Silver King leads with 22,692 tons ; followed by Judge 
M. & S. company with 22.215 tons: Ontario Silver, 21.329 
tons; Daly West, 5723 tons; Daly Mining. 3474 tons; 
Naildriver, 2579 tons; and .Silver King Consolidated, 
1260 tons. Shipments during December were the heaviest 
of the year, while the second largest month was January. 
During June the Naildriver was the only shipper, all 
other properties being closed down completely, owing to 
a strike of miners. From the best information available, 
the value of the gold production in 1919 was $64.083 ; 
while the output of silver totaled 1,800,000 oz. ; copper, 
625.000 lb.; lead, 20,000,000 lb., and recoverable zinc, 
1,350,000 pounds. 

James B. Allen, manager of the Glenallen property, 
reports that within the next thirty days the machinery 
for the mill will be on the ground, and early summer will 
see both the mine and mill in full operation. 

Eureka. — The Iron King officials have decided to sink 
another shaft in the south-western part of the company 's 
large tract in the eastern part of the district for the pur- 
pose of developing a promising section of ground which 
is 2500 ft. from the present workings. The management 
decided to sink this second shaft rather than drive a long 
drift, as the gas and heat would be a serious handicap. 

Shipments from this district for the week ending 
January 10 totaled 147 cars, being a slight increase over 
the previous week's shipments. Mines and carloads as 
follows: Chief Consolidated, 42; Tintie Standard, 33; 
Dragon, 11 ; Iron Blossom, 11 ; Eagle & Blue Bell, 8 ; 
Centennial-Eureka, 8 ; Gemini. 7 ; Colorado. 6 ; Swansea, 
4; Mammoth, 3; Grand Central, 3; Sioux Con., 2; Sun- 
beam, 2; Empire, 2; Ridge & Valley, 2; Bullion Beck, 1; 
Victoria, 1; Martha Washington. 1. 

During the past week, the drift from the new shaft of 
the Yankee Consolidated cut into very promising quartz, 
which shows silver and gold on theT.500-ft. level. All of 
the ore which the mine has shipped has been taken from 
upper workings, and naturally a great deal of importance 
is attached to this new work at depth. 

D. D. Muir, Jr., mine manager for the United States 
Mining Co., recently announced that the company would 
permit leasing on all levels down to the 700, and that the 
highest royalty the company would charge would be 50%. 
From this figure it will run down to as low as 15%, de- 

pending on the grade of the ore. Most of the local mines 
that give leases require a higher royalty on high-grade 
ore. After being without an iron-ore contract for some 
time, arrangements have been made whereby the Dragon 
Consolidated company will ship about 60 tons of iron per 
day to the United States smelter at Midvale, to be used 
for fluxing purposes. The Dragon has many thousand 
tons of this ore blocked out, and the contract will add 
something to the earnings of the property. Directors 
have declared a dividend of le. per share, totaling $18,- 
750. payable January 26. 

Arrangements have been made whereby two headings 
on the 2200-ft. level of the Iron Blossom mine will be 
turned over to Walter Fitch, Jr., local contractor, who 
will take the work up immediately. One of the Iron 
Blossom drifts is being driven toward the east and the 
other is cutting a promising section of ground to tiie 
north of the shaft. Directors of the Iron Blossom com- 
pany met at Provo on January 10 and declared a divi- 
dend of 24c. per share, totaling $25,000. 

Milford. — Stockholders of the Leonora Mining & Mill- 
ing Co.. at a recent meeting, elected the following board 
of directors: John Matson, C. D. Brown. J. W. Chase, L. 
H. Stohrs, and B. H. Goddard. At the same time the 
capitalization of the company was increased by 300,000 
shares, all of which was deposited in the treasury. 




Highland. — The Mineral Point Zinc Co., operating 
several mines producing carbonate-zinc ore, is reverting 
to old-fashioned methods of milling by building several 
log-washers for cleaning mine-run ore. A battery of log- 
washers it is claimed will recover as much marketable 
product as a modern concentrator and much more eco- 

Linden. — Two new zinc-ore shippers are the Mackay 
Mining Co., which has taken over the Ross property, and 
the Fearless Mining Co., which has opened up the ground 
formerly mined by the Optimo company and has started a 
new 100-ton mill from which it is shipping concentrate 
assaying more than 50% zinc. 

Livingston. — The New Jersey Zinc Co. has developed 
a new mine on the Cushman-Rewey land known as the 
Coker No. 2, where a mining plant is being built. The 
Vinegar Hill Zinc Co. has increased its output of zinc ore 
considerably by the addition of a new 200-ton mill on the 
Dale mine, operating in conjunction with a larger mill 
on the Yewdall land. Three distinct veins run parallel to 
each other, converging at a point west of the Dale mill. 
West of the Yewdall another mine is being opened up. 

giving the Vinegar Hill company territory nearly i 

mile in length. Other producers in the camp that are 
making ready to resume mining and milling after a shut- 
down of nearly a year are the Grunow. Lucky-Six. Pea- 
cock. New Phoenix, Biddick, Squirrel, and Big Tom 
mines. Shovelers are in great demand at all points in 
the district and earn from $6 to $S per shift. 

January 24. 1920 


1'i.vni mi 1 1 Thi Block 1 1 • .11-. Mining Go 
in oanatrneting i new ISO-ton mill east of the mine, i>m 
ili.- Qoke property The ground has been proved with 
drills, eastward, giving new mining territory over two 
sections of land. Engineers are now engaged in proving 
In in Is east of Cuba City, 14 miles south easl of Platteville, 
ami have taken over the Rowe property, in Shullsburg, 
where new mining and milling machinery is planned. 
Tlir Wisconsin Zinc Co. is engaged « i 1 1 1 drills on s big 
stretch of land north of tin- city of Platteville. The site 
was known in former years for Burface-lead and it is be- 
lieved big deposits will l»- opened by 1 1 1 • - Wisconsin com- 
pany. Nearly all of the large operating concerns repre- 
sented in the field ai xtensively engaged in campaigns 

di' expansion. Scores <>( drills are at work ami rich dis- 
frequent. The impression prevails thai the 
next three years will mark extremely prosperous condi- 
tions in tin' industrial lit'- >>t tl ountry and that a big 

demand for metals will result. 


LAW rn v 

si\ nt' tin- most capable members of the Geological 
Survey Branch of the Department of Mines are to leave 
thi- service to accept employment with the British oil 
firm of s. Pearson & Son. Limited, whose headquarters 
are in London l>nt who operate oil properties all over the 
world. Those who are going an- I.. 1). Burling, A. 0. 
Haynes, -I. -I. O'Neill, W. J. Wright. B. It. McKay, and 
Bruce Rose, most of whom are known for their geological 
work in British Columbia. 

Alice Arm. — A new townsite at Alice Arm is being 
planned to replace that now in use which is situated on a 
minlflat. The survey of the new site now is under way. 
It is on tlio side-hill north-wesl of the presenl townsite 
and belongs to the Alice Arm Development Co. Suffi- 
cient water is said to be convenient and i be installation of 
other public utilities will not lie difficult. In view of the 
mining development now in progress tie- enterprise seems 

Stewart. — Grant Mali I accompanied the first winter 

shipment of 300 tons of ore from the Premier mine to 
Victoria. Hauling to the coast by tractor was tried, but 

had to he abando I and horse transport substituted. 

Mr. Mahe.od reports favorable development at the '49 
mine, where ten or twelve men arc working with satis- 
factory results. lie states that considerable interest is 
being taken in work in progress on the Lakeview mine, 
situated on the Bear River side of the Portland canal. 
This property was taken over last fall under bond by P. 
"Welch and associates. 

S. G. Benson, owner of the White Mouse group of min- 
eral claims, situated about two miles beyond the '40. has 
placed the property in the hands of a syndicate -which 
will start active development as soon as it is possible to 
haul supplies over the snow crust. Richard Elliott is at 
the head of the syndicate. He has had considerable min- 
ing experience, having been heavily interested in Bear 

River properties at tin- tine of ti icitement about 

nine years ago. .Mr. Benson states that the White Mouse 
has promising surface showings, Tie- Sunset group is 
another Salmon liner property on which development 
will commence as soon as conditions permit. A Van- 
couver syndicate is furnishing the necessary flnai a 

Tin' Salmon River Mother Lode Mining < '" . Ltd., has 

l u incorporated with an authorized capita) of $10 

and with its bead office at Vancouver. 

Grand Forks. A contract has been awarded for the 
driving of about Mint ft. of tunneling on the Little 
Bertha-Pathfinder claims. 12 miles north of Grand Forks. 


This property is an amalgamation of the companies own- 
ing the Little Bertha and the Pathfinder properties, 
which adjoin. Years ago each property marketed con- 
siderable high-grade silver ore, the last shipments of 
which went to the Greenwood smelter in 1917. 

Fort Steele. — It is reported that the building of a 

Coi nlrator at the Victor property on Maus creek, is 

about completed. This property has been under develop- 
ment by R. Aberncfhy, of Spokane, and associates. The 
ore is complex, containing argentiferous galena and zinc- 
blende associated with iron pyrite in a quartz gangue. 

VANCOUVER. — Mining men are interested in a recent 
announcement from Ottawa to the effect that the silver 
content in Canadian silver coin has been reduced, an 
order having been passed that on and after January 1, 
1920, coins shall contain 8(1(1 parts of fine silver and 200 
of alloy. Sir Henry Drayton, Minister of Finance, states 
that this will hring Canadian coinage to the same level as 
that of many other countries and will discourage, melting 
of silver coins for the sale of the metal. 



January 24, 1920 




Porcupine. — The Dome Mines has considerably in- 
creased its working force and has now about 350 men on 
the payroll. The mill is treating 950 tons of ore daily. 
The annual meeting in March is anticipated with consid- 
erable interest, as the important question of whether the 
company will exercise its option on the Dome Extension 
will be decided. Much depends on the result of diamond- 
drill operations now being undertaken to ascertain the 
downward continuation of the large orebody now being 
opened up on the 600-ft. level, which is said to be 100 ft. 
wide at one place with ore estimated to average $5 per 
ton. Should the diamond-drilling from the 600-ft. level 
show that the orebody continues down to the 1150-ft. 
level a large tonnage will be proved. An important find 
has been made at the Davidson Consolidated, where a de- 
posit of high-grade ore stated to be 32 ft. wide has been 
cut in drifting on the 500-f t. level. Another orebody has 
been found on the 550-ft. level. The shaft on the Clifton 
is down 200 ft. and some good ore has been developed. 

Kirkland Lake. — The Wright-Hargreaves, which will 
resume operations in the spring, is transporting mill-ma- 
chinery to the mine which will be installed as soon as the 
weather permits. The Teck Hughes mill is in steady 
operation treating about 80 tons per day. The Lake 
Shore has been completely unwatered and production is 
now normal. The Kirkland Combine, controlled by 
Chicago interests, has sunk a shaft to 75 ft. which will 
be continued to 200 ft. before a station will be cut. The 
vein continues good to the point reached. 

Larder Lake. — At the Associated Gold Fields results 
from sampling and diamond-drilling tend to confirm the 
development of a good tonnage of ore. Operations are 
being actively carried on by a large force and the com- 
pany has funds on hand to the amount of $825,000. The 
deposit on the Harris Maxwell property, known as Block 
B, is stated to be 300 ft. wide. It has been cross-cut in 
four places on the 500-ft. level and is being explored at 
the 400-ft. level. The ore will be blocked out in 75-ft. sec- 
tions. Two wide ore-shoots have been opened up together 
with a number of smaller ones in the 300-ft. dolomite 
formation. While it is hoped that the whole body will 
yield commercial ore, the policy in the meantime is to de- 
velop the two main shoots. The deposit on the Reddick 
and Kerr-Addison properties, which is 500 ft. wide, has 
been cross-cut in two places 1000 ft. apart, on the first 
level. Exploration by means of extensive diamond-drill- 
ing and underground work are stated to have proved-up 
this deposit for a distance of nearly a mile. 

Cobalt. — During December the Nipissing mine pro- 
duced $423,139, as compared with $350,209 in November 
and $375,247 in October, thus making a total of $1,148,- 
595 for the last quarter of 1919. This is the highest 
quarterly record for Nipissing. With costs averaging 
40c. per ounce and with silver selling at $1.30 the net 
profits amount to more than two-thirds of the value pro- 

duced. Current net profits, therefore, are now at the 
rate of over $3*000.000 annually, or more than 50% of 
the company 's issued capital. During December the Kerr 
Lake mine produced 106,000 oz. of silver, the net value 
of which is estimated at $150,000. 

The McKinley-Darragh will endeavor to keep its oil-